Andehit xeton - axit cacboxylic

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BAI TAP ANDEHIT

BAITAPANDEHITANDEHITCu 1: Chia hn hp 2 anehit no n chc thnh 2 phn bng nhau. t chy hon ton phn 1 thu c 0,54 gam H2O. Phn 2 cho tc dng vi H2d (h = 100%) thu c hn hp 2 ru. t chy hon ton 2 ru thu c V lt kh CO2(ktc). Gi tr ca V l

A. 0,112. B. 2,24. C. 0,672. D. 1,344.

Cu 2: Cho 10,2 gam hn hp X gm 2 anehit no (c s mol bng nhau) tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3(d) thu c 64,8 gam Ag v mui ca 2 axit hu c. Mt khc, khi cho 12,75 gam X bay hi 136,5OC v 2 atm th th tch hi thu c l 4,2 lt. Cng thc ca 2 anehit l

A. CH3-CHO v OHC-CHO. B. HCHO v OHC-CH2-CHO.

C. CH3-CHO v HCHO. D. OHC-CHO v C2H5-CHO.

Cu 3: C hai bnh mt nhn cha C2H2v . Thuc th duy nht c th nhn c 2 bnh trn l

A. dung dch AgNO3trong NH3. B. dung dch NaOH.

C. dung dch HCl. D. Cu(OH)2.

Cu 4: S lng ng phn anhit ng vi cng thc phn t C5H10O l

A. 3. B. 4. C. 5. D. 6.

Cu 5: Anehit no X c cng thc n gin nht l C2H3O. CTPT ca X l

A. C2H3O. B. C4H6O2. C. C6H9O3. D. C8H12O4.

Cu 6: Oxi ho 2,2 gam mt anehit n chc X thu c 3 gam axit tng ng (h = 100%). CTCT ca X l

A. CH3-CHO. B. CH3- CH2-CHO.

C. (CH3)2CH-CHO. D. CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO.

Cu 7: Cho 1,02 gam hn hp gm hai anehit no, n chc, mch h (khc HCHO) k tip nhau trong dy ng ng phn ng vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3d, thu c 4,32 gam Ag (h = 100%). Tn gi ca 2 anehit l

A. etanal v metanal. B. etanal v propanal.

C. propanal v butanal. D. butanal v pentanal.

Cu 8: Cho 2,3 gam hp cht hu c X (cha C, H, O) phn ng ht vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3d, to ra 10,8 gam Ag. Tn gi ca X l

A. anehit fomic. B. anehit axetic. C. axit fomic. D. anehit acrylic.

Cu 9: t chy mt hn hp anehit l ng ng, thu c a mol CO2v 18a gam H2O. Hai anehit thuc loi anehit

A. no, n chc. B. vng no, n chc.

C. no, hai chc. D. khng no c mt ni i, hai chc.

Cu 10: Khi cho 0,1 mol X (c t khi hi s vi H2ln hn 20) tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3d, thu c 43,2g Ag. X thuc loi anehit

A. n chc. B. 2 chc. C. 3 chc. D. 4 chc.

Cu 11: Hp cht hu c X un nh vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3(1:2), thu c sn phm X. Cho X tc dng vi dung dch HCl hoc dung dch NaOH u thu c kh. Cng thc cu to ca X l

A. HCOOH. B. HCHO. C. CH3COONa. D. CH3CHO.

Cu 12: Cho 0,94 g hn hp hai anehit n chc, no, k tip nhau trong dy ng ng tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3thu c 3,24 gam Ag. CTPT ca hai anehit l

