AXIT CACBOXYLIC - 12A1

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AXITCACBOXYLIC

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AXIT CACBOXYLIC L THUYT 1. Cng thc phn t ca mt s axit cacboxylic c vit sau y: (1) CH2O; (2) CH2O2; (3) C2H2O2; (4) C2H4O2; (5) C2H5O4; (6) C3H6O2. Cng thc no vit sai ? A. (1), (2), (3). B. (4), (5), (6). C. (1), (3), (5). D. (2), (4), (6). 2. Axit fomic c th tc dng vi tt c cc cht trong dy no sau y? A. Mg, Cu, dung dch NH3, NaHCO3. B. Mg, Ag, CH3OH/H2SO4 c nng. C. Mg, dung dch NH3, dung dch NaCl. D. Mg, dung dch NH3, NaHCO3. 3. C bn hp cht hu c cng thc phn t ln lt l: CH2O, CH2O2, C2H2O3 v C3H4O3. S cht va tc dng vi Na, va tc dng vi dung dch NaOH, va c phn ng trng gng l A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4. 4. Cho dy cc cht: CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H5OH, CH2=CH-COOH, C6H5NH2 (anilin), C6H5OH (phenol), C6H6 (benzen). S cht trong dy phn ng c vi dung dch nc brom l A. 5 C. 6 D. 4 +Cl2, to +H2O, OH B. 7 +CuO, to + AgNO3, NH3 5. Cho s sau: X Y Z T G (axit acrylic). Cc cht X v Z c th l nhng cht c ghi dy no sau y? A. C3H8 v CH3-CH2-CH2-OH. B. C2H6 v CH2=CH-CHO. C. C3H6 v CH2=CH-CHO. D. C3H6 v CH2=CH-CH2-OH. 6. Cho cc cht: C2H6, C2H4, CH3CHO, CH3COOCH=CH2. S cht ph hp vi cht X theo s : C2H2 X Y CH3COOH , l A. 4. B. 3. C. 2. D. 1. 7.(KB-11) Cho cc pht biu sau: (a) Anehit va c tnh oxi ho va c tnh kh. (b) Phenol tham gia phn ng th brom kh hn benzen. (c) Anehit tc dng vi H2 (d) c xc tc Ni un nng, thu c ancol bc mt. (d) Dung dch axit axetic tc dng c vi Cu(OH)2. (e) Dung dch phenol trong nc lm qu tm ho . (g) Trong cng nghip, axeton c sn xut t cumen. S pht biu ng l A. 4. B. 2. C. 5. D. 3. 8.(C-11) Cho s phn ng:+ X( xt,t ) + Z( xt,t ) + M( xt,t ) CH 4 Y T CH 3COOH o o o

(X, Z, M l cc cht v c, mi mi tn ng vi mt phng trnh phn ng). Cht T trong s trn l A. C2H5OH. B. CH3COONa. C. CH3CHO. D. CH3OH.KCN 3 9.(KA-12)* Cho s chuyn ha: CH 3Cl X Y. to H O+

