Bai giang TCSX CK

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<p>T chc Sn xut C kh1 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM CHNG I I TNG V NHIM V CA MN HC T CHC SN XUT C KH 1.1. Khi nim v t chc sn xut. T chc sn xut c kh ni chung l khoa hc nghin cu t hp cc iu kin v yu t tc ng trong qu trnh sn xut trn c s ng dng cc kin thc thc t hon thnh k hoch theo ng ch tiu nhm khng ngng nng cao mc sng v kinh t, x hi, vt cht, vn ha, tinh thn. i tng nghin cu khoa hc ca t chc sn xut c kh bao gm. + Hnh thcv phng php t chc ca cc nh my trn c s s dng cc tin t v khoa hc k thut vi s ti u ca ngun vn. + Cc phng php nng cao nng sut lao ng v tin lng. +Ccphngphpgimgithnhvnngcaonngsutlaong,tnglinhun trn c s s dng cc bi ton v kinh t. 1.2. Mi quan h ca t chc sn xut vi cc mn hc khc. Mn hc t chc sn xut chim v tr trung gian gia cc mn hc kinh t v kthut.Nidungmnhccxydngtrnkinthcvkinht,kthutcng vikinhnghimthct.Ccmnhckinhtlcslthuyt,xcnhphng php giiquyt ccvn t ra ivi mt nh my ckh trong cc iukin c th cn cc mn hc k thut nghin cu v nguyn liu, vt liu, chi tit v thit b. 1.3. Kinh nghim t chc sn xut t bn ch ngha. (Sv t c). T chc Sn xut C kh2 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM CHNG II QU TRNH SN XUT V T CHC QU TRNH SN XUT 2.1. Khi nim trnh sn xut v qu trnh cng ngh. Qutrnhsnxutltonbhotngcchcaconnginhmbin nguynvt liu thnh sn phm hon thin. Qu trnh sn xut dc hiu theo ngha rngv ngha hp. Theo ngha rng qu trnh sn xut baogm tkhukhai qung, luynkim,chtophi,giacngc,lprpTheonghahp,vdtrongmtnh my c kh qu trnh sn xut bao gm t khu ch to phi, gia cng v lp rp. Giai on ch to phi c dng ch to cc loi phi c, rn, dp, hn. Giaiongiacngthchinccnguyncngnhgiacngc,nhit,hav cc hnh thc gia cng khc. Giai on lp rp thc hin cc mi ghp chi tit vi nhau to thnh mt sn phm hon thin. Qu trnh cng ngh l n v nh hn qu trnh sn xut. Qu trnh cng ngh lmt phn ca qu trnh sn xut, trc tip lm thay i trng thiv tnh cht ca i tng sn xut: Kch thc, hnh dng, tnh cht c l ha ca vt liu, v tr tng quan gia cc b phn. Qu trnh cng ngh gia cng c l qu trnh ct gt phi lm thay i kch thc v hnh dng ca n. Qu trnh cng ngh nhit luyn l qu trnh lm thay i tnh cht vt l, ha hc ca chi tit. Qu trnh cng ngh lp rp l qu trnh to thnh nhng quan h tng quan gia cc chi tit thng qua cc loi lin kt mi lp ghp. Ngoi ra cn c cc qu trnh cng ngh ch to phi nh qu trnh cng ngh c, hn, gia cng p lc Xc nh qu trnh cng ngh hp l ri ghi thnh vnkin cng ngh thvn kin cng ngh c gi l quy trnh cng ngh. Qu trnh cng ngh hp l l qu trnhcngnghthamncccyucucachitit:chnhxcgiacng, nhm b mt, v tr tng quan 2.2. Khi nim nguyn cng. Nguyn cng l mt phn ca quy trnh cng ngh c hon thnh lin tc ti mt ch lm vic do mt hay nhiu nhm cng nhn thc hin gia cng mt hoc mtschititcnglc.Tythucvmctrangbkthutnguyncngc chia ra: -Nguyn cng c thc hin bng tay: Sa ngui, lp rp, lm sch. T chc Sn xut C kh3 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM -Nguyn cng bn c kh: l cc nguyn cng c thc hin bng my nhng csthamgiatrctipllintccacngnhn(VD:Giacngchitittrn my tin vi phng php chy dao bng tay. -Nguyn cng c kh: l cc nguyn cng c thc hin bng my vi s tham giahnchcacngnhn(VD:Khigiacngtrnmycngcngicng nhn ch thc hin cc ng tc nh g, tho chi tit, kim tra, iu chnh). -Nguyn cng t ng ha: l cc nguyn cng c thc hin hon ton bng my m khng c s tham gia ca cng nhn hoc ch c di hnh thc gim st. 2.3. Cc dng sn xut. Tytheosnlnghngnm,mcnnhcasnphmchiara3dngsn xut: Sn xut n chic, sn xut hng lot, sn xut hngkhi. 