A. etanal v metanal. B. etanal v propanal.

C. propanal v butanal. D. butanal v pentanal.

Cu 13: Trong cng nghip, ngi ta iu ch HCHO bng phng php

A. oxi ho CH3OH (Cu, tO). B. nhit phn (HCOO)2Ca.

C. kim ho CH2Cl2. D. kh HCOOH bng LiAlH4.

Cu 14: Cng thc tng qut ca anehit no, hai chc mch h l

A. CnH2n+2O2. B. CnH2nO2. C. CnH2n-2O2. D. CnH2n-4O2.

Cu 15: Cho 7,2 gam mt anehit no, n chc X phn ng hon ton AgNO3trong NH3thu c 21,6 gam Ag. Nu cho A tc dng vi H2(Ni, to), thu c ru n chc Y c mch nhnh. CTCT ca A l

A. (CH3)2CH-CHO. B. (CH3)2CH-CH2-CHO.

C. CH3-CH2-CH2-CHO. D. CH3-CH(CH3)-CH2-CHO.

Cu 16: Xc CTCT l Cl-CH2-CH(CH3)-CH2-CHO. Danh php IUPAC ca X l

A. 1-clo2-metyl butanal. B. 2-metylenclorua butanal.

C. 4-clo3-metyl butanal. D. 3-metyl-4-clobutanal.

Cu 17: Cho hn hp X gm 2 anehit ng ng k tip tc dng ht vi H2(Ni, tO), thu c hn hp Y. t chy hon ton Y thu c 6,6 gam CO2v 4,5 gam H2O. Cng thc phn t ca 2 anehit trong X l

A. CH4O v C2H6O. B. CH2O v C2H4O.

C. C3H6O v C4H8O. D. C3H8O v C4H10O.

Cu 18: t chy hon ton 19,2 gam hn hp X gm 2 anehit ng ng k tip thu c 17,92 lt kh CO2(ktc) v 14,4 gam H2O. Nu cho 9,6 gam X tc dng ht vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3(d) th thu c m gam Ag. Gi tr ca m l

A. 75,6. B. 151,2. C. 37,8. D. 21,6.

Cu 19: Hn hp X gm 2 anehit no n chc, mch thng, l ng ng k tip. Khi cho 3,32 gam B tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3d thu c 10,8 gam Ag. Tn gica 2 anehit trong X l

A. etanal v metanal. B. etanal v propanal.

C. propanal v butanal. D. butanal v pentanal.

Cu 20: Chuyn ho hon ton 4,2 gam anehit X mch h bng phn ng trng gng vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3d ri cho lng Ag thu c tc dng ht vi dung dch HNO3to ra 3,792 lt NO2 27oC v 740mmHg. Tn gi ca X l anehit

A. fomic. B. axetic. C. acrylic. D. oxalic.

Cu 21: X l hn hp HCHO v CH3CHO. Khi oxi ho p gam X bng O2thu c (p+1,6) gam Y gm 2 axit tng ng (h=100%). Cho p gam X tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3trong NH3d thu c 25,92 gam Ag. Phn trm khi lng HCHO trong hn hp B l

A. 14,56%. B. 85,44%. C. 73,17%. D. 26,83%.

Cu 22: X l hn hp HCHO v CH3CHO. Khi oxi ho X bng O2thu c hn hp Y gm 2 axit tng ng (h=100%). T khi hi ca Y so vi X l m. Khong gi tr ca m l

A. 1,36 < m < 1,53. B. 1,36 < m < 1,67.

C. 1,53 < m < 1,67. D. 1,67 < m < 2,33.

Cu 23: Oxi ho 53,2 gam hn hp 1 ru n chc v 1 anehit n chc thu c 1 axit hu c duy nht (h=100%). Cho lng axit ny tc dng ht vi m gam dung dch NaOH 2% v Na2CO313,25% thu c dung dch ch cha mui ca axit hu c nng 21,87%. Tn gi ca anehit ban u l

A. etanal. B. metanal. C. butanal. D. propanal.

Cu 24: t chy hon ton hn hp 3 anehit no n chc thu c 4,48 lt kh CO2(ktc). Cng lng hn hp , nu oxi ho thnh axit (h = 100%), ri ly axit to thnh em t chy hon ton th thu c m gam nc. Gi tr ca m l

