An Introduction to Engineering Ethics - Oregon State Objectives Provide motivation for the topic. Introduce…

  • Published on
    15-Jun-2018

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Transcript

  • 1

    AnIntroductiontoEngineeringEthics

    forMechanical,

    Industrial,andManufacturingEngineers

    Part1

  • 2

    Objectives

    Providemotivationforthetopic. Introduceterms,concepts,principles. Surveysomeethicalissuesinengineering. Giveexamples. Presentbasicskillsofethicaldecisionmaking. Providepracticeinconfrontingethicaldilemmas.

  • 3

    EngineeringEthics:Overview

    EngineeringEthicsCases BasicTermsandConceptsofEngineeringEthics SomeEthicalPrinciples EthicalDilemmas CodesofEngineeringEthics ConfrontingEthicalDilemmas InClassExercise EthicalDilemmaAssignment OtherEthicalIssuesInEngineering SomePartingPhilosophicalQuestions

  • 4

    EngineeringEthicsCases

    Howsomeengineersmadeethicalchoicesandwhatresulted.

  • 5

    WilliamLeMessurier:CitigroupTower

    Structuralengineer ParticipatedindesignofCiticorpTower,NewYorkCity

    5thhighestbuildinginNYC Innovativedesign Cantileveredon9storystiltsoverrebuiltSt.Peter'sLutheran

    Church Incorporatedmassdamper Designedtocoderequirementstowithstandperpendicular

    winds Builtwithbracingstructureboltedjoints(insteadofwelded,as

    designed)

    ImagesfromWikimediaCommons

  • 6

    LeMessurier(continued)

    Engineeringstudentaskedaboutquarteringwinds. LeMessurier

    turnedtoconsultants didcalculations foundloadlimitwouldbeexceededbyquarteringwindsoccurringevery16years

    Metwithassociates,insurers,lawyers,owners,NYCbuildingdepartment Settledoutofcourt Criticaljointsweldedatcostof$12.5M(exceededinsurancecoverage)

  • 7

    A.ErnestFitzgerald:BlowingtheWhistleonGovernmentWaste

    IEconsultant Hiredin1965asdeputytoassistantsecretaryofUSAFforfinancial

    management Projects

    Minutemanmissiles F111fighter/bomber C5Atransport

    Foundandreportedwidespread Waste Failuretomeetspecifications Failuretomeetdeadlinesbycontractors

  • 8

    Fitzgerald(continued)

    Cametobeshunnedbyassociates Reassignedtotrivialtasks Personallifeinvestigatedtodiscredithim RIFedin1969 Unabletofindworkasconsultant. Finallyexoneratedandreinstatedin1973withhelpofinfluentialsenator Continuedhisworkintothe1980s

    $286.75forasimpleplastictoiletpan $8,832fora$30pulleypuller etc.

    Other,lessspectacularcaseslikehisintheUSgovernment

  • 9

    OtherCases

    Convair/DC10(swallowingthewhistle) FordPinto Challengerdisaster Bhopal CommonSituations

    Falsifydata? Acceptbribes,gifts,kickbacks? Takecreditforanotherswork? Workonmilitaryprojects? Workforacompanyoronprojectsthatharmtheenvironment? Workforanunethicalorganization?

  • 10

    Summary

    Notaquestionofengineerstechnicalcompetence. Notaquestionoftechnicalaccuracy. Ethicaldilemmainvolvingtheconflictofethicalprinciples,conflictof

    goods. Engineersmadeethicaldecisions. Buttheywerevulnerableandsomesufferedgreatly.

  • 11

    BasicTermsandConceptsofEngineeringEthics

    Someethicsdefinitionsandprinciples.

  • 12

    Moraladj.

    Oforconcernedwiththejudgmentofthegoodnessandbadnessofhumanactionandcharacter;pertainingtothediscernmentofgoodandevil...

    Beingoractinginaccordancewithstandardsofgoodnessorwithestablishedcodesofbehavior...(AmericanHeritage,1976)

    seekingthegood,avoidingthebad

  • 13

    Moralsn.