2.3.1. Sn xut n chic. Sn xut n chic l dng sn xut c sn lng hng nm rt t (tmt n vichcchic),snphmkhngnnhdochngloinhiu,chukchtoli khng xc nh. Sn xut n chic c nhng c im sau: -Ti mt ch lm vic gia cng nhiu loi chi tit khc nhau. -Gia cng v lp rp theo tin trnh cng ngh (quy trnh cng ngh s lc). -S dng thit b v dng c vn nng, thit b c b tr theo loi v theo tng b phn sn xut khc nhau. -S dng g vn nng. -Khng thc hin c lp ln hon ton. -Cng nhn c tay ngh cao. -Nng sut lao ng thp, gi thnh sn phm cao. 3.2.2 Sn xut hng lot. Snxuthnglotldngsnsutcsnlnghngnmkhngqut,sn phmchtotheotnglotvichukxcnh.Snphmtnginnh.Sn xut hng lot c nhng c im sau: -Ti cc ch lmvic c thc hinmt s nguyn cng c chuk lp li n nh. -Gia cng c v lp rp thc hin theo quy trnh cng ngh. -S dng my vn nng v chuyn dng. -S dng nhiu g v dng c chuyn dng. -Cc my b tr theo quy trnh cng ngh. -m bo nguyn tc lp ln hon ton. -Cng nhn c trnh trung bnh. Ty theo sn lng v mc n nh ca sn phm m ngi ta chia ra: Sn xuthnglotnh,snxuthnglotvavsnxuthnglotln.snxuthng lot nh rt gn vi sn xut n chic, cn sn xut hng lot ln rt gn vi sn xut hng khi. T chc Sn xut C kh4 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM 2.3.3. Sn xut hng khi. Snxuthngkhildngsnxutcsnlngrtln,snphmnnh trong thi gian di (t 1 n 5 nm). Sn sut hng khi c cc c im sau. -Ti mi ch lm vic c thc hin c nh mt nguyn cng. -Cc my b tr theo quy trnh cng ngh. -Sdngnhiumythp,mytng,mychuyndngvngdyt ng. -Giacngchititvlprpsnphmcthchintheophngphpdy chuyn lin tc. -S dng g, dng c ct v dng c o chuyn dng. -m bo nguyn tc lp ln hon ton. -Nng sut lao ng cao, gi thnh sn phm h. -Cng nhn ng my c trnh khng cao nhng th iu chnh my phi c trnh cao. 2.4. Nhp sn xut. Trongsnxuthnglotlnvhngkhithngsdngphngphpsn xuttheodychuynivicgiacngcvlprp.Theophngphpnycc mycbtrtheothtccnguyncng.Svtrvnngsutphictnh tonngbsaochokhngxyrahintngthiuhaythachititccnguyn cng.Munchodychuynsnxutngbthqutrnhsnxutphituntheo nhp sn xut nht nh. Nhpsnxutlkhongthigianlplichukgiacng(hoclprp)v c tnh bng cng thc. t =Pq t: Nhp sn xut. F: Thi gian lm vic (gia cng) tnh theo ca, thng, nm (pht). q: S lng chi tit (hoc sn phm) c ch to ra trong thi gian F. V d: Trong mt ngy lm vic 8h ta c F = 8x60 = 480 pht, gia cng c q = 60 chitit.Vynhpsnxutslt=3(pht).iunynghalthigiancami nguyncng l 3 pht hoc l bi s ca 3 (v d, nguyn cng ct rng c 4my lm vic mi kp cho nguyn cng trc bi v mi my ct rng phi ct mt chi tit mt 12 pht, tc l bi s ca 3). 