Bai 01 tong quan ve phan cung may tinh

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  • 1. M UN 15:LP RP-CI T MY TNHLEANING BY DOING

2. GII THIU- L mn hc c s cho ngh Qun trmng, l m un bt buc.- Gm: 20 gi l thuyt ; 70 gi thc hnh Logowww.themegallery.com www.ispace.edu.vn 3. MC TIU M UN Hiu c tng quan v my tnh Bit c chc nng v hot ng cabn mch chnh, CPU Ci t c h iu hnh v cc phnmn ng dng Logo Tho, lp ci t c mt my tnh Chn la cc thit b lp rp mt mytnh hon chnh Chun on v khc phc c s c mytnhwww.themegallery.com www.ispace.edu.vn 4. BI 1: TNG QUAN PHN CNG MYTNH Cc khi nim c bn Cc h m v n v o Thut ng my tnh K thut thao tc an ton Logo Thi gian hon tt: 1 bui 5. MC TIU BI HCNhng khi nim c bnHiu bit cc h m v n v oGii thch cc thut ng my tnhHiu bit cc k thut thao tc an tonLogo 6. NHNG KHI NIM C BNMy tnh l mt thit b in t dng tnh ton, x l d liu theo chngtrnh lp trnh trc.My tnh c nhiu dng khc nhau th hin kch thc, hnh dng, khnng lm vic, ng dng thc tMy tnh c cc chc nng c bn sau: X l d liu Lu tr d liu Logo Di chuyn d liu Nhp/ xut d liu Qun l, iu khin cc thit b, my mc 7. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhCc giai on pht trin ca my tnh Giai on 1 (1945-1958): s dng cng ngh n chn khng. Giai on 2 (1959-1964): s dng cng ngh cht bn dn. Giai on 3 (1965-1974): s dng cng ngh mch tch hp. Giai on 4 (1975-n nay): cng ngh mch tch hp vi mt cao v siu cao.Logo 8. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th nht (1945-1958): Cngngh n Chn khngLogo 9. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th nht (1945-1958): Cngngh n Chn khngLogo 10. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th nht (1945-1958)ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer): do M ch to phc v trong qun i vi 18.000 bng n chn khng, nng hn30 tn, chim din tch khong 1393 m2, c kh nng thc hin c5.000 php tnh/giy. Logo 11. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th hai (1959-1964): Cng nghn Cht bn dnLogo 12. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th hai (1959-1964)S pht trin trong lnh vc in t thay th c bng nchn khng bng n bn dn, n bn dn r hn, nh hn, tanhit t hn.i din tiu biu l my tnh PDP-1 ca cng ty DEC (DigitalEquipment Corporation) v IBM 7094.Logo 13. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th ba (1965-1974): Cng nghMch tch hp Vi Mch IC (integrated circuit)LogoB vi mch Intel 80486 DX2 c kch thc 126.75 mm. 14. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th ba (1965-1974): Cng nghMch tch hpLogo 15. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th ba (1965-1974)DEC PDP-8: trong lc IBM gii thiu v my System/360 th DEC cho rai my tnh c trung PDP-8.C th thc hin mi cng vic ca mt chic my tnh ln nhng gich khong 16.000 USD, trong khi System/360 ln n hng trm ngnUSD.Logo 16. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th t (1975-): Cng ngh Mchtch hp vi mt cc caoLogo 17. