ANALYS AV MILJÖASPEKTER FÖR EN PLANERAD SVENSK 411553/FULLTEXT01.pdfINDUSTRIELL EKOLOGI KUNGLIGA TEKNISKA…

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KTH Kemiteknik

ANALYS AV MILJASPEKTER FR ENPLANERAD SVENSK FABRIK I KINA

K R I S T I N A Z A N G

ExamensarbeteStockholm 2006

Kristina Zang

EXAMENSARBETE

STOCKHOLM 2006

ANALYS AV MILJASPEKTER FR EN PLANERAD SVENSK FABRIK I KINA

HANDLEDARE OCH EXAMINATOR: LENNART NILSON

UTFRT VID

INDUSTRIELL EKOLOGI KUNGLIGA TEKNISKA HGSKOLAN

TRITA-KET-IM 2006:8 ISSN 1402-7615 Industriell Ekologi, Kungliga Tekniska Hgskolan www.ima.kth.se

i

Summary

A Swedish company, company F, will establish a new factory in China. Company F is a division within Company F. The factory in China will manufacture wire products. The purpose of this final thesis is to analyse which legal and practical measures the company has to undertake during the process of localization to get approval from the Chinese environmental legislation.

An analysis of the influencing factors on the environment from the production in the construction in Sweden was carried through. A material-balance was analysed according to the flowchart of the production. Since China is still considered a developing country, it is also still a lot different from Sweden, but it is changing rapidly. Most of the environmental laws that were studied are parts of the legal framework, which means that no exact limits or detailed guidelines are given. The company brings its cutting-edge technology, which still is new and unknown to the industrial park in China. Therefore it is too early to decide whether company F complies with the local jurisdiction in China. The company will make a thorough report on its future production to EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency, when they apply for a license for the factory. In the report they can describe the production in Sweden and compare it to its possible production in China. By presenting the demands and requirements of the EPA in Sweden given to company F by regard to its Swedish business, it can help the EPA in China getting a better idea about the production and to what extent discharge and contamination from the factory will affect the environment. To be able to plan for the long run and make the production meet the environmental standards in China, the factory must use Swedish standards from the beginning.

Two industrial parks in China were visited, one in Suzhou and the other in Wuxi. From an environmental perspective, both of the locations are good options for company F since both are high-qualitative industrial parks that already exist. Suzhou is closer to Shanghai and has its own Customs, which will benefit the company. There are companies, approved by the industrial park and the EPA, that take care of waste. They collect the waste from the factory, and send some parts to a recycling factory. After the process of recycling, it is once again delivered to the factories to produce e.g. new paper- or plastic-products. The rest of the toxic waste is sent to other places for storage, disposal and destruction. Some toxic waste collected from the factory undergoes a special process.

When company F establishes its factory in China they should pay extra attention to which location to choose and also which material of construction to use in order to avoid the hazard of fire. The lay-out must be thoroughly planned e.g. where the fire exits should be. It is imperative that education about processing and environment be given continuously. The information must reach the staff on all levels. The company must improve the technique all the time, and look for the best possible technique available. Discharge in air or water must be measured regularly, according to the standards of the local authorities. The inspections of the plant must also take place regularly.

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Sammanfattning

Ett svenskt fretag F tillsammans med andra divisioner vill etablera tillverkning lokalt i Kina. Detta examensarbetes syfte r att i samband med lokaliseringen analysera vilka legala och praktiska tgrder fretaget mste gra fr att den lokala verksamheten ska klara av de rdande krav p inre och yttre milj i Kina.

En analys av pverkande faktorer p inre och yttre milj frn produktionen i Sverige genomfrdes. En materialbalans analyserades enligt fldesschema. Eftersom Kina fortfarande r ett utvecklingsland r skillnaden mycket stor jmfrt med Sverige, men utvecklingen sker snabbt dr. De flesta miljlagar som studerades r ramlagar, vilket betyder att ingen konkret begrnsning hittades. Fretaget tar med sig sin vrldsledande teknik, vilken fortfarande r ny och oknd fr industriomrdet i Kina. Drfr r det fr tidigt att bedma om fretag F uppfyller lokala krav i Kina. Fretaget ska gra en detaljerad beskrivning av sin tnkta produktion i Kina till EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, d de sker tillstnd fr fabriken. Dr kan de beskriva sin produktion i Sverige, jmfra det med den tnkta produktionen i Kina. Genom att beskriva de krav som svenska EPA har stllt fr fretag F i Sverige, kan det hjlpa kinesiska EPA att f en bttre uppfattning om produktionen och hur mycket utslpp frn fabriken som pverkar naturen och omgivning. Fr att planera lngsiktigt och fr att produktionen ska klara miljkrav i Kina p lngre sikt, ska fabriken redan frn brjan hlla svensk standard.

