Arilar Meseli - The Fable of the Bees

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Bernard Mandeville'in "Homurdana Kovan veya Dzenbazn Drstl" adl manzumesinin Trke evirisi. Turkish translation of Bernard Mandeville's poem "The Grumbling Hive or Knaves Turn'd Honest."

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<p>1 / 18</p> <p>BERNARD MANDEVILLE VE ARILAR MESEL N. Ekrem Dzen SUNU Bernard Mandeville, bir siyasi ahlak kuramcs. Makyavel kadar yaygn bir ne sahip olmamakla birlikte baz siyaset bilimcilerin gznde kymeti ondan aa deil. Merkantilist adan kapitalist aa gei evresinde (17. yzyl sonu, 18. yzyl ba) yaam, asl meslei hekimlik olan, zanaatkr-lim-filozof kuann son fertlerinden. 1705 tarihli Arlar Meseli, zamann toplumsal yaayna ilikin bir zmleme, eletiri ve kuram metni. Bu eser, siyasi g ve ekonomik refahn varolma ve srdrlme koullarnn ahlak dizgeleriyle iieliinden hareketle, ahlaki erevenin de siyasi g ve ekonomik refahn belirleyicisi olduu, giderek olmas gerektii dncesini iletiyor. Dolaysyla, bazen ak bazen rtk olarak, ahlaki dzenleme faaliyetini, temel dzenleyici unsur olarak ne karyor. Mandeville, Arlar Meselinin banda, eserinin ana fikrini Homurdanan Kovan veya Dzenbazn Drstl adn verdii bir manzumeyle zetlemi. Kitabn bandaki bu manzum blm, bir eviri merakls iin balbana bir macera davetiyesi. Ben bu davete ne yalan syleyeyim, biraz da ocuka bir meydan okuma drtsyle icabet etmek istedim. Bu eviri, birebir szlk anlam kullanmaktan syleyi zelliine gre yeniden yazmaya dek pek ok eviri yaklamn ayn anda barndryor. Farkl yaklamlardan birini seerek btn manzumeyi evirmek bana mmkn grnmedi. Bununla birlikte, zgn anlam kaybedecek denli zenginletirme ya da fakirletirme yapmamaya ve dizelerin srasn olabildiince bozmamaya altm. Mellife sadakatim samimidir, lakin muhtemelen drtlerime yenilmiliim daha oktur. Manzumeyi kendi bana bir btn olarak grmek mmkn. Bu yzden kitabn evirisini beklemeden manzumenin evirisini yaynlamann sakncas olmayacan dnyorum. Bu ekilde hem Mandevillei hem eserini nceden tanmak mmkn olacak. eviri, sol stunda zgn ngilizce manzume, sa stunda Trkesi olacak ekilde sunuluyor. Mandevillein kendi sunuunu da manzumenin hemen nnde bulacaksnz. Eer Mandevillein satirik slubunu yanstabildiysem, okur baz dizeleri okurken ironiyle glmserse, ok mutlu olacam. Kusurlarm iaret eden olur ise bam stne Teekkr: nce bu manzumeyle karlamama sebep olan Erkan Uzun, Ebru Akman, ve Fisun Demire, sonra da eviriyi okuyarak, neriler gelitirerek, benim yksek sesle okumalarma tebessmle tahamml gstererek katkda bulunan herkese ok teekkr ederim: zgr Erba, Kerem Kandemir, Nil Mutluer, ala Glol, Ahmet Tosun, Suat zada, Belgin Zorlu, Murat Ba, Nezih Dzen, Yudit Namer, Sevgi Can Yac Aksel, Ebru Turgut.</p> <p>2 / 18</p> <p>ARILAR MESEL MANEDVILLEIN SUNUU Sadece ok az sayda insann kendisini anlayabilmesinin en byk nedenlerinden biri, yazarlarn ounun insanlara ne olmalar gerektiini sylemesidir; ama onlara gerekte ne olduklarn sylemeyi pek dert etmezler. Kendi adma, saygn okuyucuyu veya kendimi kayrmakszn, inanyorum ki insan (gze ak olan etin ve kemiin yansra) pek ok arzunun bir bileimidir; bu arzularn her biri, sras geldiinde harekete geip ste ktnda, kii istesin ya da istemesin, onu hkmne alr. Gya utandmz bu vasflarn, toplumun byyp gelimesine byk katkda bulunduunu gstermek buradaki manzumenin konusunu oluturuyor. Ancak, manzume boyunca paradoks arz eder gibi grnen blmler iin giri ksmnda baz aklayc notlar bulacaksnz; daha yararl hale getirmek zere, insann, kusurlarna ramen, erdemle taksiri ayrmay renmek iin bundan daha iyi bir donanma sahip olmadn gstermeye uygun dtne inandm bir aklama: Ve burada okuyucudan unu aklndan hi karmamasn istirham ediyorum; nsan demekle Yahudileri ya da Hristiyanlar deil, sadece nsan kastediyorum; olduu haliyle ve btndan habersiz olan.