    Rulesofhabitorconduct...(AmericanHeritage,1976)

  • 14

    Ethicaladj.

    Of,pertainingto,ordealingwithethics... Inaccordancewiththeacceptedprinciplesofrightandwrong...

    (AmericanHeritage,1976) Synonyms:moral,virtuous,righteous

  • 15

    Ethicsn.

    Thestudyofthegeneralnatureofmorals... Mayalsoextendtothegeneralnatureofvalue,whethermoralornon

    moral(inwhichcase,itmaybecalledaxiology). Therulesorstandardsgoverningtheconductofmembersofa

    profession...(AmericanHeritage,1976) orthoseofananyindividualorgroup(e.g.,engineeringethics).

  • 16

    Valuen.

    "...thatwhichmakesanythingworthpossessingorrealizing.(Mead,TypesandProblemsofPhilosophy)

    Typesofvalue moral/ethical(+right,wrong) nonmoral,natural,metaphysical(+good,evil)

    Classificationsofnonmoralvalue intrinsic(ends) extrinsic,instrumental(means)

  • 17

    EthicalPrinciple

    Arule,law,orstandardofgoodnessormorality(i.e.,ofvalue)againstwhichaction,ortheresultofaction,istobejudged.

    Abasisforethical(moral)decisionmaking. Anethic. Amaxim. Ethicalprinciplesaresometimeslooselyreferredtoasvalues.

  • 18

    TeleologicalEthicalPrinciples:SomeEndsThatAreCandidatesfortheHighestGood

    pleasure happiness selfrealization,selfactualization nature beauty truth knowledge humanwelfare communionwithGod

  • 19

    DeontologicalEthicalPrinciples:SomePossibleRulestoLiveBy

    Donotkill. Donotsteal. Tellthetruth. Tothineownselfbetrue.(PoloniustoLaertesinHamlet,I,iii) Indutybelieve,notinthehopeforresults(BhagavadGita) Actasifthemaximfromwhichyouactweretobecometheuniversallawof

    nature.(Kantsmaximofuniversality) Dotoothersasyouwouldhavethemdotoyou.(Jesus,Sermononthe

    Mount)

  • 20

    PrinciplesofVirtue:SomeCandidateVirtues

    Wisdom Courage Selfcontrol,Temperance,Prudence Justice,fairness Faith Hope Love Honesty,Truthfulness Trustworthiness Loyalty Tolerance Competence

  • 21

    EngineeringEthicsn.

    Theexaminationofethicalissuesinengineering. Thefieldofstudywhichresultsfromthatexamination.

  • 22

    GoalsofEngineeringEthics

    Helpfostermoralautonomy. Abilitytoarriveatreasonedmoral(ethical)views. Basedonresponsivenesstoethicalprinciples(i.e.,principled).

    Helpindividualstoreasonmoreeffectivelyaboutethicalissues. Helpengineersdowhatisright.

  • 23

    Ethical(Moral)Dilemma

    Asituationinwhich either

    twoormoreethicalprinciples(orapplicationsofasingleprinciple)comeintoconflict

    ortheapplicationsofethicalprinciplesareunclear anditisnotimmediatelyobviouswhatshouldbedone.

  • ConfrontingEthicalDilemmas

    1. Summarizetheapparentdilemma.2. Gathertherelevantfacts,includingtechnicalones.3. Identifytheethicalprinciplesorapplicationsinconflict.4. Rankorweighttheethicalprinciplesbyimportance.5. Identify/developalternativecoursesofaction.6. Evaluatethealternativecoursesofactionwithrespecttotheprinciples.7. Talkwithothers.8. Choosethebestcourseofaction.

    Anengineeringcodeofethicsmaybehelpful. Keepawrittenrecordinasecureplace.

    Notetheparallelwithengineeringanalysisanddesign!

  • EthicalDilemmaAssignment

    Individualthinking&writingassignment:1. ChooseanethicaldilemmafromthelistofMIMEEthicalDilemmas(on

    theCapstonewebsite),butnotthefirstone(Toughassignment).2. ApplytheConfrontingEthicalDilemmasprocess.3. Writeashort(2pages)summaryofyouranalysis.4. TurninbynextMondayat5:00PMinDr.Funk'sdropboxinDEAR102.

