Anxiety and Panic - Thomas Kalpakoglou

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ΑΓΧΏΔΕΙΣ ΔΙΑΤΑΡΑΧΕΣ

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  • pdf

    2013

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    pdf 2013:

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    , .

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    pdf

    7

    8

    1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3.

    1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.3.3.

    1.4.

    9

    10 12 14 15 16 18

    21

    2. : 2.1.

    2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. .

    2.2.

    2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4.

    2.3.

    22

    22 22 25 27

    29 29 34 37 38

    39

    3. - 3.1. - :

    3.1.1. - Ellis 3.1.2. Meichenbaum 3.1.3. Beck

    3.2. - 3.3. - 3.4. - 3.5. 3.6.

    44

    44 46 47 48 49 51 51 53 54

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    4. - : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    56

    58 63 69 72 73 76 79 80 84 85

    90

    105

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    pdf : 1997 . , . . . . , , . , . , . , . , , . , , , , . , . . pdf , . , . , . , , .

    2013

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    - . , . , . . (), , , . , , . , . , . , . , , . . , .

    1997

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    1

    , , . , , , , . . , , , . , , , . , . , ' ( ) , . , . , 1993, Aaron Tim Beck . , .

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    ' . - - : . , - . 1.1. Hoehn-Saric & McLeod (1988, Freeman , 1990) (). , , : () , () , () , () . Lazarus (1966) Bandura (1977), Aaron Tim Beck (Beck & Emery, 1985) (Clark & Beck, 1988). , (Blackburn & Davidson, 1990). , . (. , , ) : () , () , () (Clark & Beck, 1988). Clark Beck (1988) (anxiety program) . . , : () () , () , () . , ( ) . Clark Beck , , , , . , (

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    ) , . , , . , Blackburn Davidson (1990), : (stimulus), (mediation) (response). ( , , ..) (, ..) (. ). Ingram Kendall (1987)1 (taxonomic system) . :

    1. (cognitive propositions), () .

    2. (cognitive schemata), .

    3. (cognitive operations), (, ) .

    4. (cognitive products), .

    Ingram Kendall, (critical psychopathological features), , (common psychopathological features) , (error variance) . ' , (expression of a given disorder). Clark Beck (1989), (information-processing models), . Beck, , . Clark Beck : (1) , (2) , (3) () , , (4)

    1 Kendall & Ingram (1987), Kendall & Hollon (1989).

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    . 1.2. (Clark & Beck, 1989). , . Clark Beck (1989), . () , . . , , , . , , , (Beck, 1987, Clark & Beck, 1989, Blackburn & Davidson, 1990). Clark Beck (1989) , (mode). , ( ). , . , . , , . Kendall Ingram (1987, 1989), , . : , . ' , , , . , Buss (1980) - (private self-awareness), , , - (public self-

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    awareness), . , ( , , , , .). , , (Clark & Beck, 1988). , , (). , , . , Hampl, Scott, Carmin Fleming (1990), , , . , , - (rational-emotive therapy) Ellis (1962). Ellis (1988)2 :

    (demand statements): , . , , . , , .

    (catastrophizing beliefs): . , .

    (Low frustration tolerance): .

    (Rating statements): , .

    (Overgeneralizing about the future): . , .

    2 Ellis & Yeager (1989)

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    1.3. , , . , , , , (Endler & Parker, 1990). , , ( ) . (negative bias) : (1) , (2) , , , (3) , (Rehm, 1989). , Blackburn Davidson (1990), , (anxiogenic cognitive triad), :

    ( , , , )

    ( , , ),

    ( ).

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    3, , , :

    (arbitrary inference)

    .

    (selective abstraction)

    .

    (overgeneralization)

    , .

    & (magnification & minimization)

    ( ).

    (personalization)

    .

    (absolute dichotomous thinking)

    -.

    1.3.1. (self-preoccupation) . , (Sarason, 1988)4. ( ) :

    . , ,

    3 . Beck, Rush, Shaw & Emery (1979), Beck & Emery (1985), Clark & Beck (1989), Blackburn & Davidson

    (1990), Freeman .. (1990). 4 Sarason .. (1990).

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    . , . , , , (. 3, Sarason, 1988).

    , , . , 5. 1.3.2. Williams .. (1988), , . , () (attentional bias) , . . Mathews MacLeod (1985) . , . , Mathews MacLeod (1986) , . , , , . , . (Brewin, 1988). Martin, Williams Clark (1991)

    5 , - (self-focused attention, Ingram 1990) .

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    . , 6, . MacLeod Hagan (1992), . Macleod Rutherford (1992), , :

    7, 8 , , (. 490).

    , ( ) , , ( ) . Mathews Klug (1993) (. 61). (visual attentional bias) o MacLeod, Mathews Tata (1986). , , . , , , . (. Mathews & MacLeod, 1985). ( ) , . (Mathews, Richards & Eysenk 1989). ,

    6 Mogg Mathews (1990), Mogg, Mathews,

    Bird, Macgregor Morris (1990). 7 (trait anxiety). 8 (state anxiety).