</p> <p>3 / 18</p> <p>THE GRUMBLING HIVE OR, KNAVES TURND HONEST A Spacious Hive well stockd with Bees, That livd in Luxury and Ease; And yet as famd for Laws and Arms, As yielding large and early Swarms; Was counted the great Nursery Of Sciences and Industry. No Bees had better Government, More Fickleness, or less Content: They were not Slaves to Tyranny, Nor ruld by wild Democracy; But Kings, that could not wrong, because Their Power was circumscribd by Laws. </p> <p>HOMURDANAN KOVAN VEYA, DZENBAZIN DRSTL KOCA bir kovan vard, arlarla dopdolu, Rahatlk ve kolaylktan geerdi hayat yolu; nlenmilerdi kanun ve kuvvet sermekle, Byk ve gen oullar vermekle. Herkes bilirdi o byk kuca, Bilimlerin ve sanatlarn oca. Bundan iyi hkmet grmedi hibir ar, Ne daha mutlu oldu ne daha uar, Despotlua boyun eip klelie inmediler, Lakin ham demokrasiyle de yetinmediler; Krallar vard ki yanl yapmazlard ktidar eviren kanundan sapmazlard. </p> <p>4 / 18</p> <p>T H E S E Insects livd like Men, and all Our Actions they performd in small: They did whatevers done in Town, And what belongs to Sword or Gown: Tho th Artful Works, by nimble Slight Of minute Limbs, scapd Human Sight; Yet weve no Engines, Labourers, Ships, Castles, Arms, Artificers, Craft, Science, Shop, or Instrument, But they had an Equivalent: Which, since their Language is unknown, Must be calld, as we do our own. As grant, that among other Things, They wanted Dice, yet they had Kings; And those had Guards; from whence we may Justly conclude, they had some Play; Unless a Regiment be shewn Of Soldiers, that make use of none. VA S T Numbers throngd the fruitful Hive; Yet those vast Numbers made em thrive; Millions endeavouring to supply Each others Lust and Vanity; While other Millions were employd, To see their Handy-works destroyd; They furnishd half the Universe; Yet had more Work than Labourers. Some with vast Stocks, and little Pains, Jumpd into Business of great Gains; And some were damnd to Sythes and Spades, And all those hard laborious Trades;</p> <p>TIPKI insanlar gibiydi arlarn yaam Bizden narin tavrlarla ederlerdi akam: Ne yaplrsa bir kentte, o yaplrd bu kovanda, Cppe giyen de vard elbet, kl kuanan da: Minik eklemlerin minik hareketleri yznden, Kam olsa da hnerli ileri insann gznden; Bizde nasl varsa silahlar ve makineler, Ustalar, ordular, kaleler ve tekneler, Alet-edevat, zanaat, ticaret ve bilim, Onlarda da vard bunlara e bir ilim: Ama bilmediimiz iin dillerini, Bizde naslsa yle anmal fiillerini. Nimetler arasndan bir ksmet ararken Krallar geti baa, talihe adres sorarken Eh, stne kraln muhafzlarn da koyun, Demek ki var bu iin iinde bir oyun; Meer ki ksn ortaya bir tmen nk asker ne muhafz tanr ne dmen. YIINLAR bereketli kovana dolutu, Ve kalabalkla birlikte bolluk, refah olutu; Milyonlar ortaya koydu kuvvetini, Doyurmaya birbirinin kibrini, ehvetini; Baka milyonlar da baka ilere girecekti, Ve yaptklarnn nasl ykldn grecekti; Donattlar dnyann yarsn; ancak, iden daha ok i vard yapacak. Kiminin ok mal vard, ie atld, Az bir abayla kazancna kazan katld; Kimi mahkm oldu kazma krek bana, Ve zahmetli uralardan gelen bulgur ana;</p> <p>5 / 18</p> <p>Where willing Wretches daily sweat, And wear out Strength and Limbs to eat: While others followd Mysteries, To which few Folks bind Prentices; That want no Stock, but that of Brass, And may set up without a Cross; As Sharpers, Parasites, Pimps, Players, Pick-pockets, Coiners, Quacks, South-sayers, And all those, that in Enmity, With downright Working, cunningly Convert to their own Use the Labour Of their good-naturd heedless Neighbour. These were calld Knaves, but bar the Name, The grave Industrious were the same: All Trades and Places knew some Cheat, No Calling was without Deceit. T H E Lawyers, of whose Art the Basis Was raising Feuds and splitting Cases, Opposd all Registers, that Cheats Might make more Work with dipt Estates; As