Клиентизм

  • Published on
    15-Aug-2014

  • View
    739

  • Download
    6

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

..

, , ,

2000

316.334(470) 60.5(2) 94 : ... .., ... .., ... .., ... .., ... .., ... .. .. 94 : , , . 2- ., . .: , 2000. 318 . ( , 9.) ISBN 5-89554-005-8 (1- .) ISBN 5-89554-172-0 (2- .) . , , . . , , , .

. .......................8 ................................................................4 .......................................................................8 ..........................8 ......................................................8 .........................................................10 ..............................................................17 ?............................21 .....................................................................27 ...............................................................27 ..................29 ..........................43 ..44 I..........................................................................51 , , .., 1997, 2000 , 1997 , 2000

ISBN 5-89554-005-8 (1- .) ISBN 5-89554-172-0 (2- .)

: ......................................................51 1. .....................51 2. ................................65 3. ....76 4. ..........86 II.........................................................................98 : ...............................................98 1. .................98 2. ..........................118 3. .............................135 III.....................................................................147 ....................................................................147 1. .........................147 2. .......................155 3. ...........170 4. - . .183 1.................................................198 ..............................................1981. , , 198 2. ................................................. ....199 3. .......................................... ..........200

2.................................................202 202 IV.....................................................................206 : , ..........................................206 1. ....206 ......207 ............................208 ...................................................216 ..................218 ................................................219 ............................................................................................221 .............................223 ......................................................225 2. ....................236 ..............236 ....241 ............................................245 ..................................250 3. : ...255 4. : ?................................269

...........270 : ?. 274 ..............................................................................696

.3.....................................................................696 1.............................................................698 ...............699 1.....................................................708 2.....................................................708 V.......................................................................710 : ........................................................710 1. . .710 1..............................................................711 2..............................................................711 3.............................................................712 4.............................................................715 2. .......................723 3. ................733 4. - .............................................................................................755 ................759 ...................................762 ..............................765 ...........................771

, , . - , , ( ) . . , , , - . , , . , , . , , , , . , - . , - ,

9

.1 ( , , , ), , , , .2 - . , , , , , . , , - , , , , . , : , , .3 1 2

3

. : .. . ., 1997. . // Pro et Contra. 1999. .4. 2. .94-96. , . , . - , , . ( .. . .350).

10

.

. , () . , , . , . ( , , ), . . , , , , , . , . , . , , . , - . . , , , . , , . . - . , , .

, -

11

.4 - , . , . . , , , . , . , - .5 - : , ( , , , ). , . , 4

., .: . : // : ? / . . .. . . ., 1999. .: . . . 90-. ., 1993; . 1994-1996 ; . ? // Pro et Contra. 1997. .2. 4.

5

12

.

. , , , , 6. , , , 90- . , ( ) . : , , ? , , - - . , 90- , , 74% 84%.7 , . . - - , . ., , . , , 6

7

- . : , // : . 1997. 3(20)/4(21). C.48. : . // / . . .. . . ., 1998. C.149.

13

, . , , . , , , . , , .8 .9 , , , , , .10 , - , , , . , - , - , - - . 8

9

.: . ? // . 1995. 6; . ? // Pro et Contra. 1999. .4. 1. . .. : , / . ., 1998. ., .: . : - // . 2000. 1.

10

14

.

, . . , . , , . - - . , , - . , . . -, , . , . -, , . , , , , , , .11 . .. .12, 11 12

.. . . .I. Eisenstadt S.N., Roniger L. Patrons, clients and friends. Interpersonal relations and the structure of trust in society. Cambridge, 1984.

15

, - - . , . - , . ( ), ( ) ( ). , (), . , , . , , , . , , . , , .13 , (). , 13

., .: .. . ., 1990.

16

.

. ( ), . - , . , , , . . . - , , , . , , , , . - , , . , , . 1917 ., . , : , - - . ? - ,

17

. , , - , . - , , , . , , . , , ( ).

. (, , ) (, ) . , , - - , . , , , , / , . , , , . , , .

18

.

. : ; . , - , , . , - - , . . , , , . , ? -, . , . , , , , . () - . - , . - . -

19

- , , , . - ( ) . -, . - . ( ) ( ) .14 , : , , . , : , 15. . , , , 14

.: . // Pro et Contra. 1998. .3. 3; . // Pro et Contra. 1999. .4. 2. . - // : ? / . . .. . . ., 1999. .23.

15

20

.

, , . . , , , - , . , . , . - . ( ), : , , .. , : , , , . . , , , - . , , , . , .

21

, . . , ( - , ..), , .

? , , . , , - - . . , -, . , , , : , . 80 , 90-? , . , , - , , ; . - , : , , , -

22

.

