Bài giảng Sinh thái học công nghiệp - PGS.TS. Nguyễn Thị Kim Thái

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  • Trng i hc xy dng Vin Khoa hc & k thut mi trng

    ----------------------------------

    Bi ging

    Sinh thi hc Cng nghip

    Ngi son : PGS. TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi

    Nm 2010

  • Bi ging Sinh thi cng nghip Chng 1: Cc khi nim chung

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ngi son : PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi Vin Khoa hc v KTMT- i hc Xy dng

    1

    Bi ging sinh thi hc cng nghip

    1 VHT - Lp 52 CLC --------------------------

    Mc ch mn hc: Cung cp cc kin thc c bn v :

    1) Sinh thi hc ni chung v sinh thi cng nghip ni ring v cc ng dng ca sinh thi hc trong lnh vc bo v mi trng;

    2) S tng thch sinh thi v pht trin bn vng 3) Bn cht ca nhim mi trng, cc nguyn nhn gy nhim; cc tc ng

    ca nhim ti cht lng mi trng v sc kho cng ng v cc bin php k thut v qun l gim thiu nhim-

    4) Cc khi nim c bn v h thng qun l mi trng doanh nghip. Ni dung bi ging Chng 1. Cc khi nim chung 1.1. Sinh thi hc , sinh thi cng nghip

    1. 2. Cc h sinh thi 1. 3. Mi trng v nng lng 1. 4. Cc khi nim v nhim 1. 5. c hc v c hc sinh thi

    1.6. Ri ro, s c mi trng v nh gi cc tc ng Chng 2 : Cc chu trnh sinh a ho hc 2.1. Khi nim v vng tun hon vt cht trong t nhin

    2. 2. Chu trnh cacbon v cc ri lon vn hnh 2. 3. Chu trnh ni t v cc ri lon vn hnh

    2.4. Cc chu trnh khc Chng 3 . nhim mi trng Tc ng ca nhim 3.1. Bn cht ca nhim

    3.2. Cc ngun v cc cht gy nhim 3.3. c hc sinh thi v cc tc ng, ri ro v nguy c 3.4. Cc tc ng ca nhim 3.5. Cc bin php gim thiu nhim

    Chng 4 . H thng qun l mi trng cng nghip

    4. 1. Khi nim v h thng qun l mi trng doanh nghip 4.2. Cc loi cht thi

    4.3. Cc c tnh ca mi trng trong hot ng sn xut 4.4. Cc hot ng thu hi, ti ch v gim thiu cht thi 4.5 Nhng lnh vc hot ng quan trng v mi trng trong cng nghip

  • Bi ging Sinh thi cng nghip Chng 1: Cc khi nim chung

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ngi son : PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi Vin Khoa hc v KTMT- i hc Xy dng

    2

    Chng 1 Cc khi nim chung

    1.1. Sinh thi hc , sinh thi cng nghip Sinh thi hc l khoa hc tng hp v quan h tng h gi sinh vt v mi trng

    v gia cc sinh vt vi nhau . Vo nhng nm th 40 ca th k XX, cc nh sinh thi hc bt u nhn thc rng

    qun x sinh vt v mi trng khng ch quan h tng h vi nhau m to thnh mt n v thng nht - h sinh thi. H sinh thi l n v c s ca t nhin, c m t nh mt thc th, xc nh chnh xc trong khng gian v thi gian. N bao gm khng ch cc sinh vt sng trong m c cc iu kin t nhin: kh hu, t, nc cng nh tt c cc mi tng tc gi cc sinh vt vi nhau v gi sinh vt vi iu kin mi trng. Cc h sinh thi trn b mt tri t tp hp li thnh sinh quyn.

