An Introduction to Engineering Ethics - Oregon State Objectives Provide motivation for the topic. Introduce…

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<ul><li><p>1</p><p>AnIntroductiontoEngineeringEthics</p><p>forMechanical,</p><p>Industrial,andManufacturingEngineers</p><p>Part1</p></li><li><p>2</p><p>Objectives</p><p> Providemotivationforthetopic. Introduceterms,concepts,principles. Surveysomeethicalissuesinengineering. Giveexamples. Presentbasicskillsofethicaldecisionmaking. Providepracticeinconfrontingethicaldilemmas.</p></li><li><p>3</p><p>EngineeringEthics:Overview</p><p> EngineeringEthicsCases BasicTermsandConceptsofEngineeringEthics SomeEthicalPrinciples EthicalDilemmas CodesofEngineeringEthics ConfrontingEthicalDilemmas InClassExercise EthicalDilemmaAssignment OtherEthicalIssuesInEngineering SomePartingPhilosophicalQuestions</p></li><li><p>4</p><p>EngineeringEthicsCases</p><p>Howsomeengineersmadeethicalchoicesandwhatresulted.</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>WilliamLeMessurier:CitigroupTower</p><p> Structuralengineer ParticipatedindesignofCiticorpTower,NewYorkCity</p><p> 5thhighestbuildinginNYC Innovativedesign Cantileveredon9storystiltsoverrebuiltSt.Peter'sLutheran</p><p>Church Incorporatedmassdamper Designedtocoderequirementstowithstandperpendicular</p><p>winds Builtwithbracingstructureboltedjoints(insteadofwelded,as</p><p>designed)</p><p>ImagesfromWikimediaCommons</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>LeMessurier(continued)</p><p> Engineeringstudentaskedaboutquarteringwinds. LeMessurier</p><p> turnedtoconsultants didcalculations foundloadlimitwouldbeexceededbyquarteringwindsoccurringevery16years</p><p> Metwithassociates,insurers,lawyers,owners,NYCbuildingdepartment Settledoutofcourt Criticaljointsweldedatcostof$12.5M(exceededinsurancecoverage)</p></li><li><p>7</p><p>A.ErnestFitzgerald:BlowingtheWhistleonGovernmentWaste</p><p> IEconsultant Hiredin1965asdeputytoassistantsecretaryofUSAFforfinancial</p><p>management Projects</p><p> Minutemanmissiles F111fighter/bomber C5Atransport</p><p> Foundandreportedwidespread Waste Failuretomeetspecifications Failuretomeetdeadlinesbycontractors</p></li><li><p>8</p><p>Fitzgerald(continued)</p><p> Cametobeshunnedbyassociates Reassignedtotrivialtasks Personallifeinvestigatedtodiscredithim RIFedin1969 Unabletofindworkasconsultant. Finallyexoneratedandreinstatedin1973withhelpofinfluentialsenator Continuedhisworkintothe1980s</p><p> $286.75forasimpleplastictoiletpan $8,832fora$30pulleypuller etc.</p><p> Other,lessspectacularcaseslikehisintheUSgovernment</p></li><li><p>9</p><p>OtherCases</p><p> Convair/DC10(swallowingthewhistle) FordPinto Challengerdisaster Bhopal CommonSituations</p><p> Falsifydata? Acceptbribes,gifts,kickbacks? Takecreditforanotherswork? Workonmilitaryprojects? Workforacompanyoronprojectsthatharmtheenvironment? Workforanunethicalorganization?</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>Summary</p><p> Notaquestionofengineerstechnicalcompetence. Notaquestionoftechnicalaccuracy. Ethicaldilemmainvolvingtheconflictofethicalprinciples,conflictof</p><p>goods. Engineersmadeethicaldecisions. Buttheywerevulnerableandsomesufferedgreatly.</p></li><li><p>11</p><p>BasicTermsandConceptsofEngineeringEthics</p><p>Someethicsdefinitionsandprinciples.</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>Moraladj.</p><p> Oforconcernedwiththejudgmentofthegoodnessandbadnessofhumanactionandcharacter;pertainingtothediscernmentofgoodandevil...</p><p> Beingoractinginaccordancewithstandardsofgoodnessorwithestablishedcodesofbehavior...