A. 1,8. B. 2,7. C. 3,6. D. 5,4.

Cu 25: Cho hn hp X gm 2 anehit n chc tc dng vi H2(Ni,to) thy tn V lt H2(ktc) v thu c 2 ru no. Nu cho hn hp ru ny tc dng ht vi Na thu c 0,375V lt H2(ktc). Hn hp X gm

A. 2 anehit no. B. 2 anehit khng no.

C. 1 anehit no v 1 anehit khng no. D. 1 anehit khng no v 1 anehit thm.

Cu 26 (A-07): Cho 0,1 mol anehit X tc dng vi lng d AgNO3(hoc Ag2O) trong dung dch NH3, un nng thu c 43,2 gam Ag. Hiro ho X c Y, bit 0,1 mol Y phn ng va vi 4,6 gam Na. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l

A. HCHO. B. CH3CH(OH)CHO. OHC-CHO. D. CH3CHO.

Cu 27 (A-07): Cho 6,6 gam mt anehit X n chc, mch h tc dng vi lng d AgNO3(hoc Ag2O) trong dung dch NH3, un nng. Lng Ag sinh ra cho phn ng ht vi HNO3thot ra 2,24 lt kh NO duy nht (ktc). Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l

A. CH3CHO. B. HCHO. C. CH2=CHCHO. D. CH3CH2CHO.

Cu 28 (A-07): Dy gm cc cht u tc dng vi AgNO3trong dung dch NH3l

A. anehit axetic, but-1-in, etilen. B. anehit fomic, axetilen, etilen.

C. anehit axetic, but-2-in, axetilen. D. axit fomic, vinylaxetilen, propin.

Cu 29 (B-07): t chy hon ton a mol mt anehit X mch h to ra b mol CO2v c mol H2O (bit b = a + c). Trong phn ng trng gng, mt phn t X ch cho 2 electron. X thuc dy ng ng anehit

A. no, hai chc. B. no, n chc.

C. khng no c hai ni i, n chc. D. khng no c mt ni i, n chc.

Cu 30 (B-07): Khi oxi ho 2,2 gam mt anehit n chc thu c 3 gam axit tng ng. Cng thc ca anehit l

A. C2H3CHO. B. CH3CHO. C. HCHO. D. C2H5CHO.

ANHYT XTON

1) t chay hoan toan cht hu c A mach h, thy sinh ra CO2va H2O co s mol bng nhau. S mol O2p gp 4 ln s mol A em t. Xac inh CTPT CTCT co th co cua A. Goi tn A, bit A + H2cho ru B n chc bc I.

2) 1. T metan /c nha phenol fomaldehyt; 2. T a va than a /c al-bazic; 3. T butan /c propenal; 4. T tinh bt /c alehyt fomic.

3) A la cht hu c chi cha 1 loai nhom chc, co mach cacbon khng phn nhanh, trong o oxi chim 37,21% klg. Khi cho 1 mol A tac dung vi dd AgNO3/NH3d c 4 mol Ag. CTCT cua A? T A /c cao su buna.

4) Cho 8,6g ankanal (A) p hoan toan dd AgNO3/NH3cho 1 axit hu c (C) va 21,6g Ag. a) CTPT A; b) Cho hh gm A va 1 B nho hn A 2 nguyn t cacbon tac dung vi H2d xt Ni c 8,28g ru. Mt khac cung lng hh trn nu em t chay c 19,8g CO2. Tinh klg hh trn.

5) 11,6g anhyt n no (A) co s cacbon ln hn 1 p hoan toan vi dd AgNO3/NH3d. Toan b lng Ag sinh ra cho vao dd HNO3c nong sau p xay ra hoan toan ta thy khi lng dd tng them 24,8g. Tim CTCT cua A.

6) Oxi hoa x gam ru etylic bng O2(KK) co xt Cu thanh aldehyt tng ng. Nu ly hh sau p tac dung Na d cho 0,336 lit khi (kc). Nu cho hh tac dung AgNO3trong NH3d c 43,2g Ag. a) Tinh x; b) Tinh H p oxi hoa; c) Nu H p tng 10% thi th tich H2tng hay giam bao nhiu lit.