B. CH3CN, CH3CHO. D. CH3CN, CH3COOH. So snh tnh cht 10. Chiu gim dn linh ng ca nguyn t hiro (t tri qua phi) trong nhm -OH ca cc hp cht C6H5OH, C2H5OH, H2O, CH3COOH l A. CH3COOH , H2O, C6H5OH, C2H5OH B. C2H5OH , H2O, CH3COOH, C6H5OH C. C2H5OH, C6H5OH, H2O, CH3COOH D. CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, C2H5OH 11. Cho cc cht sau: C2H5OH, CH3COOH, C6H5OH, C2H5ONa, CH3COONa, C6H5ONa. S cp cht phn ng c vi nhau l A. 2. B. 3. C. 4. D. 5. 12.(KB-09) Dy gm cc cht c sp xp theo chiu tng dn nhit si t tri sang phi l: A. CH3CHO, C2H5OH, HCOOH, CH3COOH B. CH3COOH, HCOOH, C2H5OH, CH3CHO C. HCOOH, CH3COOH, C2H5OH, CH3CHO D. CH3COOH, C2H5OH, HCOOH, CH3CHO 13.(KA-08) Dy gm cc cht c xp theo chiu nhit si tng dn t tri sang phi l: A. CH3CHO, C2H5OH, C2H6, CH3COOH. B. C2H6, C2H5OH, CH3CHO, CH3COOH. C. C2H6, CH3CHO, C2H5OH, CH3COOH. D. CH3COOH, C2H6, CH3CHO, C2H5OH. 14.(KB-07) Cho cc cht: axit propionic (X), axit axetic (Y), ancol (ru) etylic (Z) v imetyl ete (T). Dy gm cc cht c sp xp theo chiu tng dn nhit si l A. T, Z, Y, X. B. T, X, Y, Z. C. Z, T, Y, X. D. Y, T, X, Z.

Cng thc cu to ca X, Y ln lt l: A. CH3NH2, CH3COONH4. C. CH3NH2, CH3COOH.

15.(KB-2010) Phat biu nao sau y ung? A. Khi un C2H5Br vi dung dich KOH chi thu c etilen B. Dung dich phenol lam phenolphtalein khng mau chuyn thanh mau hng C. Day cac cht : C2H5Cl, C2H5Br, C2H5I co nhit si tng dn t trai sang phai D. un ancol etylic 1400C (xuc tac H2SO4 c) thu c imetyl ete 16.(C-09) Cho cc cht HCl (X); C2H5OH (Y); CH3COOH (Z); C6H5OH (phenol) (T). Dy gm cc cht c sp xp theo tnh axit tng dn (t tri sang phi) l : A. X, Z, T, Y B. Y, T, Z, X C. Y, T, X, Z D. T, Y, X, Z 17.(C-07) Cho cc cht sau: phenol, etanol, axit axetic, natri phenolat, natri hiroxit. S cp cht tc dng c vi nhau l A. 4. B. 3. C. 2. D. 1. 18.(C-11)* Dy gm cc cht xp theo chiu lc axit tng dn t tri sang phi l: A. HCOOH, CH3COOH, CH3CH2COOH. B. CH3COOH, HCOOH, (CH3)2CHCOOH. C. C6H5OH, CH3COOH, CH3CH2OH. D. CH3COOH, CH2ClCOOH, CHCl2COOH. 19.(C-11) Cho dy cc cht: etan, etanol, etanal, axit etanoic. Cht c nhit si cao nht trong dy l A. axit etanoic. B. etanol. C. etanal. D. etan. BI TP PHN NG VI KIM *RCOOH + NaOH RCOONa + H2O maxit + mNaOH = mmui + mnc Mol axit = mol H2O = tng khi lng/22 *R(COOH)k + kNaOH R(COONa)k + kH2O k = nNaOH/nnc *Axit + Kim Cht rn + H2O maxit + mNaOH = mmui + mnc; Suy ra nnc 20. Cho 15,0 gam mt axit cacboxylic no, n chc X tc dng vi 150 ml dung dch NaOH 2M, sau phn ng, c cn dung dch thu c 22,5 gam cht rn khan. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l A. CH3COOH. B. C2H5COOH. C. C3H7COOH. D. HCOOH. 21. Trung ha 12,0 gam hn hp cng s mol gm axit fomic v mt axit hu c n chc X bng NaOH thu c 16,4 gam hai mui. Cng thc ca axit l A. C2H5COOH. B. CH3COOH. C. C2H3COOH. D. C3H7COOH. 22. trung ha 7,4 gam hn hp 2 axit hu c l ng ng ca axit fomic cn 200 ml dung dch NaOH 0,5M. Khi lng mui thu c l A. 9,6 gam. B. 6,9 gam. C. 11,4 gam. D. 5,2 gam. 23.(KA-08) Trung ho 5,48 gam hn hp gm axit axetic, phenol v axit benzoic, cn dng 600 ml dung dch NaOH 0,1M. C cn dung dch sau phn ng, thu c hn hp cht rn khan c khi lng l A. 6,84 gam. B. 4,90 gam. C. 6,80 gam. D. 8,64 gam. 24.(KB-08) Cho 3,6 gam axit cacboxylic no, n chc X tc dng hon ton vi 500 ml dung dch gm KOH 0,12M v NaOH 0,12M. C cn dung dch thu c 8,28 gam hn hp cht rn khan. Cng thc phn t ca X l A. C2H5COOH. B. CH3COOH. C. C3H7COOH. D. HCOOH. 25.(KB-07) trung ha 6,72 gam mt axit cacboxylic Y (no, n chc), cn dng 200 gam dung dch NaOH 2,24%. Y l A. C2H5COOH. B. CH3COOH. C. C3H7COOH. D. HCOOH. 26.(C-09) Trung ho 8,2 gam hn hp gm axit fomic v mt axit n chc X cn 100 ml dung dch NaOH 1,5M. Nu cho 8,2 gam hn hp trn tc dng vi mt lng d dung dch AgNO 3/NH3 un nng th thu c 21,6 gam Ag. Tn ca X l A. axit acrylic. B. axit propanoic. C. axit metacrylic. D. axit etanoic. 27.(C-2010) Cho 16,4 gam hn hp X gm 2 axit cacboxylic la ng ng k tip nhau phan ng hoan toan vi 200 ml dung dich NaOH 1M va KOH 1M thu c dung dich Y. C can dung dich Y, thu c 31,1 gam hn hp cht rn khan. Cng thc cua 2 axit trong X la A. C2H4O2 va C3H4O2. B. C2H4O2 va C3H6O2. C. C3H4O2 va C4H6O2. D. C3H6O2 va C4H8O2. PHN NG CHY 28.(KA-11) Trung ha 3,88 gam hn hp X gm hai axit cacboxylic no, n chc, mch h bng dung dch NaOH, c cn ton b dung dch sau phn ng thu c 5,2 gam mui khan. Nu t chy hon ton 3,88 gam X th th tch oxi (ktc) cn dng l A. 4,48 lt. B. 3,36 lt. C. 2,24 lt. D. 1,12 lt. 29.(KA-11) t chy hon ton x mol axit cacboxylic E, thu c y mol CO 2 v z mol H2O (vi z = y x). Cho x mol E tc dng vi NaHCO3 (d) thu c y mol CO2. Tn ca E l