    Nhng nm gn y sinh thi hc tr thnh khoa hc ton cu. Rt nhiu ngi cho

    rng con ngi cng nh cc sinh vt khc khng th sng tch khi mi trng c th ca mnh. Tuy nhin, con ngi khc vi cc sinh vt khc l c kh nng thay i iu kin mi trng cho ph hp vi mc ch ring. Sinh thi hc l khoa hc c s cho cng tc bo v ti nguyn thin nhin v mi trng. Thut ng Sinh thi hc: Ecology (bt ngun t ch Hy Lp Oikos l nh, ni ) c Ernst Heckel, nh bc hc ngi c xng nm 1866 v dng n xc nh khoa hc v mi quan h tng h gi sinh vt v mi trng, l tp hp tt c nhng hiu bit v kinh t t nhin. Ni cch khc, sinh thi hc nghin cu mi quan h tng hp phc tp m Dac-uyn gi l cc iu kin sinh ra u tranh sinh tn. Hc thuyt tin ho ca Dac-uyn c hnh thnh trn c s nhn thc v mi quan h cht ch gi sinh vt v mi trng. Sinh thi hc cng nghip nghin cu v quan h tng h gi cc qu trnh sn xut v cc hot ng dch v mang li hiu qu kinh t v ci thin mi trng thng qua vic gim cht thi v lm tng kh nng khai thc cc ngun ti nguyn.

    tng m hnh ha cng nghip theo h sinh thi l tng c bn ca sinh thi cng nghip. y l khi nim v mt phng thc sn xut mi s dng t nng lng, v sn phm ph ca cng on sn xut ny li l nguyn liu th cho cng on sn xut tip theo. Trn l thuyt, h thng ny hot ng theo vng tun hon sao cho ch s dng nguyn liu b cho lng vt cht b tiu hao.

    Ngi ta thng p dng chu trnh tun hon nhiu cp nng lng v vt cht s

    dng u c t nhiu quay vng. Mc th nht l quay vng c s tham gia ca nhiu ngnh. Mc th ba l ko ngi tiu th tham gia vo s hot ng ca cc chu trnh tun hon vt cht. Mt cng ty hoc mt nh my s tit kim c kinh ph, khi chuyn cht thi ca b phn ny sang b phn khc hoc dng cht thi to ra nng lng cho mt cng on khc. Tng t nh vy, cc cng ty v nh my trong mt ngnh cng nghip c th trao i v ti s dng cht thi ca nhau. Cng nh vy, cc ngnh khc nhau s trao i vt

  • Bi ging Sinh thi cng nghip Chng 1: Cc khi nim chung

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ngi son : PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi Vin Khoa hc v KTMT- i hc Xy dng

    3

    liu v nng lng cho nhau, hnh thnh cc khu cng nghip sinh thi. Nh vy, tt c cc bn v mi trng u c li.

    Qu trnh quay vng vt liu v nng lng cng m rng i vi khch hng. Cc loi bao b v sn phm qua s dng c th quay vng tr li ni sn xut ban u ti s dng hoc tr thnh nguyn liu cho mt ngnh kinh t khc.

    Th d v mt s mu hnh khu cng nghip sinh thi:

    Th d 1: mt cng Ty Bc nc M c mt nh my c quyn s dng mt lng nc t cc ging khoan trong a gii qun l ca mnh. Quy trnh sn xut ca nh my to ra hai dng nc thi khng cha cc cht ha tan v c hi. Cch 3 km, c mt nh my nhit in cn nc lm lnh nhng khng c php khai thc thm nc t cc ngun hin c. C hai nh my u phi chu chi ph khai thc nc v chi ph x l nc thi. Lng nhit tha ca nh my nhit in v lng nc tha ca nh my nc to ra nhng tim nng cho cc nh my khc c nhu cu s dng. Bng cch lp t h thng ng ng c th to ra kh nng chuyn nc thi ca nh my nc sang lm lnh cho nh my in v nhit lng tha t nh my in i cc ni khc. Cc cng vic trn lm gim lng nc sch tiu th, ng thi tng mc s dng nhit lng tha m trc thng b lng ph, Th d 2: a xanh (Green Disks) l mt cng ty do Davi Beschen Seattle (M) thnh lp, c chc nng chuyn ti s dng cc a mm qua s dng v cc b phn tin hc. Mc tiu ca cng ty l ti s dng tt c cc loi vt liu trong cc phn mm b i. Cng ty ti sn xut c 99,5 kg vt liu t 100 kg cc vt liu thi ra. Trong 0,5 kg cht thi cn li c c phn cht thi ca bn thn cng ty. Mi ngy cng ty ti ch c t 10-60 tn ph liu, nm 1994 ti ch c 8000 tn, nm 1995 gn 20.000 tn. Cc vt liu c gi ti cng ty, c tho r, phn loi v gi i cc c s tiu th. Cc a mm c chia ra lm hai loi: Cc a mm cn mi hoc mi ch ghi mt ln, c xo i cc thngtin v bn li nh nhng a mi, cc a khc th phn loi. Phn kim loi chuyn vo nh my luyn kim, phn nha th c gi ti nh my nha ti sn xut li nha. Bn thn a mm khng ti ch c th c ct ra sn xut cc th t. Cng ty ang tip tc tm kim ngun a c v th trng tiu th cc sn phm ti ch ca h.

    1.2. Cc h sinh thi

    H sinh thi l mt h thng bao gm cc qun x (c th sng) v mi trng sng ca chng (cc thnh phn v sinh).

    H sinh thi t nhin : H sinh thi pht trin khng c s can thip ca con ngi. Th d h sinh thi ao h, h sinh thi rng nguyn sinh, h sinh thi ng c..

    H sinh thi nhn to: H sinh thi pht trin trong c s can thip ca con ngi. Th d h sinh thi th, h sinh thi nh , h sinh thi cc cng trnh x l nc, h sinh thi nhn vn..

    Trong sinh quyn tn ti cc loi h sinh thi ch yu sau:

  • Bi ging Sinh thi cng nghip Chng 1: Cc khi nim chung

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    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ngi son : PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi Vin Khoa hc v KTMT- i hc Xy dng

    4

    - H sinh thi t nhin :nh rng, sng, h, ng c, bin.. - H sinh thi th: cc thnh ph ln, cc khu cng nghip... - H sinh thi nng nghip: cy lu nm, cy ngn ngy, ng c chn nui, ao c...

    Hnh 1.1. S ca mt h sinh thi t nhin

    Cu trc ca h sinh thi gm 4 thnh phn c bn: Mi trng (E): Mi trng l tp hp tt c cc iu kin v hin tng bn ngoi tc ng ln c th. Kh quyn, thu quyn, thch quyn tn ti trc khi s sng xut hin trn hnh tinh chng ta, nhng ch khi cc c th sng xut hin mi gi chung l mi trng. C ngha ch c c th sng mi c mi trng.

    Mi trng t nhin l tng th cc nhn t t nhin xung quanh cc qun th sng (thnh phn hu sinh). Th d bu kh quyn, nc, thc vt, th nhng, bc x mt tri.. Mi trng nhn to l h thng mi trng c to ra do con ngi li dng v ci to t nhin;

    ng vt

    n thc vt P Cy xanh

    Ngun dinh dng H vi sinh vt phn hu D

    ng vt

    n tht

    Xi mn Phn bnCht thi sau

    khi x l

    To nhit To nhit To nhit

    Nhit

    Thng qua hot ng

    trao i cht

    C

    Mt tri

  • Bi ging Sinh thi cng nghip Chng 1: Cc khi nim chung

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ngi son : PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi Vin Khoa hc v KTMT- i hc Xy dng

    5

    i vi sinh vt trn tri t tn ti 4 kiu mi trng:

    - Mi trng t; - Mi trng nc; - Mi trng khng kh v - Mi trng cc sinh vt khc (i vi cc sinh vt k sinh).