Tv industriparker i Kina besktes, den ena ligger i Suzhou, den andra i Wuxi. Ur rent miljmssiga aspekter r bda industriparkerna bra alternativ fr fretag F emedan bda r hgkvalitativa, frdigutvecklade industriparker. Suzhou ligger nrmare Shanghai och har egen tull, vilket r en stor frdel fr fretaget. Det finns fretag som tar hand om avfall inom industriomrdena. Dessa r godknda av EPA och industriparken. De hmtar avfallet frn fabriken och det avfall som gr att tervinna skickas till tervinningsstation. Efter behandlingen skickas det ter till fabrikerna fr att producera t.ex. nya pappers-, plast-, eller trprodukter. Resten av det miljfarliga avfallet skickas i vg fr frbrnning och deponi. Miljfarligt avfall hmtas frn fabriken fr speciella behandlingar.

Nr fretag F bygger sin fabrik i Kina br de bl.a. vara noga med att vlja lokalisering och byggmaterial fr att undvika brandrisk. Byggnadslayouten ska vara genomtnkt, t.ex. var skerhetsutgngar ska ligga. Det r viktigt att utbildning i process- och miljfrgor sker fortlpande nr verksamheten inleds. Informationen ska n ut till personal p alla niver. Bolaget ska stndigt frbttra teknik, ska den bsta mjliga teknik som finns. Utslpp i luft och vatten ska mtas regelbundet enligt den lokala myndighetens krav. Besiktningen av bolagets anlggningar ska ske regelbundet.

I den svenska anlggningen har utslpp av oljerk frn produktionen slppts ut direkt genom taket. Nr fretag F bygger upp sin nya produktion i Kina vore det bra om de kan anvnda ngon reningsmetod fr att minska oljerkutslpp direkt i luften, t.ex. genom att anvnda reningsfilter. Fretag F br ven kontinuerligt ska miljvnligare rvaror eller nyare behandlingsmetoder fr farliga utslpp. T.ex. r xylen ett onskat mne som anvnds i produktionen, det slpps ut direkt i luften efter anvndningen. Fretaget br ska efter rvaror som kan erstta xylen, eller metoder som kan frhindra utslppet. Ett frslag r att utfra steget inom ett instngt rum.

iii

Innehllsfrteckning Summary ..................................................................................................................................... i Sammanfattning ......................................................................................................................... ii Sammanfattning ......................................................................................................................... ii 1. Inledning............................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Historik....................................................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Fretag F ............................................................................................................... 1 1.1.2 ISO 14001 , ........................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Bakgrund .................................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Syfte ................................................................................................................................. 2 1.4 Metod ............................................................................................................................... 3

2 Produktion , ........................................................................................................................ 5 2.1 Fldesschema .................................................................................................................. 5

2.1.1 Skalning................................................................................................................. 6 2.1.2 Vrmebehandling med skyddspulver .................................................................... 6 2.1.3 Dragning................................................................................................................ 7 2.1.4 Hrdning och anlpning ........................................................................................ 7 2.1.5 EC-kontroll............................................................................................................ 8 2.1.6 Packning och lagring............................................................................................. 8 2.1.7 Kyltorn .................................................................................................................. 8

2.2 Material och energifrbrukning ..................................................................................... 9 2.2.1 Rvaror .................................................................................................................. 9 2.2.2 Energi .................................................................................................................... 9

2.3 Utslpp .......................................................................................................................... 10 Mngd........................................................................................................................... 10 Kommentarer................................................................................................................ 10

2.4 Avfall.............................................................................................................................. 11 2.4.1 Avfall................................................................................................................... 11 2.4.2 Miljfarliga avfall ............................................................................................... 11

2.5 Arbetsmilj..................................................................................................................... 13 2.6 Analys och frslag p miljpolicy ................................................................................. 13

3 Anlggning i Kina ............................................................................................................ 15 3.1 Miljlagar i Kina ...................................................................................................... 15

3.1.1 Miljbalken ......................................................................................................... 15 3.1.2. Cleaner Production............................................................................................. 16

3.2 Tillstnd ........................................................................................................................ 17 3.3 Utslpp .......................................................................................................................... 18

3.3.1 Vatten ................................................................................................................. 18 3.3.2 Luft ...................................................................................................................... 19 3.3.3 Buller ................................................................................................................... 20

3.4 Geografi.......................................................................................................................... 21 3.4.1 Suzhou och Suzhou Industrial Park .................................................................... 21 3.4.2 Wuxi och Wuxi Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone ,, ................................. 22

3.5 Transport ........................................................................................................................ 23 3.5.1 Infrastruktur i Suzhou ......................................................................................... 23 3.5.2 Infrastruktur i Wuxi ............................................................................................ 23

3.6 Energi ............................................................................................................................. 24 3.6.1 Energiresurser i Suzhou ..................................................................................... 24 3.6.2 Energiresurser i Wuxi.......................................................................................... 25

iv

3.7 Avfallshantering ............................................................................................................. 26 3.7.1 Avfallshantering i Suzhou .................................................................................. 26 3.7.2 Avfallshantering i Wuxi ...................................................................................... 26

3.8 Brandmyndighet ............................................................................................................. 27 3.8.1 Brandmyndighet i Suzhou................................................................................... 27 3.8.2 Brandmyndighet i Wuxi ...................................................................................... 27

4 Diskussion ........................................................................................................................ 29 4.1 Kina Sverige.......................................................................................................... 29 4.2 Industriparker ........................................................................................................... 29

5 Slutsatser ............................................................................................................................... 31 Tack.......................................................................................................................................... 32

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1. Inledning

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