(AmericanHeritage,1976)</p><p> seekingthegood,avoidingthebad</p></li><li><p>13</p><p>Moralsn.</p><p> Rulesofhabitorconduct...(AmericanHeritage,1976)</p></li><li><p>14</p><p>Ethicaladj.</p><p> Of,pertainingto,ordealingwithethics... Inaccordancewiththeacceptedprinciplesofrightandwrong...</p><p>(AmericanHeritage,1976) Synonyms:moral,virtuous,righteous</p></li><li><p>15</p><p>Ethicsn.</p><p> Thestudyofthegeneralnatureofmorals... Mayalsoextendtothegeneralnatureofvalue,whethermoralornon</p><p>moral(inwhichcase,itmaybecalledaxiology). Therulesorstandardsgoverningtheconductofmembersofa</p><p>profession...(AmericanHeritage,1976) orthoseofananyindividualorgroup(e.g.,engineeringethics).</p></li><li><p>16</p><p>Valuen.</p><p> "...thatwhichmakesanythingworthpossessingorrealizing.(Mead,TypesandProblemsofPhilosophy)</p><p> Typesofvalue moral/ethical(+right,wrong) nonmoral,natural,metaphysical(+good,evil)</p><p> Classificationsofnonmoralvalue intrinsic(ends) extrinsic,instrumental(means)</p></li><li><p>17</p><p>EthicalPrinciple</p><p> Arule,law,orstandardofgoodnessormorality(i.e.,ofvalue)againstwhichaction,ortheresultofaction,istobejudged.</p><p> Abasisforethical(moral)decisionmaking. Anethic. Amaxim. Ethicalprinciplesaresometimeslooselyreferredtoasvalues.</p></li><li><p>18</p><p>TeleologicalEthicalPrinciples:SomeEndsThatAreCandidatesfortheHighestGood</p><p> pleasure happiness selfrealization,selfactualization nature beauty truth knowledge humanwelfare communionwithGod</p></li><li><p>19</p><p>DeontologicalEthicalPrinciples:SomePossibleRulestoLiveBy</p><p> Donotkill. Donotsteal. Tellthetruth. Tothineownselfbetrue.(PoloniustoLaertesinHamlet,I,iii) Indutybelieve,notinthehopeforresults(BhagavadGita) Actasifthemaximfromwhichyouactweretobecometheuniversallawof</p><p>nature.(Kantsmaximofuniversality) Dotoothersasyouwouldhavethemdotoyou.(Jesus,Sermononthe</p><p>Mount)</p></li><li><p>20</p><p>PrinciplesofVirtue:SomeCandidateVirtues</p><p> Wisdom Courage Selfcontrol,Temperance,Prudence Justice,fairness Faith Hope Love Honesty,Truthfulness Trustworthiness Loyalty Tolerance Competence</p></li><li><p>21</p><p>EngineeringEthicsn.</p><p> Theexaminationofethicalissuesinengineering. Thefieldofstudywhichresultsfromthatexamination.</p></li><li><p>22</p><p>GoalsofEngineeringEthics</p><p> Helpfostermoralautonomy. Abilitytoarriveatreasonedmoral(ethical)views. Basedonresponsivenesstoethicalprinciples(i.e.,principled).</p><p> Helpindividualstoreasonmoreeffectivelyaboutethicalissues. Helpengineersdowhatisright.</p></li><li><p>23</p><p>Ethical(Moral)Dilemma</p><p> Asituationinwhich either</p><p> twoormoreethicalprinciples(orapplicationsofasingleprinciple)comeintoconflict</p><p> ortheapplicationsofethicalprinciplesareunclear anditisnotimmediatelyobviouswhatshouldbedone.</p></li><li><p>ConfrontingEthicalDilemmas</p><p>1. Summarizetheapparentdilemma.2. Gathertherelevantfacts,includingtechnicalones.3. Identifytheethicalprinciplesorapplicationsinconflict.4. Rankorweighttheethicalprinciplesbyimportance.5. Identify/developalternativecoursesofaction.6. Evaluatethealternativecoursesofactionwithrespecttotheprinciples.7. Talkwithothers.8. Choosethebestcourseofaction.</p><p> Anengineeringcodeofethicsmaybehelpful. Keepawrittenrecordinasecureplace.</p><p>Notetheparallelwithengineeringanalysisanddesign!</p></li><li><p>EthicalDilemmaAssignment</p><p> Individualthinking&amp;writingassignment:1. ChooseanethicaldilemmafromthelistofMIMEEthicalDilemmas(on</p><p>theCapstonewebsite),butnotthefirstone(Toughassignment).2. ApplytheConfrontingEthicalDilemmasprocess.3. Writeashort(2pages)summaryofyouranalysis.4. TurninbynextMondayat5:00PMinDr.Funk'sdropboxinDEAR102.