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh th h th t (1975-n nay)1971: Intel cho ra i chip 4004 nh du s bt u ca cngngh vi x l. 1972: Intel a ra b vi x l 8 bit 8008.Cui nhng nm 70 b vi x l 16 bit tr nn ph bin.1981: Bell Lab v Hewlett-Packard pht trin b nh n 32 bit.1985: Intel gii thiu my tnh 80386 s dng b nh 32 bit. Logo 18. Lch s pht trin ca my tnhMy tnh c nhn Pesornal ComputerMy tnh PC ca hng IBM sn xut nm 1981thu cng ty Microsoft vit h iu hnh MS -DOSChic my ny c tc 5MHzLogoMy tnh PC hng Apple sn xutnm 1977 19. Mt s thut ng my tnhPC (Personal Computer): my tnh c nhnMonitor: mn hnhKeyboard: bn phm, mouse: chutCase: thng my Mainboard (Motherboard): bo mch ch CPU (Central Processing Unit): n v x l trung tmLogo RAM (Random Access Memory): b nh truy xut ngu nhin ROM (Read Only Memory): b nh ch c HDD (Hard Disk Drive): a cng FDD (Floppy Disk Drive): a mmPSU (Power Supply Unit): b cp ngunBus, cache, chip, BIOS (Basic Input-Output System): h thng nhp xut c bnChipset: Chip iu khin thit bFSB, BSB, socket, slot, expansion card 20. CC H M V N V O thc hin vic tnh ton v x l s liu, my tnh s dng nhng h thc hin vic tnh ton v x l s liu, my tnh s dng nhng hthng s v cc n v o khc nhau. thng s v cc n v o khc nhau. Cc h m H nh phn Binary system(b) : l h thng s c s 2 c dng trong my tnh v in t, gm c gi tr 0 hoc 1 (tt hoc m). V d:Logo H thp phn Decimal system(d) : c s 10, bao gm cc k t t 0 n 9.Gi tr s trong h thp phn c xc nh theo nguyn tc: mi nv mt hng bt k c gi tr bng 10 n v ca hng k cn bnphi. y l c s m chng ta s dng hng ngy.V d: 21. CC H M V N V OChuyn i gia cc h thng s: Logo 22. CC H M V N V OLogo 23. CC N V O Bit (b): L n v nh nht ca d liu c lu trong my tnh. Tt c cc d liu u phi c m ha thnh tng bit my tnh c th hiu c. Mt ch s nh phn c 2 trng thi 0 hoc 1. Logo Byte (B): 1 byte gm c 8 bit Dng th hin dung lng b nh Dung lng lu tr d liu trong my tnh.www.themegallery.com www.ispace.edu.vn 24. CC N V OHez (Hz): n v dng o tn s Tc ng h trong my tnh thng c o bngMegahertz (Mhz).bps (Bit per second): Logo L n v o tc truyn ti d liu Bit/sBps (Byte per second) : L n v o tc truyn ti d liu Byte/s.www.themegallery.comwww.ispace.edu.vn 25. Mi quan h gia cc n v o Tn gi K hiuH thp H nh phn phn1 Bit 1b 0 hoc 1 0 hoc 11 Byte1B Gm 8 bitxxxx xxxx1 KiloByte1 KB 103 B210 B Logo1 MegaByte1 MB 103 KB 210 KB1 GigaByte1 GB 103 MB 210 MB1 TetraByte 1 TB 103 GB 210 GB1 PetaByte1 PB 103 TB 210 TB1 ExaByte 1 EB 103 PB 210 PB1 ZettaByte 1 ZB 103 EB 210 EB1 YottaByte 1 YB 103 ZB 210 ZB 26. K THUT THAO TC AN TON c th bo tr, sa cha, lp rp hoc nng cp my tnh ta cn tun c th bo tr, sa cha, lp rp hoc nng cp my tnh ta cn tunth mt s yu cu k thut trong khi thao tc. th mt s yu cu k thut trong khi thao tc. Chng tnh in m bo an ton tuyt i v in S dng vng chng tnh in ngn nga cc hin tng phng tnh in d gy h hng cc thit b bn trong my tnhLogo Dng c thao tc an ton Tua vt a nng (multi purpose swrewdriver) Km mi nhn (long nose plier) Km ct dy (wire cutter) 27. Mt s vn cn lu Chn ni lm vic ph hp.Ngt in trc khi tin hnh sa cha hoc thay th.Tho lp thit b phi nh nhng, cn thn. Trnh cc trng hpnh ri, gn nhm >> c th lm h hng thit b.Khi my ang hot ng th khng dng tay, hay vt kim loi Logochm vo cc chip trn mch, khng di chuyn my.Kim tra tht cn thn trc khi cp ngun cho my. 28. Logo 29. BI TP THC HNHKho st cc thnh phn ca my tnhMonitorKeyboard, mouseBn trong Case h thngH iu hnhLogo 30. TNG KT BI HCMy tnh pht trin qua nhiu giai on v ngy cngtinh vi vi nhiu chc nng hn.Cc th h my tnh c phn chia theo cng ngh chto.C nhiu h thng s c dng trong my tnh nh: hnh phn, h bt phn, h thp phn, h thp lc phn. LogoKhi bo tr, sa cha, nng cp my cn chun b y cc dng c v tun th theo cc yu cu k thutchung. 31. HI VPLEANING BY DOING