7) 10,2g hh 2 aldehyt n no (A), (B) k tip nhau tac dung dd AgNO3/NH3cho 43,2g Ag va 2 axit hu c tng ng. a) Nu em hh trn t chay hoan toan. Tinh VCO2(kc)? Va mH2Othu c; b) Tim CTPT A, B.

8) Cho bay hi 2,9g 1 cht hu c (X) chi cha 1 loai nhom chc ta thu c 2,24 lit khi X (109,20C, 0,7atm). Mt khac cho 5,8g X tac dung dd AgNO3/NH3d thy tao thanh 43,2g Ag. CTPT CTCT Goi tn (X).

9) A, B la hp cht hu c (X) chi cha 1 loai nhom chc. Trong o A co thanh phn khi lng mC: mH: mO= 1,5 : 0,25 : 2. Con khi t B thi ti l mol nCO2: nH2O: nO2= 2 : 1 : 1,5. a) Tim CTN A, B; b) Tim CTPT, CTCT cua A, B. Bit 1 mol A hay 1 mol B tac dung vi dd AgNO3/NH3u cho A mol Ag; c) Vit ptp /c A, B t CH4.

10) Cho 2,4g (X) tac dung hoan toan dd AgNO3/NH3(d) thu c 7,2g Ag. CTPT X. T CH4/c (X).

11) Mt hh khi (X) gm 2 khi axetylen va propin co d/H2= 15,8. Cho 2,24 khi (X) (kc) tac dung vi H2O, k thich hp c hh 2 san phm, sau o cho tac dung dd AgNO3/NH3d thi c 10,8g Ag. Hn hp khi X con lai sau phan ng hp nc dn qua dd Brm d thy binh tng ln 0,66g. a) Tinh % V khi trong hh X. b) Tinh H p hp nc cua mi hydrocacbon.

12) Mt hh khi X gm ankanal (A) va H2. t 1,12 lit (X) (kc) cho 2,64g CO2va 1,62g H2O. Mt khac nu dn hh X trn qua Ni nong c hh Y. dY/H2= 20. a) Tinh % VA, H2trong hh X. b) CTPT cua A va ti l A tham gia p cng hydro.

13) Cho 0,1mol andehyt (A) co mach cacbon khng phn nhanh tac dung hoan toan vi hydro, thy cn dung 6,72 lit H2(kc) va thu c cht hu c (B). Cho lng B nay tac dung vi Na d thi thu c 2,24 lit khi (kc). Mt khac, nu ly 8,4g (A) tac dung vi dd AgNO3/NH3d thi c hh X gm 2 mui va 43,2g Ag. a) CTCT A, B. b) Tinh khi lng hh mui?

14) Chia 11,36g hh 2 andehyt n chc lam 2 phn bng nhau: t chay phn 1 ta c 12,32g CO2va 3,6g H2O P2 cho tac dung dd AgNO3/NH3d c 34,56g Ag. CTPT 2 andehyt a cho.

15) Oxi hoa 53,2g hh mt ru n chc va mt andehyt n chc, ta thu c mt axit hu c duy nht (H = 100%). Cho lng axit nay tac dung ht vi m gam dd hh NaOH 2% va Na2CO313,25% thu c dd chi cha mui cua axit hu c nng 21,87%. a) CTPT cua ru va andehyt ban u. b) Hoi m co gia tri trong khoang nao? c) Cho m = 400g. Tinh % klg ru va andehyt trong hh u.

