Amino axit

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<p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com1</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>Amino axitI. nh ngha, danh php v tnh ch t v t l ...................................................................... 3 1. nh ngha....................................................................................................................................... 3 2. C u t o phn t ............................................................................................................................... 3 3. Danh php....................................................................................................................................... 3 4. Tnh ch t v t l ................................................................................................................................ 8 II. Tnh ch t ha h c ........................................................................................................... 8 1. Tnh l ng tnh ................................................................................................................................ 8 2. Ph n ng c a nhm cacboxyl :.......................................................................................................... 9 a) Este ha : .................................................................................................................................... 9 b) ecacboxyl ha : .......................................................................................................................... 9 3. Ph n ng c a nhm amino ............................................................................................................... 9 a) Ph n ng v i axit nitr (tng t amin b c I) t o thnh hidroxiaxit : ................................................ 9 b) Ph n ng eamin ha :................................................................................................................. 9 c) Ph n ng ngng t v i anehit fomic : ..........................................................................................10 d) Ph n ng ankyl,aryl ha b ng d n xu t halogen ............................................................................10 e) Ph n ng axyl ha (Ph n ng Sotten Bauman)............................................................................10 4. Tnh ch t c a c phn t amino axit : ...............................................................................................10 a) Ph n ng mu v i nihidrin............................................................................................................10 b) Ph n ng t o ph c ......................................................................................................................11 c) Tc d ng c a nhi t ......................................................................................................................11 d) M t s ph n ng mu :................................................................................................................12 e) Ph n ng trng ngng t o peptit : ................................................................................................12 III. i u ch ...................................................................................................................... 13 1. Th y phn protein...........................................................................................................................13 2. Amin ha axit -halogencacboxylic (Phng php Hell-Volhard-Zelinski) ..............................................13 3. Ankyl ha ietyl N-phtalimit maloat (Phng php Gabriel, 1889)........................................................13 4. T ng h p Strecker (1850) ................................................................................................................13 5. T ng h p Bucherer (1943) ...............................................................................................................14 6. Phng php t ng h p qua amiomalonat ........................................................................................14 7. Phng php amino ha -xetoaxit (sinh t ng h p) ...........................................................................14 8. i u ch -amino axit v -amino axit ..............................................................................................15 9. i u ch - v -amino axit .............................................................................................................15 10. i u ch cc amino axit thm.........................................................................................................15 T lu n ............................................................................................................................... 