Arousal and Sleep Reticular formation. About sleep 1. All birds and mammals show characteristic sleep/wake cycles. 2. sleep is an active state(recorded

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Arousal and Sleep

Arousal and SleepReticular formation About sleep1. All birds and mammals show characteristic sleep/wake cycles.2. sleep is an active state(recorded by EEG)3. bottlenose dolphins


2. Electroencephalography (EEG) 2Sleep stages sleep is divided into two broad types:

rapid eye movement (REM)

non-rapid eye movement (NREM or non-REM) sleep. Regulating by reticular activating system1.(REM sleep)a.b.EEGc.20%~25%90~120d.45REM sleepe.

2. (NREM sleep)a.b.NEM sleepREM sleepc.3Sleep process

REM sleepNREM sleepelectroencephalography (EEG ) of sleep stagesREM NREM NREMREM4~5REMN1 N2 N3(delta)N18~12Hz(alpha)4~7Hz(theta)N2(sleep spindles12~16Hz)K-complexN31~2Hz(delta)REMREMREMREMREMCerebrumBrainstemRegulatingStimulatingForSleepStimulatingForArousalReticular Formation1.Pon2.MedullaMidbrainMelatonin(hormone)produced bypineal glandreticular formation 5Reticular Formation1.maintaining tone, balance, and posture 2. integrating stimuli motor coordination3. gaze centers, central pattern generators4. the cardiac and vasomotor centers of the medulla oblongata

movementFunctionReticular formation()1. 2.

motor nucleicentral pattern generators

65. pain modulation 6. habituation7. sleep and arousal

Defining signalsReticular formationregulating stimuli

7reticular activating system

reticular formation

1. Reticular formations location and relationsreticular formationreticular formationreticular activating system

2. Reticular activating systemreticular activating systemRAS Midbrain Reticular Formation, Mesencephalic Nucleus (mesencephalon), Thalamic Intralaminar nucleus, Dorsal Hypothalamus, Tegmentum

3. NeurotransmittersCholinergic, Adrenergica. Cholinergic(cholinergic neurons )REM cholinergicRASacetylcholine

b. Adrenergic(Adrenergic neurons)slow wave sleepREMadrenergic neurotransmittersacetylcholine

8For exampleIn our lives 1.Car accident 2.Boxing 3.Coffee 4.Learning

Disorder 1.Schizophrenia 2.Rapid eye movement behavior disorder


1. RAS2. 3. RAS4. RASRAS

9referenceThanks for your attention