Bai Tap Hoa 10Phi Kim

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    Chng I: Cc halogen

    A. Tm tt l thuyt:

    Nhm halogen gm flo (F), clo (Cl), brom (Br) v iot (I). c im chung ca nhm l

    v tr nhm VIIA trong bng tun hon, c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng l ns2np5. Cc

    halogen thiu mt electron na l bo ha lp electron ngoi cng, do chng c xu hng

    nhn electron, th hin tnh oxi ha mnh. Tr flo, cc nguyn t halogen khc u c cc

    obitan d trng, iu ny gip gii thch cc s oxi ha +1, +3, + 5, +7 ca cc halogen.Nguyn t in hnh, c nhiu ng dng nht ca nhm VIIA l clo.

    I- Clo

    a. Tnh cht vt l L cht kh mu vng lc, t tan trong nc.

    b. Tnh cht ho hc: Clo l mt cht oxi ho mnh th hin cc phn ng sau:

    1- Tc dng vi kim loi Kim loi mnh: 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

    Kim loi trung bnh: 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3

    Kim loi yu: Cu + Cl2 CuCl2

    2- Tc dng vi phi kim Cl2 + H2 as 2HCl

    3- Tc dng vi nc Cl2 + H2O HCl + HClONu dung dch nc clo ngoi nh sng, HClO khng bn phn hu theo phng trnh:

    HClO HCl + OS to thnh oxi nguyn t lm cho nc clo c tnh ty mu v dit trng.

    4- Tc dng vi dung dch kim: Cl2 + 2KOH0t th-ng KCl + KClO + H2O

    3Cl2 + 6KOH075 C> 5KCl + KClO3 + 3H2O

    2Cl2 + 2Ca(OH)2 long CaCl2 + Ca(OCl)2 + 2H2O Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 huyn ph CaOCl2 +H2O

    5- Tc dng vi dung dch mui ca halogen ng sau:

    Cl2 + 2NaBr 2NaCl + Br2 Cl2 + 2NaI 2NaCl + I2

    6- Tc dng vi hp cht: 2FeCl2 + Cl2 2FeCl3 6FeSO4 + 3Cl2 2Fe2(SO4)3 + 2FeCl3

    SO2 + Cl2 + 2H2O H2SO4+ 2HCl H2S + 4Cl2 + 4H2O H2SO4+ 8HCl

    c. iu ch Nguyn tc: Oxi ho 2ClCl2bng cc cht oxi ho mnh, chng hn nh:

    MnO2 + 4HCl c0t MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

    2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 5Cl2 + 8H2O

    2NaCl + 2H2Opddmnx

    2NaOH + Cl2 + H2

    II- Axit HCl

    1- Tc dng vi kim loi (ng trc H): 2Al + 6HCl 2AlCl3 +3 H2 Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 +

    H2

    2- Tc dng vi baz: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O 2HCl + Mg(OH)2 MgCl2 + H2O

    3- Tc dng vi oxit baz Al2O3 + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2O CuO + 2HCl CuCl2 + H2O

    4- Tc dng vi mui (to kt ta hoc cht bay hi) CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2+H2O

    FeS + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2S Na2SO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + SO2+ H2O

    AgNO3 + HCl AgCl + HNO3

    5- iu ch H2 + Cl2 as 2HCl NaCl tinh th + H2SO4 c0t NaHSO4 + HCl

    (hoc 2NaCl tinh th + H2SO4 c0t 2Na2SO4 + HCl)

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    III. Nc Giaven Cl2 + 2KOH KCl + KClO + H2O Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl +NaClO + H2O (Dung dch KCl + KClO + H2O hoc NaCl + NaClO+ H2O -

    c gi l nc Giaven)

    IV. Clorua vI iu ch: Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 sa viCaOCl2 + 2H2O

    (Hp cht CaOCl2 c gi l clorua vi)

    B. Bi tp c li gii:

    bi

    1. Gy n hn hp gm ba kh trong bnh kn. Mt kh c iu ch bng cch cho axit

    clohiric c d tc dng vi 21,45g Zn. Kh th hai thu c khi phn hu 25,5g natri nitrat, ph

    ng trnh phn ng:

    2NaNO3 0

    t 2NaNO2 + O2

    Kh th ba thu c do axit clohiric c, c d tc dng vi 2,61g mangan ioxit.

    Tnh nng phn trm (%) ca cht trong dung dch thu c sau khi gy ra n.

    2. Khi cho 20m3 khng kh c cha kh clo i qua mt ng ng mui KBr, khi lng ca

    mui gim bt 178 mg. Xc nh hm lng ca kh clo (mg/m3) trong khng kh.

    3. Hn hp A gm hai kim loi Mg v Zn. Dung dch B l dung dch HCl nng a mol/lt.Th nghim 1: Cho 8,9g hn hp A vo 2 lt dung dch B, kt thc phn ng thu c 4,48ltH2 (ktc).