.. , . . . , , . , : , , , . , , . , . ( , , , , , , , ) , , . . , 1991 (, ), . , , : ? . , - - ... - , . , , : ! , , , , . . , . - . . . , :

23

? , . ? , , - . , . , , , , - . . , . : - 4 000, - 2 000, - 1 000. , - -, , . , , . , , - , 30%, - .16 - , ? , , , ... , - , . , . , , 16

.: .. : // : / . .. .: , 1999; .., .. : . : , 1998.

24

.

.17 , - , , . , , - , . , . . - . ( , ). , , - , . , : - , . , 18. ( ) , -. . . (. . .) PR (-) . , , - .17 18

., .: .. . . .188, 190. Samuel P. Huntington. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, 1968. P.20.

25

. - , , , 90- , - , , , . ! - , , . , . , , . , . PR-, , . , . , , , , . , - : ! ! . . , , . , ( ). , . , , - , -

26

.

, ad hoc PR-, , , , . . : , ? , . - . , 2000

..

, . - () . . , , , , . , . - : . , , ( ). . : , , , ? - ... -, (?) . , , , , ? , , , : , , . , , - , . -

28

, , . .

29

, , , ( ) . - . , , , . - XX , . , , , , , ; . , , . - ..-19 , . , , . - - , 19

.: - .. . ., 1988. - ( ) ...

30

- . .. ..20. , . , , - , , . , . , -, - . , . .21, .H. P.22, .23. , . ., .2420

.: .. . ., 1977; .. . ., 1979. Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies. Ed. by E.Gellner and J.Waterbury. L., 1977. Political Clientelism, Patronage and Development. Ed. by S.N.Eisenstadt and R.Lemarchand. L., 1981. Political Clientelism and comparative perspectives. Ed. by L.Graziano // International Political Science Review. Vol.4. No.4 (1983). .: ., . . ., 1994. .10.

21

22

23

24

31

1950- - 1960- , , - ( ..), . , , -, , -, , , . . , . . 25, - , ( ), , , - , 26. , , : , , . . : - , 27.25

Lemarchand R. and Legg K. Political Clientelism and Development: A Preliminary Analysis // Comparative Politics. Vol.4. No.2 (1972). P.149-178. 26 , , . . : . // . . . . ., 1972; . . ., 1994. .178-186. , , ., - .: Crozier M. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. Chicago, 1964.

32

.. .28: , - , . - , , , , . , . .. . - , , - , . - : 1) ; 2) - , ; 3) - () ; 4) : , , , ; 5) - . , , - : , 27

Lemarchand R. Comparative Political Clientelism: Structure, Process and Optic. P.7-32 // S.N.Eisenstadt and R.Lemarchand, eds., Political Clientelism, Patronage and Development. P.13. Eisenstadt S.N., Roniger L. Patrons, clients nd friends. Interpersonal relations and the structure of trust in society. Cambridge, 1984.

28

33

. , - . , , , . (, , - , , ), , : , , , , , , , - . . . , , , - , , , , , - . .29 , , , , - . . , , , 29

.: ., . . ., .5.

34

30. ..31, . - , , : ; ; , .32 , . (1979) Studies in Comparative Communism .33, - 1966-1971 . 2- (1983) - 34. , , 30

.: . . . ., 1988. .255279; . : . ., 1990. .270-273; . 1917-1991. ., 1995. .217; 344-346; 392; 396-398; Keep J. Last of the Empires. A History of the Soviet Union 1945-1991. N.Y 1995. P.210-212, 310; Murarka D. ., Gorbachov. The Limits of Power. L., 1988. P.54-56, 69-77. Rigby T.H. A Conceptual Approach to Authority, Power and Policy in the Soviet Union // Authority, Power and Policy in the USSR: Essays dedicate to Leonardo Shapiro. Ed. by T.H.Rigby. Basingstoke; London, 1980. P.16. Rigby T.H. The Soviet Leadership: Towards a Self-Stubilizing Oligarchy? // Soviet Studies. Vol.XXII. No.2 (1970). P.177. John P.Willerton. Clientelism in the Soviet Union // Studies in Comparative Communism. Vol.XII. No.2-3 (1979). P.159-183.

31

32

33

35

.35, XIX - XX . , , .36 . 37. , , , - . , -, , -, , - , . , , , - , . : , 38. 34

Gyula Jozsa. Political Seilschaften in the USSR // T.H.Rigby and B.Harasymiv, eds., Leadership Selection and Patron-Client Relations in the USSR and Yugoslavia: Sel. papers from the 2d World Congress for Soviet and East-Europian Studies. L., 1983. P.139-173. Daniel T.Orlovsky. Political Clientelism in Russia: the Historical Perspective. Ibid., p.174-199. Bauman Z. Comment on Eastern Europe // Studies in Comparative Communism. Vol.XII. No.2-3 (1979). P.184-189. Tarkovsky J. Patronage in a Centralized, Socialist System: The Case of Poland // International Political Science Review. Vol.4. No.4 (1983). P.495-518. Eisenstadt S.N., Roniger L. Op. cit., p.158-159, 186.

35

36

37

38

36

:...