wert unlawful, that ones own, Without a Law-Suit, should be known. They kept off Hearings wilfully, To finger the refreshing Fee; And to defend a wicked Cause, Examind and surveyd the Laws, As Burglars Shops and Houses do, To find out where theyd best break through. </p> <p>Heveskr biareler her gn dkerken ter, Tkenirken kollarda derman, gzlerde fer: Bazlar dt esrarl sanatlara, Herkesin rak vermedii zanaatlara; Mangrdayd gzleri, mal deildi onlarn niyaz, Ve pekl abdestsiz de klarlard namaz; Dolandrclar, sahtekrlar, pezevenkler, arlatanlar, ktlar, yankesiciler, falclar, kalpazanlar, te bunlarn hepsi, kin gderdi, Doru drst alana, hinlik ederdi, evirip kendi usulne iin gereini, Kullanrd iyi huylu safdil komunun emeini. Dzenbazd bunlar, ama dikkatle anmal bu ismi, alkann da ayn hamurdan yorulmutu cismi: Her imalat ve ticaret bilirdi biraz alavere, Hibir i yoktu ki olmasn iinde dalavere. AVUKATLARn meslek icab abalar, Anlamazlk kartmak ve oaltmakt davalar; Kayda kuyda aldrmazlard, nk oyun ve hile Daha ok i yapard ipotek dairesinden bile; Gya kanunsuz deildi takip fasl, Naslsa mahkemesiz kmazd iin asl. Kasten savsaklayp durdular celseleri, celpleri, cretleri ykseltip iirmek iin cepleri; Ve habis bir davay getirmek iin oyuna, Kanunlar didikleyip detiler enine boyuna; Hrsz ev gzetler gibi izlediler her loluu, Bulmak iin girilecek zayf boluu. </p> <p>6 / 18</p> <p>P H Y S I C I A N S valud Fame and Wealth Above the drooping Patients Health, Or their own Skill: The greatest Part Studyd, instead of Rules of Art, Grave pensive Looks and dull Behaviour, To gain th Apothecarys Favour; The Praise of Midwives, Priests, and all That servd at Birth or Funeral. To bear with th ever-talking Tribe, And hear my Ladys Aunt prescribe; With formal Smile, and kind How dye, To fawn on all the Family; And, which of all the greatest Curse is, Tendure th Impertinence of Nurses. A M O N G the many Priests of Jove, Hird to draw Blessings from Above, Some few were Learnd and Eloquent, But thousands Hot and Ignorant: Yet all passd Muster that could hide Their Sloth, Lust, Avarice and Pride; For which they were as famd as Tailors For Cabbage, or for Brandy Sailors: Some, meagre-lookd, and meanly clad, Would mystically pray for Bread, Meaning by that an ample Store, Yet litrally received no more; And, while these holy Drudges starvd, The lazy Ones, for which they servd, Indulgd their Ease, with all the Graces Of Health and Plenty in their Faces. </p> <p>DOKTORLARn ad san pek saygn, Hastalarn dermanszlndan da yaygn; Hatta marifetlerinden: Pek ok defa Rol kestiler; sanatlar vermedi bir ifa. Tavrlar kuru ve skc, baklar baygn ve kayk, Olmak iin eczacnn vgsne layk, Ve ebe ile rahibin iltifatna mazhar, Onlar ki ya beik bandadr ya mezar. Cemaatin gevezeliinden aslmaz suratlar, Kocakar ilalarn iitmektir muratlar; Hal hatr sorarlar glckler atarak, Btn mahalleyi yalayp alttan alarak, Ve gerekirse lanetlerin en byn anmak, Derim ki hemirelerin kstahlna dayanmak. GKLERN hizmetkr molla takm, ekmekti ileri yukardan ilahi akm; lim ve belagat pek aznn ismiydi, Ama arszlk ve cehalet binlercesinin resmiydi: Diyanetten alnm icazetti onlar aklayan, Tembellik, tamah ve kibirlerini saklayan, Bunlard oysa hretleri, nasl ki bir berber Makasyla bilinir, ve demirci rsyle beraber: Bazs, perian klk ve sefil bakla, Ekmek dilenirdi uhrevi yakarla; Demek ki doluydu birilerinin kileri, Ama nedense hep bo kalrd elleri; Ve alktan lrken bu kutsal uyuzlar, Hizmet ettikleri tembel domuzlar, Btn hametleriyle kardlar rahatln tadn, Yzlerinden okurdunuz salk ve bereketin adn. </p> <p>7 / 18</p> <p>T H E Soldiers, that were forcd to fight, If they survivd, got Honour byt; Tho some, that shunnd the bloody Fray, Had Limbs shot off, that ran away: Some valiant Genrals fought the Foe; Others took Bribes to let them go: Some venturd always where twas warm, Lost now