2.5. Thnh phn sn xut ca nh my c kh. Cutocamtnhmysnxutckhbaogmccnvsnxutring bit c gi l cc phn xng v cc b phn khc. Nhn chung thnh phn ca mt nh myc kh c th c chia ra cc nhm sau y: T chc Sn xut C kh5 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM -Cc phn xng chun b phi: Phn xng c thp, c gang, c hp kim, rn, dp -Cc phn xng gia cng: Phn xng gia cng c, nhit luyn, dp ngui, gia cng g -Cc phn xng ph: Phn xng dng c, sa cha c kh, sa cha in, ch to khun mu, th nghim, chy th -Cc kho cha: Kho cha vt liu, dng c, khun mu, nhin liu, sn phm -Cctrmcungcpnnglng:Trmcungcpin,nhit,hip,khnn, nc -Cc c cu vn chuyn. -Cc thit b v sinh k thut: Thit b si, thng gi, ng cp nc, h thng cng rnh. -Ccbphnchung:Phngthnghimchungtm,phngthnghimcng ngh, phng th nghim o lng trung tm, cc vn phng, trm x, nh n, h thng lin lc 2.6. Cc nguyn tc t chc qu trnh sn xut. 2.6.1. Nguyn tc chuyn mn ha. Chuyn mn ha l hnh thc phn chia lao ng x hi cho tng ngnh, tng nh, tng phn xng, tng cng on v tng ch lm vic. Mc chuyn mn ha ca cc nh my c kh ph thuc vo quy m sn xut v khi lng lao ng ch to mt sn phm. 2.6.2. Nguyn tc chun ha kt cu. S dng nguyen tc ny cho php nng cao nng sut gia cng (do cc kt cu ca sn phm c tiu chun ha) v h gi thnh sn phm. 2.6.3. Nguyn tc chun ha cng ngh. Trongqutrnhthitkquytrnhcngnghphicgngtcmc gingnhaucaonhtvccphngphpgiacng,ccchcngnghvktcu ca g, dng c 2.6.4. Nguyn tc cn i hi ha. Theo nguyn tc ny nn t chc sn xut sao cho nng sut lao ng ca tt c cc b phn sn xut tng i ngang nhau. Nguyn tc ny l c s c kh ha x nghip. 2.6.5. Nguyn tc song song. Nguyn tc ny c hiu l nn thc hin song song tt c cc phn cng vic ca qu trnh sn xut. Nguyn tc song song c th hin phng php tp trung nguyncngtrnccmynhiudao,nhiutrcchnh,mynhiuvtr,mybnt ng v my t hp. 2.6.6. Nguyn tc thng dng. T chc Sn xut C kh6 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM Nguyntcnychiulcntoraqungngingnnhtcasn phmquattccccngonvnguyncngcaqutrnhsnxutktkhich to nguyn vt liu cho n khi sn phm xut xng. 2.6.7. Nguyn tc lin tc. Nguyn tc lin tc ca qu trnh sn xut c ngha l loi b hoc gim thiu ccginontrongsnxut,lccginongiaccnguyncng,trongtng nguyn cng v gia cc ca lm vic. My mc cng hin i th mc lin tc ca qu trnh sn xut cng cao. Sn xut t ng ha c mc lin tc cao nht. 2.6.8. Nguyn tc nhp nhng. Nguyntcnhpnhngihichtoslngsnphmnhnhau(hoc lngtnglnnhnhau)trongnhngkhongthigiannhnhauvlplisaumt chu k sn xut tt c cc cng on v cc nguyn cng. 2.6.9. Nguyn tc t ng ha. Nguyn tc ny i hi ng dng ti a cc nguyn cng t ng ha, c ngha l khng c s thamgia trc tip ca cng nhn hoc nu c ch ngvai trngim st v kim tra. Nguyn tc ny khng hi p dng cho quy trnh cng ngh m cn cho qutrnhqunlchungcahmy,chochunbcngngh,kimtrasnphmv cc hnh thc phc v ni chung. 2.6.10. Nguyn tc d phng. Theo nguyn tc ny th t chc sn xut phi hin i nhm loi b nhng s c ca thit b, nhng ph phm ca chi tit hoc bt k sai st no ca qu trnh sn xut. Vd:sdngtiaccdychuyntngcnphitchcsachathitb theo nh k loi b kh nng sut hin s c ngu nhin ca thit b, phi t chc kim tra cht lng sn phm kp thi iu chnh li dy chuyn t ng hoc quy trnh cng ngh. T chc Sn xut C kh7 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM CHNG III T CHC SN XUT THEO THI GIAN 3.1. Thi gian v cu trc ca chu k sn xut. Thi gian ca chu k sn xut (chu k sn xut) l khong thi gian t lc bt u v khi kt thc ca qu trnh sn xut ch to mt sn phm hoc mt lot sn phm. Thi gian ca chu k sn xut c tnh theo gi hoc theo ngy. Thi gian ca chu k sn xut gm 2 phn: thi gian lm vic v thi gian gin on. - Thi gian