    GradedP/N. Moredetailsinnextclassmeeting.

  • 26

    CodesofEngineeringEthics

    e.g., InstituteofIndustrialEngineers(IIE)CodeofEthics ASMECodeofEthicsofEngineers NationalSocietyofProfessionalEngineers(NSPE)CodeofEthicsFor

    Engineers others

  • 27

    RationaleforEngineeringEthicsCodes

    Inspirationandguidance. Support Deterrence&discipline Educationandunderstanding Noticetoothers

    Protectionofthestatusquo Promotionofbusinessinterests(?)

  • 28

    ScopeandForm

    Purpose: inspire encourage support notabasisforpunishment

    Basedonsmallsetofcommonlyheldprinciples. Shortenoughsothat

    peoplewillread. omissionsdon'tpromoteloopholes. importantpointsnotburiedindetails.

    Longanddetailedenoughtoofferrealassistance.

  • 29

    TypicalEngineeringEthicsCodePrinciples

    Truth,honesty,trustworthiness Respectforhumanlife,welfare Fairplay(justice) Openness Competence Community Respectforenvironment Respectfordemocraticprocess

  • 30

    EngineeringCodeOfEthicsEndorsedbyIIE(andformerlybyASME)

    TheFundamentalPrinciplesEngineersupholdandadvancetheintegrity,honoranddignityoftheengineeringprofessionby:1. Usingtheirknowledgeandskillfortheenhancementofhumanwelfare;2. Beinghonestandimpartial,andservingwithfidelitythepublic,their

    employersandclients;3. Strivingtoincreasethecompetenceandprestigeoftheengineering

    profession;and4. Supportingtheprofessionalandtechnicalsocietiesoftheirdisciplines.

    [ASMEscodeofethicsomitsthisone.]

  • 31

    EngineeringCodeofEthics(continued)

    TheFundamentalCanons1. Engineersshallholdparamountthesafety,healthandwelfareofthepublicintheperformanceoftheir

    professionalduties.2. Engineersshallperformservicesonlyintheareasoftheircompetence.3. Engineersshallissuepublicstatementsonlyinanobjectiveandtruthfulmanner.4. Engineersshallactinprofessionalmattersforeachemployerorclientasfaithfulagentsortrustees,and

    shallavoidconflictsofinterest.5. Engineersshallbuildtheirprofessionalreputationonthemeritoftheirservicesandshallnotcompete

    unfairlywithothers.6. Engineersshallassociateonlywithreputablepersonsororganizations.7. Engineersshallcontinuetheirprofessionaldevelopmentthroughouttheircareersandshallprovide

    opportunitiesfortheprofessionaldevelopmentofthoseengineersundertheirsupervision.

  • 32

    QuestionableElementsofaCodeofEthics

    Mattersofprofessionalcourtesy. Mattersofpublicimage. Standardsofcompensation. Constraintsoncriticismofotherengineers. Constraintsonassociationwith"disreputable"personsororganizations.

  • 33

    ApplicationofEthicsCodes

    Can'ttellwhattodoinspecificsituations. Eveniftheengineerchoosesnottofollowtheethicalcourse,

    awarenesshelpsbecause admissionhelpspreservepersonalintegrity. inthelongrun,ethicalbehaviormayprevail.

  • 34

    LimitationstoEthicsCodes

    Vague,generallanguage. Conflictingprinciples. Unclearpriorities. Cannotserveasfinalmoralauthority.

  • 35

    EngineeringEthics:Overview

    EngineeringEthicsCases BasicTermsandConceptsofEngineeringEthics SomeEthicalPrinciples EthicalDilemmas CodesofEngineeringEthics ConfrontingEthicalDilemmas InClassExercise EthicalDilemmaAssignment OtherEthicalIssuesInEngineering SomePartingPhilosophicalQuestions

Recommended

View more >