Administrative Law in Malaysia

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    Administrative Lawin Malaysia

    Wan Azlan AhmadLLB (Hons), M5c, CLP

    Nik Ahmad Kamal Nik MahmodLLB (Hens), LLM, PhD

    Sweet & Maxwell AsiaMalaysia Singapore Hong Kong

    2006

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    -Published in 2006 bySweet & Maxwell Asia

    a di,'isioll afThomson Asia Pte Ltd (993622K)No 17, Jalan PJS 7/1946150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

    Affiliated CompaniesAUSTRALIAThomson Legal and Regulatory Limited100 Harris StreetPyrmont, SydneyAustralia, :--JSW 2009

    SINGAPORESVlreet & Maxv.'ell Asia6 Battery Road, #29-035ingapore 049909NEW ZEALANDBrookersPO Box 6343, Auckland

    CANADACarswellOne Corporate Plaza2075 Kennedy RoadScarborough, Ontario MlT 3V4

    UNITED KINGDOM/EUROPESweet & Maxwell Ltd

    HONG KONG 100 Avenue RoadSweet & Maxwell Asia London NW3 3PFa dlVl510TI of The ThOp"'-- - - _Corporahon Hong K n t J i T & R I ~ A r l O : i : \ L ISU,MlC 'JNIVERS:'120/F, 5unrung Plaza _ L { ~ Y : . . . ' \ ~ . ' : ' Y : - ' _ - - - : - - , , ; : 110 Hysan Avenue, c f s e ~ , , : a Y Bay \ . , , - f I ( \""'Ct:',. lHong Kong Copy no: "

    D a t e : . ? . ~ .. I ~ : . : . : . ': ( t . '''[)=c-J,- ., ISBN 983-2631-75-0All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in anyform or by any means, or stored in any retrieval system of any nature without priorwritten permission, except for permitted fair dealing under the Copyright Act 1987.Application for permission for other use of copyright material including permission to

    reproduce extracts in other published works shall be made to the publishers.Full acknowledgement of the authors, publisher and source must be given.The authors have asserted their moral right under the Copyright Act 1987,

    to be identified as the authors of this publication.Wan Azlan Alunad & Nik Alunad Kamal Nik Mahmod

    Cover design by Edward Goh

    Printed by Swan Printing Sdn Bhd

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    Contents

    Preface .. viiAbout the Authors . xiTable ofCases... .. . xixTable of Statutes xxxviiChapter IThe Province of Administrative Law 1Nature of administrative law 1Judicial review 7Intensity of review 11Review and appeaL 13Application for judicial review 17

    Habeas corpus 17Grounds of judicial review 17Administrative law in Malaysia: The future 20Chapter I IElements of Judicial Review 27Generally 27The foundation of judicial review 27The question of invalidity 28Ultra vires decisions: Void and voidable 31Authorities subject to judicial review 33Entities enjoying monopoly power 37Inappropriateness of judicial review 39Prematu.re decisions 42Civil servants 43Domestic tribunals 43Institutions of higher learning 46Position of the government in tort 47Military decisions 47Judicial review, legality and merit 48Moulding of relief 51Application for judicial review: Remedies 52

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    xiv Contents

    Chapter IIIJurisdictional Challenge 53Generally 53jurisdictional law 53The development oi English law 54

    The law before Anisminic 54The law adopted in Al1ismil1ic 54Post-Anisminic and beiore Page v Hull University Visitor 57The current law: Page v Hull University Visitor 58

    The law in Malaysia 59Findings oi iacts and evidence 62

    jurisdictional iact doctrine 62Reaching a conclusion without evidence 63Irrelevancy 66Unreasonableness 67Review oi credibility oi witnesses 68

    jurisdictional challenge: Intensity oi review 69Chapter IVAbuse of Discretion 71Discretionary power generally 71Purpose 72Relevancy 75Unreasonableness 79Further inquiries 87Failure to provide reasons 87Proportionality 88

    England 88Malaysia 90Fettering oi discretion 92

    Abdication 95Decision taken by the wrong authority 96Delegation 97Bad iaith 101Unlawiul advice and estoppel 101Authority 102

    Evidential requirements 105Disclosure by applicant 106Delay 107

    Substantive legitimate expectation 109Category I 110Category II 110Category III III

    International treaties and legitimate expectation 116Discretionary power in the context of national security 118

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    C O l l t e l l t ~ xv

    Chapter VProcedural Ultra Vires at Common Law 119Cornman law duty to act fairly 119Right to be heard and written law 120Nullity 122The necessity for the right to be heard 123The right to a hearing 126Duty to act fairly 127Procedural fairness and legitimate expectation 128