16) Hai cht hu c no mach h A, B cung cha C, H, O. a) Cho vao binh kin 0,01mol cht long A vi lng O2va u t chay ht A. Sauk hi t chay hoan toan, thy s mol khi giam 0,01mol so vi s mol trc phan ng. Xac inh CTPT A, bit A cha 1 nguyn t oxi. b) Bng dd feling, oxi hoa 3,48g (A) thanh axit (C). Toan b lng (C) tao thanh c trn vi (B) theo ti l nC: nB= 2 : 1. trung hoa hh thu c phai dung ht 25,42ml dd NaOH 16% (d = 1,18). Tim CTCT A, B. Bit B khng bi thuy phn

BAI TAPAXITCACBOXILICCu 1: t chy hon ton 0,1 mol hn hp X gm 2 axit cacboxylic ng ng k tip thu c 6,16 gam CO2v 2,52 gam H2O. Cng thc ca 2 axit l

A. CH3COOH v C2H5COOH. B. C2H3COOH v C3H5COOH.

C. HCOOH v CH3COOH. D. C2H5COOH v C3H7COOH.

Cu 2: Chia 0,6 mol hn hp 2 axit no thnh 2 phn bng nhau. Phn 1 t chy hon ton thu c 11,2 lt kh CO2(ktc). Phn 2 tc dng va vi 500 ml dung dch NaOH 1M. Cng thc cu to ca 2 axit ban u l

A. CH3-COOH v CH2=CH-COOH. B. H-COOH v HOOC-COOH.

C. CH3-COOH v HOOC-COOH. D. H-COOH v CH3-CH2-COOH.

Cu 3: Cng thc chung ca axit cacboxylic no, n chc, mch h l

A. CnH2nO2. B. CnH2n+2O2. C. CnH2n+1O2. D. CnH2n-1O2.

Cu 4: Cng thc chung axit cacboxylic no, a chc, mch h l

A. CnH2n-m(COOH)m. B. CnH2n+2-m(COOH)m.

C. CnH2n+1(COOH)m D. CnH2n-1(COOH)mCu 5: C4H8O2c s ng phn axit l

A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4.

Cu 6: Trn 20 gam dung dch axit n chc X 23% vi 50 gam dung dch axit n chc Y 20,64% thu c dung dch D. trung ho D cn 200 ml dung dch NaOH 1,1M. Bit rng D tham gia phn ng trng gng. Cng thc ca X v Y tng ng l

A. HCOOH v C2H3COOH. B. C3H7COOH v HCOOH.

C. C3H5COOH v HCOOH. D. HCOOH v C3H5COOH.

Cu 7: Axit icacboxylic mch thng c phn trm khi lng ca cc nguyn t tng ng l % C = 45,46%, %H = 6,06%, %O = 48,49%. Cng thc cu to ca axit l

A. HOOC-COOH. B. HOOC-CH2-COOH.

C. HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH. D. HOOC-CH2-CH2-CH2-COOH.

Cu 8: Axit X mch thng, c cng thc thc nghim (C3H5O2)n. Cng thc cu to ca X l

A. C2H4COOH. B. HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH.

C. CH3CH2CH(COOH)CH2COOH. D. HOOCCH2CH(CH3)CH2COOH

Cu 9: trung ho 8,8 gam mt axit cacboxylic mch thng thuc dy ng ng ca axit fomic cn 100ml dung dch NaOH 1M. Cng thc cu to ca axit l

A. CH3COOH. B. CH3(CH2)2COOH. C. CH3(CH2)3COOH. D. CH3CH2COOH.

Cu 10: X, Y l 2 axit no, n chc, mch h, k tip nhau trong dy ng ng. Cho hn hp A gm 4,6 gam X v 6,0 gam Y tc dng ht vi Na thu c 2,24 lt kh H2(ktc). Cng thc phn t ca X v Y ln lt l

A. CH2O2v C2H4O2. B. C2H4O2v C3H6O2.

C. C3H6O2v C4H8O2. D. C4H8O2v C5H10O2.

Cu 11: t chy hon ton 0,1 mol hn hp 2 axit cacboxylic l ng ng k tip thu c 3,36 lt CO2(ktc) v 2,7 gam H2O. Cng thc phn t ca chng l