A. axit acrylic. B. axit oxalic. C. axit aipic. D. axit fomic. (Hng dn: do y z = x Loi D; x mol E tc dng vi NaHCO3 (d) thu c y mol CO2 m y = x + z Loi A; Xt B, C th y = 2x s C = 2) 30.(KA-11) t chy hon ton x gam hn hp gm hai axit cacboxylic hai chc, mch h v u c mt lin kt i C=C trong phn t, thu c V lt kh CO2 (ktc) v y mol H2O. Biu thc lin h gia cc gi tr x, y v V l

*Bo ton khi lng: x + moxi = 44V/22,4 + 18y mO = 55V/448 + 9y/8 x/16 *t axit l CnH2n 4O4 2nax = nCO2 - nnc nO(ax) = 2(nCO2 - nnc) = V/11,2 2y * BTNT oxi: kt qu AXIT CACBOXYLIC PHN NG CHY 32.(KA-11) Hn hp X gm axit axetic, axit fomic v axit oxalic. Khi cho m gam X tc dng vi NaHCO 3 (d) th thu c 15,68 lt kh CO2 (ktc). Mt khc, t chy hon ton m gam X cn 8,96 lt kh O 2 (ktc), thu c 35,2 gam CO2 v y mol H2O. Gi tr ca y l A. 0,3. B. 0,8. C. 0,2. D. 0,6. NaHCO3 kCO 2 n O(ax) = 2n CO2 = 1,4 mol; BTNT oxi: 1,4 + 0,8 = 1,6 + y y = ) (Hng dn: R ( COOH ) k 36.(KA-12) Hn hp X gm axit fomic, axit acrylic, axit oxalic v axit axetic. Cho m gam X phn ng ht vi dung dch NaHCO3 thu c 1,344 lt CO2 (ktc). t chy hon ton m gam X cn 2,016 lt O2 (ktc), thu c 4,84 gam CO2 v a gam H2O. Gi tr ca a l A. 1,62. B. 1,44. C. 3,60. D. 1,80. (Hng dn: ging bi 32 ) 33.(KA-11) Ha hi 15,52 gam hn hp gm mt axit no n chc X v mt axit no a chc Y (s mol X ln hn s mol Y), thu c mt th tch hi bng th tch ca 5,6 gam N 2 (o cng trong iu kin nhit , p sut). Nu t chy ton b hn hp hai axit trn th thu c 10,752 lt CO2 (ktc) . Cng thc cu to ca X, Y ln lt l: A. CH3-CH2-COOH v HOOC-COOH. B. CH3-COOH v HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH. C. H-COOH v HOOC-COOH. D. CH3-COOH v HOOC-CH2-COOH. (Hng dn: nax = 0,2 mol; nCO2 = 0, 48 mol C = 2, 4 loi C; Xt B, D:

28 ( x 30 y ) . 55 28 ( x + 30 y ) . C. V = 55A. V =

28 ( x 62 y ) 95 28 ( x + 62 y ) . D. V = 95B. V =

34.(KB-11)* Hn hp X gm hai axit cacboxylic no, mch h Y v Z (phn t khi ca Y nh hn ca Z). t chy hon ton a mol X, sau phn ng thu c a mol H2O. Mt khc, nu cho a mol X tc dng vi lng d dung dch NaHCO3, th thu c 1,6a mol CO2. Thnh phn % theo khi lng ca Y trong X l A. 46,67%. B. 40,00%. C. 25,41%. D. 74,59%. (Hng dn: nX < nCO2 < 2nX 1 ax n chc, 1 ax 2 chc; H = 2 HCOOH , (COOH ) 2 ) 35.(C-12) Trong phn t axit cacboxylic X c s nguyn t cacbon bng s nhm chc. t chy hon ton mt lng X thu c s mol CO2 bng s mol H2O. Tn gi ca X l A. axit axetic. B. axit malonic.(HOOC-CH2-COOH) C. axit oxalic. D. axit fomic. 37.(KA-12) t chy hon ton 7,6 gam hn hp gm mt axit cacboxylic no, n chc, mch h v mt ancol n chc (c s nguyn t cacbon trong phn t khc nhau) thu c 0,3 mol CO2 v 0,4 mol H2O. Thc hin phn ng este ha 7,6 gam hn hp trn vi hiu sut 80% thu c m gam este. Gi tr ca m l A. 8,16. B. 4,08. C. 2,04. D. 6,12. (Hng dn: Ancol no, h, n; nancol = mol H2O - mol CO2 = 0,1 mol; BTKL moxi = 12,8 gam nO = 0,8; BTNT O nO(hh) = 0,2; nO(ax) = 0,1; nax = 0,05 0,05n +0,1n = 0,3 chn n =4; m = 1) 38.(KA-12) Ha hi 8,64 gam hn hp gm mt axit no, n chc, mch h X v mt axit no, a chc Y (c mch cacbon h, khng phn nhnh) thu c mt th tch hi bng th tch ca 2,8 gam N2 (o trong cng iu kin nhit , p sut). t chy hon ton 8,64 gam hn hp hai axit trn thu c 11,44 gam CO2. Phn trm khi lng ca X trong hn hp ban u l A. 72,22%. B. 27,78%. C. 35,25%. D. 65,15%. (Hng dn: Do Y khng phn nhnh Y l axit 2 chc: CnH2n-2O4; nhh = 0,1 C = 2, 6 ; M = 86, 4 MX < 86,4. V