lm vic l thi gian m quy trnh cng ngh (cc nguyn cng) v cc cng vic chun b (iu chnh my) c thc hin. Thi gian lm vic cn c gilthigiancngngh.Thigiannybaogmthigiannguyncng,thigian phcv(kimtra,vnchuyn),thigianccqutrnhtnhin(thigianlmkh sn phm sau khi sn, thi gian lm ngui chi tit ngoi khng kh). - Thi gian gin on chia ra thi gian gin on gia cc gnuyn cng v thi gianginongiacccalmvic.Thigianginongiaccnguyncngbao gm gin on theo lot, gin on ch i v gin on sp b. Gin on theo lot ngha l mi chi tit trong lot sau khi c gia cng xong mtnguyncngbtkuphinmchnkhichititcuicngtrongloti qua. Ginonchinghalthigiangiacngcaccnguyncngknhau khng ging nhau, do cc chi tit c th phi ch i n lc c gia cng. Gin on sp b ngha l cc phi hoc chi tit c gia cng xong nhng ccphivchititkhc(cngb)vnchacgiacngxong.Vd,khispb cc chi tit khi gia cng c sang phn xng lp rp. Ginongiacccalmvicxcnhbngchlmvictheolch.N cn c hiu l cc ngy ngh, ngy l v tnh c thi gian n tra. 3.2. Chu k ch to chi tit. Chukchtochititbaogmtngchuknguyncngvthigiangin on. Ict = Inc + Incc + + Ic + Ikt + Itn + Igd Tncr: thi gian ca nguyn cng rn dp. Tncc: thi gian ca cc nguyn cng gia cng c. Tvc: thi gian vn chuyn. Tkt: thi gian kim tra. T chc Sn xut C kh8 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM Ttn: thi gian ca cc qu trnh t nhin. Tgd: thi gian gin on. ThigiannguyncngnichungTncctinhnhsau:khitinguyncng nongthicmtsmylmvicththigiangiacngclotchititTnc c tnh bng: Inc=n.ttcc n: s chi tit c gia cng trong lot. c: s ch lm vic ca nguyn cng. ttc: thi gian tng chic. Khi xc nh thi gian ca chu k nhiu nguyn cng cn phi tnh mc gia cngngthitrnnhiunguyncngkhcnhaucaquytrnhcngngh.Mc ny ph thuc vo phng php phi hp theo thi gian thc hin nguyn cng. C 3 phngphpphihpnguyncnghay3dngdichuyncaitngtnguyn cng ny sang nguyn cng khc: -Di chuyn ni tip -Di chuyn ni tip song song. -Di chuyn song song. Bn cht ca di chuyn ni tip l nguyn cng tip theo ch c bt u sau khi nguyn cng trc kt thc. 1234nt4 nt3 nt2 nt1Thi gian Nguyn cng T chc Sn xut C kh9 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM Int = nt1 + nt2 + nt3 + = ntn=1 nt1: thi gian ni tip 1 (hoc c n nguyn cng t1 ni tip nhau). Dichuynnitipsongsongthhinsphihpthigianthchin2 nguyn cngk nhau. Trong trng hp ny ton b lot chi tit i qua tng nguyn cng m khng c s gin on no. Cn phn bit 2 phng n di chuyn ni tip song song: + Thi gian ca nguyn cng trc nh hn thi gian ca nguyn cng sau. + Thi gian ca nguyn cng trc ln hn thi gian ca nguyn cng sau. Tnt-ss = Tnc2 + pt1 1 = Inc1 pt1 = t1( n p) Tnt-ss = Tnc1 + pt2 2 = Inc2 pt2 = t2( n p): Thi gian rt ngn c. V tr s ca ng vi nguyn cng c thi gian ngn hn, do cc cng thc trn c th vit li nh sau: = tn( n p)T chc Sn xut C kh10 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM tn: Thi gian nguyn cng c thi gian ngn hn. n: S chi tit trong lot. p: S chi tit (trong lot n chi tit) c di chuyn t nguyn cng ny sang nguyn cng khc. Nguyn tc xy dng dng di chuyn ni tip song songvi quytrnh cng ngh gm 2 nguyn cng c th c p dng cho bt k 2 nguyn cng k nhau no ca quy trnh cng ngh nhiu nguyn cng. Int-ss = Int ` m-1=1 m: tng s nguyn cng chuyn t ni tip sang