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    9 (memory bias). Mogg, Mathews Weinman (1987), , , , , . Mogg Mathews (1990). Greenberg Alloy (1989), , . , , (). , . Mogg .. (1987) :

    , . , , () (. 97).

    , . 1.3.3. . Edelmann (1985) . : () , () , () . , ,

    9 . Teasdale & Fogarty (1979), Kuiper & Derry (1982), Fogarty & Hemsley (1983), Powell & Hemsley (1984), Clifford & Hemsley (1987), Mogg & Mathews (1990).

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    . . Baumeister & Tice (1990) . (need to belong) . (social exclusion). , . (social inclusion) . . (fear of negative evaluation), (fear of embarrassment) (fear of rejection). , , , . , Brewin (1988) , : . , . , . Turner, McCanna Beidel (1987) (Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, SAD) (Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, FNE) . . Sanderson, Di Nardo, Rapee Barlow (1990) . DSM-III-R10 , , . ( ) . , , , , . , ,

    10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, American Psychiatric Association (1987).

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    . , - (self-talk). Kendall & Ingram (1987) - (internal dialogue) . , , . , , . Kendall Ingram (1987)11 , . :

    - . , - , . , / (. 99).

    Blackburn Davidson (1990)12, , :

    1. (autonomous) , , .

    2. (sociotropic) , , , .

    ( ) , . , , , , .

    11 . Kendall & Hollon (1989), Kendall, Howard & Hays (1989). 12 . Beck, Epstein & Harrison (1983) Clark & Beck (1989).

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    Zane & Milt (1984)13 :

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    ( ) (Gurtman & Martin, 1990, Emery & Tracy, 1987). Turner Beidel (1985), , , . Shostak Peterson (1990) . , , . 1.4. Beck Emery (1985) , ( ) . , . , (Clark & Beck, 1989). , (Emery & Tracy, 1987). , ( ) (Beck, 1976; Blackburn & Davidson, 1990).

    13 Emery & Tracy (1987).

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    2

    : () () . , . , , DSM-III-R DSM-IV14,15. 2.1. , , (. ). , . 2.1.1. , , , , , , , , , .. (Reber, 1985). , , (Reid & Wise, 1989). , . (Barlow ., 1984, Weissman, 1990). 14

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, American Psychiatric Association (1994). 15 DSM DSM-III-R. . (1988).

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    DSM-III-R () ( )

    . ,

    ( ) ( ), , ( ). , , . () I, . , ( ), ( ), ( - ) ( ). () . () 6 18 ( ):

    , ,

    , ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    (),

    ,

    ,

    ,

    , ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    () ,

    ,

    ,

    (),

    . ()

    .

    , , . DSM-IV () , 6 , (

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    ). () . () ( ) ( ) (.: ):

    () ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ( (), ).

    () I. , ( ), ( ), ( - ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), . () , , , . () (.. , ) (.. ), , , .

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    . : Kalpakoglou (1993)

    2.1.2. , (Taylor & Arnow, 1988). (Sanderson & Barlow, 1990). : () ,

    2.23

    2.06

    1.8

    1.14

    2.6

    1

    1.17

    1.34

    1.51

    1.46

    1.69

    1.94

    1.86

    1

    2.51

    2.2

    2.2

    1.57

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

    ,

    (min=0, max=4, N=35)

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    / . () . () , , , , (Deffenbacher & Suinn, 1987). , . , . Barlow (1988) :

    , . , , , , . : . , , , . , , . , (). , . , ( ) (. 579-580).

    , ( ) . , , , (. 2.1.3). , Butler, Gelder, Hibbert, Cullington limes (1987) . Barlow (1988a) . , Sanderson Barlow (1990)

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    . , . , ( ) . 2.1.3. . DSM-III-R DSM-IV, (worry) ( ) 16. Thomas Borkovec , (Barlow, 1990). Borkovec (1983):

    , . , . , (. 10).

    : () () , , , () , () . , Pruzinsky & Borkovec (1990) , . , , . , Mathews (1990) ( ). , , : (1) , (2)

    16 . Craske, Rapee, Jackel & Barlow (1989), Meyer .. (1990), Sanderson & Barlow (1990) Brown, Antony & Barlow (1992).

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    , (3) . . , . , (Mathews 1990). . , , ' (Mathews 1990). , , Borkovec & Inz (1990) . . . (Deffenbacher & Suinn, 1987, Gasperini, Battaglia, Diaferia & Bellodi, 1990, Vasey & Borkovec, 1992). , Gross Eifert (1990) , . ( ) . , ( ), . . , Gross Eifert 17.

    17

    (anxiety sensitivity) .

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    2.2. . Klein , (Salkovskis, 1988). , . 2.2.1. ( )...