17 Bi 1 :................................................................................................................................................17 Bi 2 :................................................................................................................................................17 Bi 3 :................................................................................................................................................18 Bi 4 :................................................................................................................................................18 Bi 5 :................................................................................................................................................18</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com2</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>Amino axitI. nh ngha, danh php v tnh ch t v t l1. nh nghaAmino axit l lo i h p ch t h u c t p ch c m phn t ch a ng th i nhm amino (-NH2) v nhm cacboxyl (-COOH). V d : H2H-CH2-COOH ; R-CH(NH2)-COOH ; R-CH(NH2)-CH2-COOH; m-NH2-C6H4COOH.</p> <p>2. C u t o phn ttr ng thi k t tinh t n t i d ng ion l ng c c. Trong dung d ch, d ng ion l ng c c chuy n m t ph n nh thnh d ng phn t :</p> <p>D ng ion l ng c c</p> <p>D ng phn t</p> <p>3. Danh php- N u g c hidrocacbon trong phn t l g c no m ch h , ty theo v tr c a nhm ch c amin i v i nhm cacboxyl m ta phn bi t -amino, -amino, -amino, , -amino axit. - a s cc amino axit trong thin nhin l -amino v chng c trong thnh ph n c u t o protein. - Trong t ng h p h u c s d ng lo i -amino axit (nhm amono cu i m ch, m ch C khng phn nhnh). V d : H2N-[CH2]5-COOH axit -amino caproic : t capron. H2N-[CH2]6-COOH axit -amino enantoic : t enng.</p> <p>Tn g i c a 20 amino axit th ng g p trong thin nhinCng th c Axit monoaminocacboxylic Tn g i K hi u, vi t t t tan (g/100g H2O) pHI</p> <p>Glyxin</p> <p>Gly G</p> <p>25.5</p> <p>5.97</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com3</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>Alanin</p> <p>Ala A</p> <p>16.6</p> <p>6.00</p> <p>Valin</p> <p>Val V</p> <p>6.8</p> <p>5.96</p> <p>Leuxin</p> <p>Leu L</p> <p>2.4</p> <p>5.98</p> <p>Isoleuxin</p> <p>Ile I</p> <p>2.1</p> <p>6.00</p> <p>Axit iaminomonocacboxylic</p> <p>Lysin</p> <p>Lys K</p> <p>T t</p> <p>9.74</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com4</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>Arginin</p> <p>Arg R</p> <p>T t</p> <p>10.67</p> <p>Axit monoaminoicacboxylic</p> <p>Axit aspactic</p> <p>Asp D</p> <p>0.5</p> <p>2.77</p> <p>Axit glutamic</p> <p>Glu E</p> <p>0.7</p> <p>3.22</p> <p>O H2N CH H2N C O CH2 C OH</p> <p>Asparagin</p> <p>Asn N</p> <p>2.5</p> <p>5.4</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com5</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]O H2N CH CH2 H2C C H2N O C OH</p> <p>Glutamin</p> <p>Gln Q</p> <p>3.6</p> <p>5.7</p> <p>Amino axit ch c nhm OH, -SH, SR Serin S Ser 4.3 5.68</p> <p>Threonin</p> <p>Thr T</p> <p>20.5</p> <p>5.60</p> <p>Xistein</p> <p>Cys C</p> <p>T t</p> <p>5.10</p> <p>Methionin</p> <p>Met M</p> <p>3.3</p> <p>5.74</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com6</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]Amino axit ch a vng thmOH H2N CH CH2 C O</p> <p>Phenylalani n</p> <p>Phe F</p> <p>2.7</p> <p>5.48</p> <p>0.05 Tirozin Tyr Y</p> <p>5.66</p> <p>Amino axit d vng</p> <p>Triptophan</p> <p>Trp W</p> <p>1.1</p> <p>5.89</p> <p>Histidin</p> <p>His H</p> <p>4.2</p> <p>7.59</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com7</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>Prolin</p> <p>Pro P</p> <p>162</p> <p>6.3</p> <p>Cc g c amino axit R-CH(NH2)-Co- c g i b ng cch i ui in c a tn ring thnh yl. V d : Glyxin Glyxyl</p> <p>4. Tnh ch t v t lAmino axit l nh ng ch t r n, k t tinh, khng mu, nhi t nng ch y tng i cao (kho ng 220 -290oC). a s tan t t trong n c, khng tan trong dung mi khng phn c c nh benzen, hexan, ete,.</p> <p>II. Tnh ch t ha h c1. Tnh l ng tnh-</p> <p> H2N-CHR-COOH H2H-CHR-COO(-) + H+ +H3N-CHR-COO- (ion l ng c c). pH th p (mi tr ng axit): t o ra axit 2 ch c+H3 O H3N-CHR-COO- +H3N-CHR-COOH C c m+</p> <p>Axit 2 ch c</p> <p>i n tr ng</p> <p>-</p> <p>pH cao (mi tr ng baz): t o ra baz 2 ch c+</p> <p>OH H3N-CHR-COO- H2N-CHR-COO- C c dng </p> <p>Axit 2 ch c</p> <p>i n tr ng</p> <p>pH trung gian no , amino axit t n t i d ng ion l ng c c, khi y trong m t i n tr ng n khng chuy n d ch v c c m l n c c dng v cc i n tch tri d u cn b ng. pH d c g i l i m ng di n, k hi u l pHI ( I t isoelectric). Nh n th y r ng, pHI c a cc monoamino monocacboxylic c pHI x p x b ng 6. C th tnh pHI theo bi u th c :</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com8</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]pK a1 +pK a2</p> <p>2 V d : Alanin c pK a1 (c a COOH) =2.34 