    Preliminary hearings 132Procedural fairness on account of what was done or said inproceedings 133

    Fair Hearing: Some particular areas 139Licensing 139Employment 140Membership of professional bodies 143Students 143Members of public services 147

    Components of right to a fair hearing 150Right to know the charges 151Open mind 153Sufficiency of time 153Access to documentation 153Right to oral hearing 163Admissibility of evidence 164Right to legal representation 164Cross-examination of witnesses 165Reasons for decisions 165Failure to provide reasons and abuse of discretion 167Duty to make further inquiries 168Delay and procedural unfairness 168

    l"Jel1lo judex in re sua " 172Pecuniary interest 172Strong personal interest 172Non-pecuniary interest or promotion of cause 173The test of bias '" 175

    Chapter VIStatutory Procedure 179Generally 179Procedural ultra vires 180Determining parliamentary intention 183Meaning of consultation 183

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    xvi Contents

    Chapter VIIDelegated Legislation 185Generally 185Forms of delegated legislation , 186Circulars, brochures and the like 186Statutory formula authorising delegated legislation 188Regulate and prohibit , 189Challenging the validity of delegated legislation 190Judicial review of delegated legislation: Generally 190Presumptive validity of delegated legislation 191The general framework of review 191

    The enabling act is unconstitu tional 192The delegated legislation is unconstitutionaL 192Delegated legislation is inconsistent with the parent Act 192The imposition of fiscal obligations 195Delegated legislation to be used for proper purpose 196Reasonableness , 196

    Proportionality , 197Failure to comply with statutory procedures 198Consultation 200Certainty of delegated legislation 201Improper delegation 201Exclusion of judicial review 201"As if enacted [by Parliament]" clause 201

    Severance 202Publication 202"Published" 203Retrospective application 204

    Chapter VIIIProcedure and Remedies 207Judicial review applications 207Decision , 207Procedure 208Leave 209Time limit for application 210Stay of proceedings 211The availability of alternative procedures 211The English background 211The Malaysian position ,.. 214Cross-examination and discovery 218Non-prerogative remedies 219

    Injunctions 219Locus standi 222Discretion 223

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    Cmtt'llt:, xvii

    Declarations . 223Deiects justiiying grant oi declaration 226Standing to sue: Locus standi 226The case law 228Conclusion 233Order 53: "Adversely affected" person 235Consequence oi the grant oi declaration 236

    Prerogative remedies 237Certiorari and prohibition........................... . 237Deiects justiiying award 240

    Certiorari: The availability of alternative remedies 242Other grounds oi reiusal 243Locus standi for certiorari and prohibition 244Consequence oi quashing 245

    :-landamus 246Deiects justiiying award 246Grounds oi reiusal........................... . 246Mandamus: The availability oi alternative remedies 247Locus standi 247

    Hearing oi application ior leave 248Damages in judicial review proceedings 249Exclusion of judicial reviev./ 250"Shall be final" clause 251

    "No certiorari" clause 251"Shall not be called in question in any court oi law" clause 252Time stipulations 253

    Ouster clauses in "special cases" 253Preventive detention 254Immigration 255Emergency (Public Order and Prevention oi Crime)

    Ordinance 1969 , . 255Specific Reliei Act 1950, section 44 256The making oi applications 258

    Writ oi qua warranto 259Habeas corpus 259Chapter IXGovernment Proceedings 261Generallv 261Liability in tort 262Acts done under prerogative and statutory powers 267:'\Jature of relief in Government proceedings 268Anglo-Scottish position 269Malaysian position 270Limitation of actions , .. 273

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    xviii Contents

    Chapter XLiability of Public Authorities in Tort and Restitution 275Liability in tort: Generally 275Liability for omissions 276Negligence in implementing statutory duties 276Economic loss: Defective premises , , 281

    The English experience 282Other common law jurisdictions 283Malaysia 284

    Ste,'eI! Phoa at the Federal Caurt.. 288Abdul Hamid Mahamad FCj 289Steve Shim Cj (Sabah & Sarawak) 290Analysis of Federal Court judgment.. 291Woolcock Street IntJestnzents , , ,, 294

    Workable basis for local law 295Negligent misstatements 297Psychiatric illness 298Exercise of statutory discretion 299Failure to exercise statutory po\';ers , , 300Private law liability in tort of public authorities: Policyconsiderations , , , 302

    /D v East Berkshire Comnlll11ity Health NHS 303Lord Nicholls 304Lord Rodger 305Lord Brown 307Lord Bingham 307

    "luisance 312Breach of statutory duty 313Misfeasance in public office 317

    Damages for misfeasance in public office 319Liability in restitution 326Mistaken payments 326Ultra vires demands 328

    Index 331

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