    Vt sn xut (P): Vt sn xut bao gm cc vi khun ho tng hp v cy xanh tc l bao gm cc sinh vt c kh nng tng hp c cht hu c nh nng lng mt tri t xy dng ly c s ca mnh. Vt sn xut l cc sinh vt t dng

    Vt tiu th (C): Vt tiu th bao gm cc ng vt s dng cc cht hu c ly trc tip hay gin tip t vt sn xut. Vt tiu th l cc sinh vt d dng. Vt tiu th c chia thnh:

    - Vt tiu th s cp : cc loi ng vt n thc vt - Vt tiu th th cp: cc loi ng vt n ng vt v thc vt

    Vt phn hu (D): Vt phn hu bao gm cc vi khun v nm. Chng phn hu cc sn phm bi tit (cht thi ) v xc cht ca cc vt sn xut & vt tiu th.

    Cc nhn t sinh thi : Cc nhn t mi trng tc ng ln c th sng l khng nh nhau. Mt s nhn t khng th hin nh hng r rt ln i sng ca cc sinh vt. V d : mt s kh tr cha trong v tr. Nhn t nh hng quyt nh ti c th sinh vt gi l nhn t sinh thi. V d : nh sng, nhit , nc, cc cht khong, chuyn ng ca khng kh, phng x l nhng nhn t sinh thi. H sinh thi c hai chc nng c bn l vng tun hon vt cht v dng chuyn ho nng lng gia 4 thnh phn trong h. Hai chc nng ny biu th hai c trng c bn ca h sinh thi l: Cn bng gia c th - mi trng v tnh thch nghi sinh thi. 1.3.Mi trng v nng lng Dng nng lng xy ra ng thi vi vng tun hon vt cht h sinh thi. Nng lng cung cp cho hot ng ca tt c cc h sinh thi trn tri t l ngun nng lng mt tri. Nng lng mt tri chiu ln mt n v din tch b mt tri t trong mt n v thi gian gi l thng lng mt tri = 1cal/cm2/pht. C rt nhiu h n v o nng lng, nhng cho ti nay ngi ta vn dng Calorie l n v chnh o. Calorie c nh nghi l tng nng lng cn thit (yu cu) nng 1g nc tng ln 1oC.

  • Bi ging Sinh thi cng nghip Chng 1: Cc khi nim chung

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    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ngi son : PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi Vin Khoa hc v KTMT- i hc Xy dng

    6

    Mt tri nhn c ngun nng lng ca n thng qua qu trnh nng chy ca cc ht nhn v y sinh khi c chuyn ho thnh nng lng tng ng vi nh lut Anhstanh (Einsteins):

    E = m.C2 Trong : C l vn tc nh sng = 300 000 km/s Cc ngun nng lng: Mt s hiu bit y tt c cc vn ny i hi mt kin thc tng th v nhng ngun nng lng khc nhau, c bit l v mt tnh cht ti to c hay khng v v tc ng ln mi trng v vic thc hin cc vn . Kha cnh u tin lin quan trc tip vi qun l lu di cc ti nguyn, nh i vi nguyn liu, v bao gm ch yu cc loi nhin liu m. Kha cnh th hai, gn vi tnh cht ring ca mi loi nng lng, tr thnh mt tiu ch chnh ca vic la chn loi nng lng ny khc. Nhng ngun nng lng chnh bao gm: - Cc ngun nng lng m: than, du ha, kh thin nhin. - Nng lng ht nhn. - Cc loi nng lng ti to c c ngun gc: + t t: a nhit + t mt tri: trc tip (chuyn thnh nhit nng v quang nng) hay gin tip (sinh khi, ph liu, nng lng gi...) + t bin: nng lng thy triu, nng lng ca cc dng chy... Cc dng nng lng:

    - Nng lng bc x: l nng lng mt tri, dng nng lng quan trng nht i vi chng ta. Nng lng mt tri truyn trong chn khng vi tc gn 300.000 Km/s. Nng lng nh sng c sp xp thnh ph rng ln bi cc bc sng in t pht ra t mt tri

    - Nng lng lin kt ha hc: dng nng lng ny tng ng vi lin kt ha hc

    c hnh thnh gia cc nguyn t cu thnh cc phn t. y l nng lng tch lu trong cc hp cht ho hc. Trong thi gian quang hp, nh sng c s dng sn xut hydratcacbon, lipit trong thc vt. Trong qu trnh pht trin qua cc bc dinh dng ca h sinh thi cc nguyn liu thc vt c chuyn thnh cc c cht tng hp xy dng nn c th ng vt. S bin i sinh hc ny phi s dng nng lng. Khi tt c cc c cht ny c ph v ln na, nh h hp chng hn th nng lng c gii phng. Cc hp cht ny v th c th xem nh kho d tr nng lng.

    - Nng lng in: Nng lng xut hin khi cc ht tch in (in t) c gom li trong mt vng khng gian (trng hp ca dng in).

    - Nng lng c: Nng lng ny c gn vi khi nim v tr (th nng ca nc b gi bi mt con p) v s chuyn ng (s xung ca nc v tucbin) ca mt khi lng vt cht. Nng lng gi v thy triu minh ha dng nng lng ny.

    - Nng lng nhit: Nng lng nhit l kt qu t s bin i ngu nhin n s chuyn ng c hng ca cc phn t. Nng lng ny c gi l sc nng.

  • Bi ging Sinh thi cng nghip Chng 1: Cc khi nim chung

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ngi son : PGS.TS. Nguyn Th Kim Thi Vin Khoa hc v KTMT- i hc Xy dng

    7

    l mt dng c bn ca vic s dng nng lng. Dng nng lng ny c gii phng bt c lc no sinh ra cng.

    - Nng lng ca vt cht: dng nng lng ny c bit n nhiu di ci tn nng lng ht nhn. l lin kt gia cc ht to thnh nhn ca mt nguyn t. Nng lng ny thu c bng s phn hch (phn ht nhn thnh nhiu ht) hoc bng s hp nguyn t (hp hai nhn ngho thnh ht). Trong hai trng hp nng lng c gii phng di dng ca mt tia phng x hoc theo mt lng nhit.

    Trong h sinh thi nng lng c tch lu trong cc nguyn liu thc vt. N c th biu th bng nhiu cch, nhng ch yu l sinh khi cht kh trn mt n v din tch. S nng lng gim dn t mc inh dng ny sang mc dinh dng k tip. iu xy ra do hai nguyn nhn:

    - Nng lng mt i gi cc bc dinh dng. Nh chng ta bit, s bin i nng lng t dng ny sang dng khc khng c bo ton 100%. Bt c lc no dng nng lng t mc dinh dng ny sang mc dinh dng khc v nguyn liu ca mt c th ny, bin i xy dng nguyn liu cho c th khc u tiu hao nng lng.

    - Nng lng mt i trong mc dinh dng. Tt c cc sinh vt u phi h hp

    sng. H hp lm oxy ho hydratcacbon v gii phng nng lng. Qu trnh c th tm tt nh sau: Hydratcacbon + O2 ----- CO2 + H2O + nng lng

    Bng cch nng lng c s dng trong mi mt mc dinh dng. Tc ng tng hp ca hai nguyn nhn trn c ngha l dng nng lng gim dn theo cc mc k tip. Nh vy mi dng trong cc dng nng lng c th chuyn ha t dng ny sang dng khc v ngc li. y chnh l mt c trng nht ca nng lng trong i sng v hot ng kinh t. Vic qun l v x l ph liu c mi quan h c bit vi nng lng nhiu mt:

    - Sn xut ph liu cng trng khai thc ti nguyn, vn chuyn v s dng: ph t...

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