A. C2H4O2v C3H6O2. B. C3H6O2v C4H8O2.

C. CH2O2v C2H4O2. D. C3H4O2v C4H6O2.

Cu 12: t chy hon ton 0,1 mol hn hp 2 axit cacboxylic l ng ng k tip thu c 3,36 lt CO2(ktc) v 2,7 gam H2O. S mol ca mi axit ln lt l

A. 0,05 v 0,05. B. 0,045 v 0,055. C. 0,04 v 0,06. D. 0,06 v 0,04.

Cu 13: Cho 14,8 gam hn hp 2 axit hu c no, n chc tc dng vi lng va Na2CO3to thnh 2,24 lt kh CO2(ktc). Khi lng mi mui thu c l

A. 23,2. B. 21,2. C. 20,2. D. 19,2.

Cu 14: Mt hn hp hai axit hu c c phn ng trng gng. Axit c khi lng phn t ln khi tc dng vi Cl2(as) thu c ba sn phm monoclo. Cng thc ca hai axit l

A. CH3COOH v HCOOH. B. CH3COOH v HOOC-COOH.

C. HCOOH v CH3(CH2)2COOH. D. HCOOH v (CH3)2CHCOOH.

Cu 15: Trung ho 9 gam mt axit n chc bng lng va NaOH thu c 12,3 gam mui. Cng thc cu to ca axit l

A. HCOOH. B. CH2=CHCOOH. C. CH3COOH. D. CH3CH2COOH.

Cu 16: Cng thc thc nghim ca mt axit no, a chc l (C3H4O3)n. Cng thc phn t ca axit l

A. C6H8O6. B. C3H4O3. C. C9H12O8. D. C3H4O4.

Cu 17: t chy hon ton mt axit hu c ta thu c: nCO2= nH2O. Axit l

A. axit hu c c hai chc, cha no. B. axit vng no.

C. axit n chc, no. D. axit n chc, cha no.

Cu 18: Trong cc ng phn axit C5H10O2. S lng ng phn khi tc dng vi Cl2(as) ch cho mt sn phm th monoclo duy nht (theo t l 1:1) l

A. 4. B. 2. C. 3. D. 1.

Cu 19: t chy hon ton 1,44 gam mui ca axit hu c thm n chc ta thu c 0,53 gam Na2CO3v 1,456 lt kh CO2(ktc) v 0,45 gam H2O. CTCT ca mui axit thm l

A. C6H5CH2COONa. B. C6H5COONa.

C. C6H5CH2CH2COONa. D. C6H5CH(CH3)COONa.

Cu 20: X l axit hu c tho mn iu kin:

m gam X + NaHCO3 x mol CO2v m gam X + O2 x mol CO2. Axit X l

A. CH3COOH. B. HOOC-COOH.

C. CH3C6H3(COOH)2. D. CH3CH2COOH.

Cu 21: Cho 5,76g axit hu c n chc X tc dng ht vi CaCO3d, thu c 7,28g mui. Tn gi ca X l

A. axit fomic B. axit axetic C. axit butyric. D. axit acrylic.

Cu 22: trung ho a gam hn hp X gm 2 axit no, n chc, mch thng l ng ng k tip cn 100 ml dung dch NaOH 0,3M. Mt khc, t chy hon ton a gam X thu c b gam nc v (b+3,64) gam CO2. Cng thc phn t ca 2 axit l

A. CH2O2v C2H4O2. B. C2H4O2v C3H6O2.

C. C3H6O2v C4H8O2. D. C4H8O2v C5H10O2.

Cu 23: Thc hin phn ng este ho m gam CH3COOH bng mt lng va C2H5OH (xc tc H2SO4c, un nng) thu c 1,76 gam este (h=100%). Gi tr ca m l

A. 2,1. B. 1,1. C. 1,2. D. 1,4.

Cu 24: Hn hp X gm 1 axit no n chc v 2 axit khng no n chc c 1 lin kt i, l ng ng k tip nhau. Cho X tc dng va...