a Leg, and then an Arm; Till quite disabled, and put by, They livd on half their Salary; While others never came in Play, And staid at Home for double Pay. T H E I R Kings were servd, but Knavishly, Cheated by their own Ministry; Many, that for their Welfare slaved, Robbing the very Crown they saved: Pensions were small, and they livd high, Yet boasted of their Honesty. Calling, wheneer they straind their Right, The slippry Trick a Perquisite; And when Folks understood their Cant, They changd that for Emolument; Unwilling to be short or plain, In any thing concerning Gain; For there was not a Bee but would Get more, I wont say, than he should; But than he dard to let them know, That payd fort; as your Gamesters do, That, tho at fair Play, neer will own Before the Losers what theyve won. </p> <p>ASKERLER savamaya zorlandlar, Sa kaldlarsa eer, onur kazandlar; Kanmaya alan kanl kavgadan, Vurup kendini svt kargaadan: Baz yiitler kp alt ettiyse de rakibi, Dierleri ald rveti ve brakt takibi: Kimi kendini atee att, cesaret dolu, imdi baca koptu, biraz sonra kolu; Tutar yeri kalmaynca bir kenara atld, Yarm ayln insafna satld; Oysa hi gelmeyenler vard masaya, Oturup evlerinde, ift maa dizdiler kasaya. KRALLARINA hizmet, sinsice grlrd, Hilebazlk, Vekillerden balayarak rlrd. Refahlar iin kle ettikleri pek oktu, Koruduklar tac soymakta beisleri yoktu: denekler azd ama lksten geri durmazlard, Ve drstlklerine toz kondurmazlard. Her ne zaman zora girse paylarn almak, Bunun da numaras, bahi diyerek almak; Uyanacak olursa etraf riyakrn hilesine, evirirlerdi adn hizmetkrn hissesine; stemezlerdi yoksunluk, aza kanaat, Kalmazlard gerisinde, varsa menfaat; Hibir ar yoktu ki almasn daha ounu, Almas gerekenden getim, varn younu; O miktar sylemeye yetmez creti, Ekya gibi saklar ald creti, Bilir ki adil bir oyunda kazanamaz, Garibann elindekini ekip alamaz. </p> <p>8 / 18</p> <p>B U T who can all their Frauds repeat? The very Stuff, which in the Street They sold for Dirt tenrich the Ground Was often by the Buyers found, Sophisticated with a quarter, Of good-for-nothing Stones and Mortar; Tho Flail had little Cause to mutter, Who sold the other Salt for Butter. J U S T I C E her self, famd for fair Dealing, By Blindness had not lost her Feeling; Her Left Hand, which the Scales should hold, Had often dropt em, bribd with Gold; And, tho she seemd Impartial, Where Punishment was corporal, Pretended to a reglar Course, In Murther, and all Crimes of Force; Tho some, first pilloryd for Cheating, Were hangd in Hemp of their own beating; Yet, it was thought, the Sword she bore Checkd but the Desprate and the Poor; That, urgd by meer Necessity, Were tyd up to the wretched Tree For Crimes, which not deservd that Fate, But to secure the Rich and Great. T H U S every Part was full of Vice, Yet the whole Mass a Paradise; Flatterd in Peace, and feard in Wars, They were th Esteem of Foreigners,</p> <p>Y de kim bu dmenleri bulup evirir? Onlar ki ortaln crufunu ortala devirir, Ve satarlar gbre diye, budur tarlann az, bitince anlar mteri, urad kaz; Allanp pullanmtr be on paraya, Toz topraktr hal bu ki, gelmez daraya; Tepinip dursa da boa yorar ayan, O da tekine tuz satmtr, gsterip tereyan. ADALET anyla bilirdi uzlamann dengesini, Krlyle sezerdi yozlamann glgesini, Sol eli tutmalyken terazinin kolunu, Drrd mizan, grnce altnn yolunu; Grndyse de bsbtn tarafsz, Hele ki ceza cana verilmise, afsz, Dzmece bir mahkemeydi sonu, ster cinayet olsun dava ister cebr su; Bazsnn yzne arpldysa da oyunu, Yine kendi eirdii urgana gitti boyunu; Hani derler ya adaletin klc keskindir, Nedense kestii hep aciz ile miskindir; Arzuhli grmekken vazifesi, Balamt elini beylerin silsilesi Ki haksz ceza alanlara ulamasn, Gly gzetmekten baka ile uramasn. VELHASIL alaklk kol geziyordu her cihette, Ama ynlar oturuyordu sanki cennette; Barta mutluluk,...</p>