v pK a2 (c a NH3+)= 9,69.V y pHI=(2.34+9.69)/2=6.01. Nh n xt: Cc axit iamino monocacboxylic c pHI kh l n, tri l i cc axit monoamino icacboxylic c pHI kh nh . N u cho dng i n ch y qua m t dung d ch amino axit c pHpHI th amino axit s di chuy n v c c dng. y l nguyn t c c a phng php i n di amino axit. Th hi n tnh l ng tnh : Ty theo s l ng nhm amino v caboxyl m c th lm qu tm ha , ha xanh hay khng i mu. - Ph n ng v i axit v c m nh cho mu i : H2H-CH2-COOH + HCl ClH3NCH2COOH Ho c</p> <p>pHI =</p> <p> H3N-CH2-COO- + HCl ClH3NCH2COOH - Ph n ng v i baz m nh cho mu i v n c : H2H-CH2-COOH + NaOH H2NCH2COONa + H2O Ho c+ +</p> <p> H3N-CH2-COO- + NaOH H2NCH2COONa + H2O</p> <p>2. Ph n ng c a nhm cacboxyl : a) Este ha : Amino axit tc d ng v i ancol khi c axit v c m nh xc tc t o thnh este : HCl H2N-CH2-COOH + C2H5OH H2NCH2COOC2H5 1 + H2O b) ecacboxyl ha : Khi c enzim thch h p amino axit b tch nhm cacboxyl t o thnh amin. decacboxylaza C3H3N2CH2CH(NH2)COOH C3H3N2CH2CH2NH2 + CO2Histidin Histamin</p> <p>3. Ph n ng c a nhm aminoa) Ph n ng v i axit nitr (tng t amin b c I) t o thnh hidroxiaxit : HCl CH3-CH(NH2)-COOH + HONO CH3-CH(OH)-COOH + N2 + H2OAlanin Axit lactic</p> <p>Phng php Van Slai : D a vo th tch N2 thot ra c th xc nh c l ng amino axit trong dung d ch. b) Ph n ng eamin ha :Trong c th ng i v ng v t enzim c kh nng chuy n ha nhm &gt;CH-NH2 thnh nhm &gt;C=O. V d : [O] CH3-CH(NH2)-COOH CH3-CO-COOH enzim1</p> <p>Th c ra, este t o thnh</p> <p>d ng mu i ClH3N+CH2COOC2H5. Mu n t o thnh amin este ta x l v i NH3.</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com9</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]Alanin Axit piruvic</p> <p>Trong mi tr ng ki m, cc enzim l i chuy n ha amino axit t o thnh hidroxiaxit. V d : Tyrosin bi n thnh axit p-hidroxiphenyllactic :2 p-HO-C6H4-CH2CH(NH2)COOH p-HO-C6H4-CH2CH(OH)COOH + NH3 enzim</p> <p>H O</p> <p>D i tc ng c a enzim ancol ha th c nhm amino v nhm cacboxyl u b phn tch : enzim (CH3)2CHCH2CH(NH2)COOH (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH + NH3 + CO2 ancol ho'a</p> <p>c) Ph n ng ngng t v i anehit fomic :</p> <p> HCHO + H2N-CHR-COOH CH2=N-CHR-COOH Ph n ng ny dng kha nhm -NH2 khi chu n amino axit (phng php Srenxen).d) Ph n ng ankyl,aryl ha b ng d n xu t halogenNhm amino c a amino axit c ankyl hay aryl ha b ng d n xu t halogen.-HI C2H5I + NH2-CH2-COOH C2H5-NH-CH2COOH</p> <p> Ch : Amin ch aryl ha v i d n xu t halogen RX trong R khng ph i Ar.</p> <p>e) Ph n ng axyl ha (Ph n ng Sotten Bauman)Khi cho amino axit ph n ng v i clorua axit trong mi tr ng ki m thu c d n xu t N-axyl :2 C6H5COCl + H2N-CH2-COOH C6H5CONH-CH2COOH 2) HCl</p> <p>1)OH- /H O</p> <p>Glyxyl N-Benzoylglyxyl (Axit hipuric) Do s lin h p i electron t do c a N vo nhm C=O nn cc N-axylamino axit ki u axit hipuric c tnh axit m nh tng t cc axit cacboxylic. Ngoi ra, ta cn c th dng cc tc nhn axyl ha l anhidrit axetic :t (CH3CO)2O + H2NCH2COOH CH3CONHCH2COOH + CH3COOH D n xu t N-fomyl c i u ch b ng cch cho amino axit tc d ng v i axit fomic.o</p> <p>4. Tnh ch t c a c phn ta) Ph n ng mu v i nihidrin</p> <p>amino axit :</p> <p>T t c cc -amino axit u ph n ng v i nihidrin cho s n ph m c mu tm xanh (ring prolin cho mu vng) :</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com10</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>Ninhidrin l thu c th c trng nh n bi t -amino axit trn s c c a s c k gi y v trn gi n i n di.</p> <p>b) Ph n ng t o ph cCc -amino axit ph n ng v i m t s ion kim lo i n ng cho h p ch t ph c kh tan v r t b n, khng b phn h y b i NaOH, c mu c trng.</p> <p>K t t a mu xanh</p> <p>c) Tc d ng c a nhi tkhi un nng, -amino axit b tch n c gi a hai phn t t o ra iamit vng 6 c nh ki u ixetopiperazin</p> <p>ixetopiperazin</p> <p>un -amino axit b tch NH3 cho axit khng no</p> <p>V i -, - v -amino axit b tch n c cho mono amit vng t 5 7 c nh g i l lactam :</p> <p>[Chem][Nguy nDuyTh c][HS][nbkVL07-10]</p> <p>email: vietnamhinhchus@gmail.com11</p> <p>Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.</p> <p>Ha h c h u c [AMINO AXIT]</p> <p>Butirolactam</p> <p>d) M t s ph n ng mu : * Ph n ng Xantoproteic :Cc amino axit ch a g c hidrocacbon thm nh phenylalanin, tyrozin, trytophan, ph n ng v i axit nitric c, nng t o thnh h p ch t nitro mu vng g i l ph n ng Xantoproteic. Th c ch t y l ph n ng nitro ha nhn thm c trong aminoaxit.</p> <p>(mu vng)</p> <p>* Ph n ng Adamkiewicz HopkinsCc amino axit ch a vng indol ph n ng v i axit glioxilic c m t axit sunfuric c, nng lm xc tc thu c s n ph m c mu xanh tm</p> <p>* Ph n ng v i thu c th MilonCc amino axit c ch a g c phenol (tyrozin,) ph n ng v i h n h p Hg(NO3)2 v HNO3 c khi un nng cho s n ph m c mu .</p> <p>* Ph n ng PaulyPh n ng Pauly dng nh n bi t trytophan nh ph n ng c a tryptophan v i axit iazobenzensunfonic trong dung d ch ki m thu c s n ph m c mu anh o.</p> <p>* Ph n n...</p>