    Th nghim 2: Cho 8,9g hn hp A vo 3 lt dung dch B, kt thc phn ng cng thu c4,48lt H2 (ktc).

    Tnh a v phn trm khi lng mi kim loi trong A? Cho: Mg = 24, Zn = 65, H = 1, Cl = 35,5.

    4. Hn hp A gm KClO3, Ca(ClO3)2, Ca(ClO)2, CaCl2 v KCl nng 83,68 gam. Nhit phn hon

    ton A ta thu c cht rn B gm CaCl2, KCl v mt th tch O2 va oxi ho SO2 thnh

    SO3 iu ch 191,1 gam dung dch H2SO4 80%. Cho cht rn B tc dng vi 360 ml dung

    dch K2CO3 0,5M (va ) thu c kt ta C v dung dch D. Lng KCl trong dung dch Dnhiu gp 22/3 ln lng KCl c trong A.

    Tnh khi lng kt ta A. Tnh % khi lng ca KClO3 trong A.5. Ho tan 1,74g MnO2 trong 200ml axit clohiric 2M. Tnh nng (mol/l) ca HCl v

    MnCl2 trong dung dch sau khi phn ng kt thc. Gi thit kh clo thot hon ton khi

    dung dch v th tch ca dung dch khng bin i.

    6. Khi un nng mui kali clorat, khng c xc tc, th mui ny b phn hu ng thi

    theo hai phng trnh ha hc sau: 2 KClO32 KCl + 3 O2 (a) 4 KClO33KClO4 + KCl (b)

    Hy tnh:

    Phn trm khi lng KClO3 b phn hu theo (a)? Phn trm khi lng KClO3 b phn hu

    theo (b)?

    Bit rng khi phn hu hon ton 73,5g kali clorat th thu c 33,5g kali clorua.

    7. Hon thnh s bin ho sau : FAKClOLCvMLOHG

    CGA

    FEDCSOHMnOA

    BAKClO

    3

    t

    2

    pnc

    422

    t3

    0

    0

    +++++

    +

    +++++

    +

    8. Cho axit clohiric, thu c khi ch ha 200g mui n cng nghip (cn cha mt lng

    ng k tp cht), tc dng vi d MnO2 c mt lng kh clo phn ng vi 22,4g st

    kim loi.

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    Xc nh hm lng % ca NaCl trong mui n cng nghip.

    9. Cn bao nhiu gam KMnO4 v bao nhiu ml dung dch axit clohiric 1M c kh clo

    tc dng vi st to nn 16,25g FeCl3?

    10. Nung mA gam hn hp A gm KMnO4 v KClO3 ta thu c cht rn A1 v kh O2. Bit

    KClO3 b phn hu hon ton theo phn ng : 2KClO32KCl + 3O2

    (1)

    cn KMnO4 b phn hu mt phn theo phn ng : 2KMnO4 K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 (2)

    Trong A1 c 0,894 gam KCl chim 8,132% khi lng. Trn lng O2 thu c trn vi khng kh

    theo t l th tch V 2o : Vkk = 1:3 trong mt bnh kn ta c hn hp kh A2.Cho vo bnh 0,528 gam cacbon ri t chy ht cacbon thu c hn hp kh A3 gm ba

    kh, trong CO2 chim 22,92% th tch. a. Tnh khi lng mA. b. Tnh % khi lng ca

    cc cht trong hn hp A.

    Cho bit: Khng kh cha 80% N2 v 20% O2 v th tch.

    11. in phn nng chy a gam mui A to bi kim loi M v halogen X ta thu c 0,96g kim

    loi M catt v 0,896 lt kh (ktc) ant. Mt khc ho tan a gam mui A vo nc, sau

    cho tc dng vi AgNO3 d th thu c 11,48 gam kt ta.

    1. Hi X l halogen no ?

    2. Trn 0,96 gam kim loi M vi 2,242 gam kim loi M c cng ho tr duy nht, ri t

    ht hn hp bng oxi th thu c 4,162 gam hn hp hai oxit. ho tan hon ton hn hp

    oxit ny cn 500ml dung dch H2SO4 nng C (mol/l).

    a. Tnh % s mol ca cc oxit trong hn hp ca chng.

    b. Tnh t l khi lng nguyn t ca M v M.

    c. Tnh C (nng dung dch H2SO4). Cho: F = 19; Cl = 35,5 ; Br = 80 ; I = 127 ; Ag =

    108 ; O = 16.12. A, B l cc dung dch HCl c nng khc nhau. Ly V lt dung dch A cho tc dng vi

    AgNO3 d th to thnh 35,875 gam kt ta. trung ho V lt dung dch B cn dng 500 ml

    dung dch NaOH 0,3 M.