</p><p> GradedP/N. Moredetailsinnextclassmeeting.</p></li><li><p>26</p><p>CodesofEngineeringEthics</p><p> e.g., InstituteofIndustrialEngineers(IIE)CodeofEthics ASMECodeofEthicsofEngineers NationalSocietyofProfessionalEngineers(NSPE)CodeofEthicsFor</p><p>Engineers others</p></li><li><p>27</p><p>RationaleforEngineeringEthicsCodes</p><p> Inspirationandguidance. Support Deterrence&amp;discipline Educationandunderstanding Noticetoothers</p><p> Protectionofthestatusquo Promotionofbusinessinterests(?)</p></li><li><p>28</p><p>ScopeandForm</p><p> Purpose: inspire encourage support notabasisforpunishment</p><p> Basedonsmallsetofcommonlyheldprinciples. Shortenoughsothat</p><p> peoplewillread. omissionsdon'tpromoteloopholes. importantpointsnotburiedindetails.</p><p> Longanddetailedenoughtoofferrealassistance.</p></li><li><p>29</p><p>TypicalEngineeringEthicsCodePrinciples</p><p> Truth,honesty,trustworthiness Respectforhumanlife,welfare Fairplay(justice) Openness Competence Community Respectforenvironment Respectfordemocraticprocess</p></li><li><p>30</p><p>EngineeringCodeOfEthicsEndorsedbyIIE(andformerlybyASME)</p><p>TheFundamentalPrinciplesEngineersupholdandadvancetheintegrity,honoranddignityoftheengineeringprofessionby:1. Usingtheirknowledgeandskillfortheenhancementofhumanwelfare;2. Beinghonestandimpartial,andservingwithfidelitythepublic,their</p><p>employersandclients;3. Strivingtoincreasethecompetenceandprestigeoftheengineering</p><p>profession;and4. Supportingtheprofessionalandtechnicalsocietiesoftheirdisciplines.</p><p>[ASMEscodeofethicsomitsthisone.]</p></li><li><p>31</p><p>EngineeringCodeofEthics(continued)</p><p>TheFundamentalCanons1. Engineersshallholdparamountthesafety,healthandwelfareofthepublicintheperformanceoftheir</p><p>professionalduties.2. Engineersshallperformservicesonlyintheareasoftheircompetence.3. Engineersshallissuepublicstatementsonlyinanobjectiveandtruthfulmanner.4. Engineersshallactinprofessionalmattersforeachemployerorclientasfaithfulagentsortrustees,and</p><p>shallavoidconflictsofinterest.5. Engineersshallbuildtheirprofessionalreputationonthemeritoftheirservicesandshallnotcompete</p><p>unfairlywithothers.6. Engineersshallassociateonlywithreputablepersonsororganizations.7. Engineersshallcontinuetheirprofessionaldevelopmentthroughouttheircareersandshallprovide</p><p>opportunitiesfortheprofessionaldevelopmentofthoseengineersundertheirsupervision.</p></li><li><p>32</p><p>QuestionableElementsofaCodeofEthics</p><p> Mattersofprofessionalcourtesy. Mattersofpublicimage. Standardsofcompensation. Constraintsoncriticismofotherengineers. Constraintsonassociationwith"disreputable"personsororganizations.</p></li><li><p>33</p><p>ApplicationofEthicsCodes</p><p> Can'ttellwhattodoinspecificsituations. Eveniftheengineerchoosesnottofollowtheethicalcourse,</p><p>awarenesshelpsbecause admissionhelpspreservepersonalintegrity. inthelongrun,ethicalbehaviormayprevail.</p></li><li><p>34</p><p>LimitationstoEthicsCodes</p><p> Vague,generallanguage. Conflictingprinciples. Unclearpriorities. Cannotserveasfinalmoralauthority.</p></li><li><p>35</p><p>EngineeringEthics:Overview</p><p> EngineeringEthicsCases BasicTermsandConceptsofEngineeringEthics SomeEthicalPrinciples EthicalDilemmas CodesofEngineeringEthics ConfrontingEthicalDilemmas InClassExercise EthicalDilemmaAssignment OtherEthicalIssuesInEngineering SomePartingPhilosophicalQuestions</p></li></ul>