Air Pollution in Kazakhstan. Two Major Cities of Kazakhstan. Almaty, Kazakhstan (ALA) Old Capital City of Kazakhstan Population (People): 1,477,564 Area (km 2 ): 324.8 km 2 Time Zone: UTC +6. Astana, Kazakhstan (AST) Capital City of Kazakhstan Population (People): 814,401 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Air Pollution in Kazakhstan
Two Major Cities of Kazakhstan
Almaty, Kazakhstan (ALA)Old Capital City of KazakhstanPopulation (People): 1,477,564Area (km2): 324.8km2Time Zone: UTC +6Astana, Kazakhstan (AST)Capital City of KazakhstanPopulation (People): 814,401Area (km2): 722km2Time Zone: UTC +6Problem of KazakhstanAir PollutionQ. What is the reason of air pollution in Kazakhstan?Geography of the countryTien Shan Mountain blocks polluted air in Almaty, so the air cannot escape.Diesel or Petrol-powered motor vehiclesMost of taxis and buses in Kazakhstan are diesel-powered vehicles and diesel causes pollution.Coal usage during Winter timeMany houses in Kazakhstan still use coal during Winter time and coal usuage cause pollution.However 85% of air pollutants (160,000 tons) are from motor vehicle emissions.Solution
CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)-powered vehicles produce much less pollutants than Diesel or Petrol-powered vehicles.Replacing vehicles engines to CNG engines will help decreasing pollutants.
By looking at these two graphs, you can see Petrol-powered vehicles produce about two times more pollutants than CNG-powered vehicles. Also, difference between emissions of Diesel-powered vehicles and CNG-powered vehicles are even larger.
If you look at the graphs, you can there isnt much difference of CO2. However you can see large gap at the NOx and PM. NOx is type of nitrogen oxide. It can cause human problem in breathing. PM are tiny solid matters associated with the Earths atmosphere. This can also cause problem in breathing.If we say pollutants from Petrol and Diesel is 900.100 * 9 = 900
Then pollutants from CNG is 367.85 + 15 + 50 + 15 + 2 + 75 + 45 + 45 + 35 = 367So by replacing Petrol and Diesel-powered cars to CNG-powered car, we can reduce about 59% of pollutants.367 / 900 = 0.41, 41%100% 41% = 59%Lets apply to Kazakhstan!!*Information in 2011.There are 3,000,000 non-residential cars in Kazakhstan and none of them are CNG-powered vehicles. We dont know how many cars among 3,000,000 cars are diesel-powered or petrol powered. So lets say half of cars are diesel-powered and other half is petrol-powered.
Diesel-powered vehicles (1,500,000 cars)By replacing diesel-powered engines to CNG-powered engines, we can reduce 67% of pollutants.1 - (85 + 15 + 50 + 15 + 2) / (5 * 100) = 1 167 / 500 = 1 - 0.33 = 0.67 Petrol-powered vehicles (1,500,000 cars)By replacing petrol-powered engines to CNG-powered engines, we can reduce 50% of pollutants.1 (75 + 45 + 45 + 35) / (4 * 100) = 1 200 / 400 = 1- 0.5 = 0.5
About 160,000 tons of pollutants produce each year from non CNG-powered vehicles. Lets say half of pollutants come from diesel-powered vehicles and other half come from petrol-powered vehicles. If we replace engines to CNG engines, we can reduce about 58% (93,600 tons) of pollution in Kazakhstan from vehicles.160,000 - 80,000 * 0.33 + 80,000 * 0.5 = 160,000 - 66,400 = 93,60093,600 / 160,000 = 0. 58 58%ConclusionSo by replacing Kazakhstans motor vehicles (non-residential) engines to CNG-powered engines, Kazakhstans air quality can be much better than now.As we found out already, 58% (93,600 tons) of pollutants from vehicles can be gone.It means 49% of total pollution can be gone by one change.