song song c thi gian trng khp ln nhau. Vy thi gian ca chu k nguyn cng khi di chuyn ni tip song song bng hiugia thigianca chuk nguyn cngkhi di chuyn ni tipv tngthigian trng khp. 3.3. Chy k ch to sn phm. Chu k ch to sn phm bao gm chu k ch to cc chi tit ring l, chu k lp rp, chu k cc nguyn cng sa ngui, iu chnh, chy r v chy th. 3.4. Cc bin php gim chu k sn xut. Chu k sn xut c th c gim theo hai cch: + Gim thi gian gia cng. + Loi b hon ton hoc gim thiu thi gian gin on. Gimthigiangiacngcthtcbngcchhonthinqutrnhcng nghvtngtnhcngnghtrongktcucasnphm.Honthinquytrnhcng ngh c thc hinbng ckh hav t gj ha, dngch ct cao, ng dng cc cng ngh tin tin v p dng phng php tp trung nguyn cng. T chc Sn xut C kh11 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM Thigianvnchuyncthgimbngcchbtrthitbtheonguyntc thngdngvckhhacchthngvnchuyn.Thigiankimtracthgim bngcchckhha,tnghaccnguyncngkimtra,pdngphngphp kim tra thng k v cc phng php kim tra tch cc. Thi gian gin on gia cc nguyn cng c th gim c bng cch chuyn tgia cng ni tip sang ni tip song song hoc song song. loi tr hon ton thigianginongiaccnguyncngchcthgiacngtheodychuynlin. Thi gian gia cc ca c th gim bng cch lm vic theo ca. T chc Sn xut C kh12 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM CHNG IV T CHC SN XUT THEO KHNG GIAN 4.1. Cu trc sn xut ca nh my. Trongbtknhmyckhnouc:ccphnxngchnh,ccphn xng ph v cc b phn phc v. - Cc phn xng chnh gm: cc phn xng c, rn dp, gia cng c, nhit luyn, lp rp. -Ccphnxngphbaogm:phnxngdngc,lmmu,sachac kh, sa cha in -Ccbphnphcvbaogm:cckhocha,ccbphnvnchuyn,v sinh, y t v cc b phn khc. Cu trc ca mt nh my c kh thng dng nht c tnh n mc chuyn mn ha c minh ha trn hnh v sau. S1:Mtccnhmycchukcngnghkhpkn,baogmttccc phn xng chun b phi, gia cng c, lp rp. S 2: M t cc nh my gia cng c v lp rp cn phi c cp t nh my khc trong khun kh hp tc sn xut. T chc Sn xut C kh13 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM LR: lp rp. GCC: gia cng c CBP: chun b phi S 3: m t cc nh my lp rp nhng chi tit c ch to t cc nh my khc. S 4: m t cc nh my chuyn mn ha ch ch to cc loi phi. S 5: m t cc nh my chuyn mn ha ch ch to cc loi chi tit nh bnh rng, vng bi, c vt Thnhphncaccphnxngphvccbphnphcvphthucvo yu cu ca cc qu trnh sn xut trong phn xng chnh. 4.2. Hnh thc chuyn mn ha phn xng. C hai hnh thc chuyn mn ha phn xng. - Theo du hiu thc hin quy trnh cng ngh (chuyn mn ha cng ngh). - Theo du hiu ch to sn phm (chuyn mn ha i tng). Chuyn mn ha cng ngh c c trng bng cc phn xng thchin cc qutrnhcngnghnhtnh:vdccphanxngc,rndp,giacngc,lp rp Trong chuyn mn ha cng ngh mi phn xng thc hin mt hoc mt s nguyncngchtomtsnphmnhtnh.Ccphnxngnythngtnti trong cc nh my c mc chuyn mn ha rng c trng cho sn xut n chic v hng lot. Chuyn mn ha sn phm c trng cho cc nh my c mc chuyn mn ha hp, c trng cho sn xut hng lot ln v hng khi. Cc phn xng c nhim 2 34 5LR LR LRGCCCBPGCC GCCCBP CBPT chc Sn xut C kh14 GV. Phm Ngc Hiu - B mn CNCTM vchtoccchititringbithoccccmchititthngthngvichngloi hn ch. 4.3. Cu trc sn xut ca phn xng. Cutrcphnxngchiulthnhphnvhnhthcquanhcacc cng on sn xut v cc b phn khc trong phn xng. Tng t nh chuyn m...</p>