x + y = 0, 2 x = 0,16 Voi B m = 14,32(loai ) 2 x + 4 y = 0, 48 y = 0, 04 ) x + y = 0, 2 x = 0,12 hoac D m = 15,52(t / m) 2 x + 3 y = 0, 48 y = 0, 08

x + y = 0,1 x = 0, 04 y = 0, 06 n = 3 2 x + ny = 0, 26 MY > 90 X l CH3COOH hoc HCOOH. Xt X l CH3COOH ny = 0,18 60 x + 14ny + 62 y = 8, 64 % X = 27, 28%) 39.(KB-12) Hn hp X gm hai axit cacboxylic n chc. t chy hon ton 0,1 mol X cn 0,24 mol O2, thu c CO2 v 0,2 mol H2O. Cng thc hai axit l A. HCOOH v C2H5COOH. B. CH2=CHCOOH v CH2=C(CH3)COOH. C. CH3COOH v C2H5COOH. D. CH3COOH v CH2=CHCOOH. (Hng dn: BTNT oxi tnh c mol CO2 = 0,24 mol > mol H2O chn D) PHN NG ESTE HA 40. Cho mt axit cacboxylic n chc tc dng vi etylen glicol thu c mt este duy nht. Cho 0,1 mol este ny tc dng va vi dung dch NaOH thu c 16,4 gam mui. Axit l A. C2H3COOH. B. CH3COOH. C. C2H5COOH. D. HCOOH. 41.(C-07) un 12 gam axit axetic vi 13,8 gam etanol (c H2SO4 c lm xc tc) n khi phn ng t ti trng thi cn bng, thu c 11 gam este. Hiu sut ca phn ng este ho l A. 55%. B. 50%. C. 62,5%. D. 75%. 42.(C-08) un nng 6,0 gam CH3COOH vi 6,0 gam C2H5OH (c H2SO4 lm xc tc, hiu sut phn ng este ho bng 50%). Khi lng este to thnh l A. 6,0 gam. B. 4,4 gam. C. 8,8 gam. D. 5,2 gam. 43.(KA-07)* Khi thc hin phn ng este ho 1 mol CH3COOH v 1 mol C2H5OH, lng este ln nht thu c l 2/3 mol. t hiu sut cc i l 90% (tnh theo axit) khi tin hnh este ho 1 mol CH3COOH cn s mol C2H5OH l A. 0,342. B. 2,925. C. 2,412. D. 0,456. 44.(KA-07) Hn hp X gm axit HCOOH v axit CH3COOH (t l mol 1 : 1). Ly 5,3 gam hn hp X tc dng vi 5,75 gam C2H5OH (c xc tc H2SO4 c) thu c m gam hn hp este (hiu sut ca cc phn ng este ho u bng 80%). Tnh m A. 10,12. B. 6,48. C. 8,10. D. 16,20. 45.(KA-2010)* Cho hn hp X gm ancol metylic v hai axit cacboxylic (no, n chc, k tip nhau trong dy ng ng) tc dng ht vi Na, gii phng ra 6,72 lt kh H 2 (ktc). Nu un nng hn hp X (c H 2SO4 c lm xc tc) th cc cht trong hn hp phn ng va vi nhau to thnh 25 gam hn hp este (gi thit phn ng este ha t hiu sut 100%). Hai axit trong hn hp X l A. HCOOH v CH3COOH. B. CH3COOH v C2H5COOH. C. C2H5COOH v C3H7COOH. D. C2H7COOH v C4H9COOH. TNG HP 46. Hn hp X gm anehit fomic v anehit axetic. Oxi ho hon ton hn hp X thu c hn hp Y gm hai axit. T khi hi ca Y so vi X l d. Khong gi tr ca d l: 23 15 A. 0,9