    1. Trn V lt dung dch A vi V lt dung dch B ta c 2 lt dung dch C (cho V + V = 2

    lt). Tnh nng mol/l ca dung dch C.

    2. Ly 100 ml dung dch A v 100 ml dung dch B cho tc dng ht vi Fe th lng H2thot ra t hai dung dch chnh lch nhau 0,448 lt (ktc). Tnh nng mol/l ca cc dung

    dch A, B.

    Cho: Cl = 35,5 ; Ag = 108.13. Cho kh HI vo mt bnh kn ri un nng n nhit xc nh xy ra phn

    ng sau: 2 HI (k) H2 (k) + I2 (k) H = 52 kJ.

    1. Tnh nng lng lin kt H I, bit rng nng lng lin kt H H v I I tng ng bng

    435,9 kJ/mol v 151 kJ/mol.

    2. Tnh phn trm s mol HI b phn ly thnh H2 v I2 khi phn ng t ti trng thi

    cn bng, bit rng tc phn ng thun (vt) v nghch (vn) c tnh theo cng thc: vt= kt [HI]2 v vn = kn [H2][I2] v kn = 64 kt.

    3. Nu lng HI cho vo ban u l 0,5 mol v dung tch bnh phn ng l 5 lt th khi

    trng thi cn bng nng mol/l ca cc cht trong phn ng l bao nhiu?4. Nhit , p sut v cht xc tc c nh hng nh th no n s chuyn dch cn

    bng ca phn ng trn ? Da vo nguyn l Lsatlie hy gii thch ?

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    14. un 8,601 gam hn hp A ca natri clorua, kali clorua v amoni clorua n khi lng

    khng i. Cht rn cn li nng 7,561 gam, c ho tan trong nc thnh mt lt dung

    dch. Ngi ta thy 2 ml dung dch phn ng va vi 15,11 ml dung dch bc nitrat 0,2 M.

    Tnh % khi lng ca Na, K, N, H v Cl trong hn hp.

    15. 1. Ngi ta c th iu ch Cl2 bng cch cho HCl c, d tc dng vi m1 gam MnO2, m2gam KMnO4, m3 gam KClO3, m4 gam K2Cr2O7.

    a. Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra.

    b. lng Cl2 thu c cc trng hp u bng nhau th t l: m1 : m2 : m3 : m4 s phinh th no ?.

    c. Nu m1 = m2 = m3 = m4 th trng hp no thu c nhiu Cl2 nht, trng hp no thu

    c Cl2 t nht (khng cn tnh ton, s dung kt qu cu b).

    2. Nn dng amoniac hay nc vi trong loi kh c Cl2 trong phng th nghim, ti

    sao ?

    Hng dn gii

    1. Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2

    65g 1 mol

    21,45g x = 0,33mol2 NaNO3

    0t 2 NaNO2 + O2

    2.85g 1mol

    25,5g y = 0,15mol

    MnO2 + 4 HCl MnCl2 + Cl2+ 2 H2O

    87g 1mol

    2,61g 0,03mol

    Phn ng xy ra gia cc kh theo phng trnh phn ng :

    2H2 + O2 2H2O

    0,3mol 0,15mol 0,3mol

    H2 + Cl2 2HCl

    0,03mol 0,03mol 0,06mol

    Nh vy, cc kh tc dng vi nhau va , phn ng to thnh 0,3mol nc hay 0,3 . 18 = 5,4

    (g) nc ; 0,06mol hiro clorua, hay 0,06 . 36,5 = 2,19 (g) HCl. Kh HCl tan trong nc to thnh

    axit clohiric

    %85,28%100.19,24,5

    19,2%C HCl =

    +=

    2. Cl2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br2Sau khi phn ng, mui KBr gim khi lng l v clo thay th brom. Mt mol Br 2 c

    khi lng ln hn mt mol Cl2 l: 160g 71g = 89g. S mol Cl2 phn ng l:

    (mol002,089

    178,0=

    Lng kh clo c trong 20m3

    khng kh l : 71g 0,002 = 0,0142g hay 14,2 mg

    Hm lng ca kh clo trong khng kh l :

    3m/mg1,720mg2,14

    =

    3. T d kin ca bi ton nhn thy lng HCl dng trong th nghim 1 l va hotan ht hn hp kim loi.

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    Nn s mol HCl c trong 2 lt dung dch B l:4,48

    .2 0,422,4

    = (mol) nng HCl trong dung

    dch B l: a = 0,2 (mol/l).

    Gi s mol Mg, Zn trong 8,9 gam hn hp ln lt l x v y. Ta c h phng trnh ton hc:

    24x 65y 8,9

    x y 0,2

    + = + =

    (0,2 l tng s mol H2 thot ra)

    Gii ra ta c x = 0,1 v y = 0,1. Vy %mMg = 0,1.24.100% 26,97%8,9

    = v %mZ