Bao Cao Quy Hoach Mang Luoi Gt

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Quy Hoach Mang Luoi Gt

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CHNG INghin cu pht trin bn vng kt cu h tng giao thng Vit NamBo co tng hpMC LC1M U3CHNG I3C S KHOA HC V THC TIN PHT TRIN BN VNG KT CU H TNG GIAO THNG VIT NAM31.1. C s khoa hc v pht trin bn vng kt cu h tng giao thng31.1.1. Mt s khi nim v kt cu h tng (KCHT)51.1.2. Khi nim v pht trin bn vng71.1.3. Khi nim v pht trin bn vng KCHT_ GT121.2. C s thc tin v pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT121.2.1. Tin trnh thc hin pht trin bn vng ca th gii131.2.2. Nhng cam kt quc t nhm bo v mi trng v PTBV ca Vit Nam161.2.3. Cc ch trng, chnh sch ca NN c lin quan n PTBV h thng GTVT181.2.4. Bi hc kinh nghim v PT bn vng KCHT_ GT ca mt s nc181.3. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu ca tng chuyn ngnh181.3.1. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu chung201.3.2. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu ca tng chuyn ngnh24CHNG 224PHN TCH, NH GI THC TRNG V S PHT TRIN BN VNG KCHT_GT VIT NAM242.1. Tng quan mng li KCHT_GT Vit Nam242.1.1. KCHT_GT ng b282.1.2. KCHT_GT ng st342.1.3. KCHT_GT ng thy ni a372.1.4. KCHT_GT hng hi412.1.5. KCHT_GT hng khng472.1.6. KCHT_GT th512.1.7. KCHT_GT nng thn552.1.8. An ton giao thng572.1.9. Qu t592.2. Phn tch nh gi thc trng v pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT VN592.2.1. nh gi chung602.2.2. nh gi tng chuyn ngnh712.3. D bo nhng tc ng n kinh t, x hi, mi trng trong qu trnh xy dng v khai thc KCHT_GT712.3.1. Bi cnh722.3.2. D bo cc tc ng n pht trin khng bn vng78CHNG 378NH HNG PHT TRIN BN VNG KT CU H TNG GIAO THNG VIT NAM783.1. Quan im v mc tiu pht trin783.1.1. Quan im pht trin783.1.2. Mc tiu pht trin783.2. Xy dng cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT793.2.1. KCHT_GT ng b803.2.1. KCHT_GT ng st813.2.1. KCHT_GT thy ni a833.2.1. KCHT_GT hng hi843.2.1. KCHT_GT hng khng913.3. nh hng pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT913.3.1. nh hng pht trin chung973.3.2. nh hng pht trin bn vng tng chuyn ngnh1273.3.3. Mt s chng trnh d n trng im130CHNG 4130CC GII PHP, CHNH SCH CH YU V L TRNH130THC HIN1304.1. Khung gii php, chnh sch chung1304.1.1. Nhm cc gii php v kinh t1304.1.2. Nhm cc gii php v x hi1314.1.3. Nhm cc gii php v mi trng:1354.1.4. Nhm cc gii php v ti chnh1364.1.5. Nhm cc gii php v th ch1374.2. Mt s chnh sch pht trin KCHT_GT theo tng chuyn ngnh1384.3. L trnh thc hin140KT LUN V KIN NGHMC LC BNG BIU20Bng 1.1. Tm tt cc tiu ch, ch tiu chungBng 2.1. Tng hp mng li ng b24Bng 2.2. So snh mt s ch tiu mng ng b Vit Nam vi mt s nc26Bng 2.3. Chiu di - Kh ng-Nng lc thng qua trn cc tuyn28Bng 2.4. S liu chiu di cc loi ng ca SVN.29Bng 2.5. Cng trnh trang thit b ca ng st29Bng 2.6. T phn "Chiu rng nn ng ca cc tuyn SVN (n v: km)29Bng 2.7. S lng cu hn ch tc 30Bng 2.8. Hm v hn ch tc 31Bng 2.9. Chng loi v chiu di ray (n v: km)31Bng 2.10. S lng cc ghi ang s dng trn SVN32Bng 2.11. Hn ch tc c bit do ghi (tuyn H Ni-Si Gn)32Bng 2.12. S liu ng ngang cc loi33Bng 2.13. Tng hp tiu chun k thut chnh trn cc tuyn ng st quc gia33Bng 2.14. Tng hp hin trng mng li ng st Vit Nam34Bng 2.15. Ti nguyn nc v lu vc sng: (10 sng ln nht Vit Nam)35Bng 2.16. Tng hp hin trng cc tuyn vn ti sng chnh36Bng 2.17. Tng hp hin trng cc cng sng chnh36Bng 2.18. Tng hp hin trng mng li ng thy36Bng 2.19. Kh nng chy tu ca cc lung tuyn chnh38Bng 2.20. Tng hp hin trng cc cng bin tng hp chnh41Bng 2.21. S liu tng hp chung v cc CHK nh sau44Bng 2.22. Tng hp hin trng mng li giao thng th ti mt s TP ln47Bng 2.23. Tng hp hin trng mng li giao thng nng thn51Bng 2.24. So snh tnh hnh TNGT nm 2005 v nm 200855Bng 2.25. Hin trng TNGT ng b phn theo ch tiu TNGT/10.000 dn56Bng 2.26. Tng quan tai nn giao thng ng st t nm 2000-200756Bng 2.27. Tng hp hin trng TNGT hng hi57Bng 2.30. Tng hp cc v tr vt sng cha c cu trn cc quc l61Bng 2.31. Hin trng v kh nng p ng nng lc ca mt s QL chnh62Bng 2.32. Cht lng khng kh (bi) ti cc quc l trc khi xy dng63Bng 2.33. Hin trng cht lng nc trn mt s tuyn giao thng thu chnh65Bng 2.34. T l chiu rng mt ng ti 2 th ln H Ni TP HCM67Bng 2.35. Tnh hnh nhim khng kh v ting n ti mt vi ng ph cn tn ti ch tc giao thng ca H Ni v TP. HCM69Bng 2.36. D bo tng pht thi do hot ng GTVT ng b v ng st72Bng 2.37. Cc vn Quc gia Vit Nam74Bng 2.38. Cc khu bo tn thin nhin75Bng 2.39. D bo n trn mt s Quc l77Bng 3.1. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT ng b86Bng 3.2. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT ng st87Bng 3.3. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT thy ni a88Bng 3.4. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT hng hi89Bng 3.5. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT hng khng90Bng 3.6. Danh mc mt s d n ng b trng yu101Bng 3.7. nh hng pht trin ng tnh102Bng 3.8. Cc lung tuyn chnh pha Bc108Bng 3.9. Cc lung tuyn chnh pha Nam108Bng 3.10. Cc cng chnh pha Bc108Bng 3.11. Cc cng a phng pha Bc109Bng 3.12. Cc cng chnh pha Nam109Bng 3.13. Cc cng bin loi 1110Bng 3.14. Cc lung tu ch yu112Bng 3.15. Mt s yu t k thut v sn bay115Bng 3.16. Danh mc d n pht trin cc CHK124Bng 3.17. Tng hp qu t ginh cho KCHT_GT n nm 2030127Bng 3.18. Mt s chng trnh, d n pht trin KCHT c tc ng ln n PTBV127MC LC S 5Hnh 1: M hnh pht trin bn vng6Hnh 2: Phi hp cc mc tiu trong PTBV6Hnh 3: Pht trin bn vng theo lnh th6Hnh 4: Pht trin bn vng theo ngnh, lnh vc10Hnh 5: S h thng KCHT_GT11Hnh 6: S pht trin bn vng h thng GTVT12Hnh 7: S pht trin KCHT_GTDanh mc cc ch vit ttATGTAn ton giao thngBTNB tng nhaBTXMB tng xi mngBVMTBo v mi trngCHKCng hng khngCHKNCng hng khng ni aCHKQTCng hng khng quc tCNH-HHCng nghip ha hin i haBSCLng bng sng Cu LongBSHng bng sng HngMCnh gi tc ng mi trng chin lcTMnh gi tc ng mi trngTNng thy ni aGPMBGii phng mt bngGTTGiao thng thGTNTGiao thng nng thnGTVTGiao thng vn tiHLATHnh lang an tonKCHTKt cu h tngKCHT_GTKt cu h tng giao thngKT-XHKinh t - x hiNSNNNgn sch Nh ncPTBVPht trin bn vngQLQuc lTCVNTiu chun Vit NamTNGTTai nn giao thngM U1. S cn thit ca tiHu ht cc nc pht trin v ang pht trin u xc nh c vai tr v tm quan trng ca vic pht trin h thng kt cu h tng giao thng c nh hng ln n pht trin kinh t x hi, mi trng v xy dng nh hng pht trin cho tng lai. Tuy nhin, tu iu kin t nhin, iu kin x hi ca tng nc m c chnh sch v m hnh pht trin ring. in hnh trong vic pht trin bn vng kt cu h tng giao thng cc nc trong khi T chc hp tc kinh t v pht trin - (OECD) nh hng pht trin bn vng giao thng ti hi ngh OECD Vancouver - Canada 1996 tp trung vo vn : s dng t; xy dng v nng cp h tng giao thng; qun l giao thng v.v. i vi Vit Nam l nc ang pht trin, ang trong giai on CNH-HH t nc v hi nhp quc t, cn phi c s pht trin t ph v h thng kt cu h tng giao thng nhm p ng nhu cu i li ca ngi dn mt cch d dng, thun tin; p ng nhu cu vn chuyn hng ho n mi vng, min m bo ng thi gian, cht lng v an ton; m bo s dng hp l qu t cho giao thng vn ti; khng ph v cnh quan mi trng t nhin v nh hng n sc kho ca con ngi. Vic pht trin h thng GTVT ni chung, KCHT_GT ni ring c tc ng tch cc n pht trin kinh t t nc nhng cng c nhng tc ng tiu cc n mi trng, x hi. V vy, vic nghin cu ti: Nghin cu pht trin bn vng kt cu h tng giao thng Vit Nam l rt cn thit.2. Phm vi nghin cuPhm vi nghin cu ca ti tp trung vo 2 mng chnh sau:- KCHT_GT trn phm vi ton quc, theo cc vng min.- KCHT_GT theo cc chuyn ngnh ng b, ng st, ng thy ni a, hng hi, hng khng.3. Mc tiu nghin cu- Nghin cu xy dng cc tiu ch, ch tiu v pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT ph hp vi iu kin c th ca Vit Nam.- xut nh hng pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT Vit Nam- xut cc gii php, chnh sch pht trin bn vng v l trnh thc hin4. Phng php tip cn nghin cuS dng kt hp cc phng php: phng php phn tch, tng hp so snh, i chiu; phng php chuyn gia.5. Ni dung nghin cu: ti tp trung nghin cu cc ni dung ch yu gm 4 chng:- Chng 1: C s khoa hc v thc tin pht trin bn vng kt cu h tng giao thng VN- Chng 2: Phn tch, nh gi thc trng KCHT_GT Vit Nam di gc pht trin bn vng.- Chng 3: nh hng pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT Vit Nam - Chng 4: Cc gii php, chnh sch ch yu v l trnh thc hin6. Kt qu nghin cu v nhng ng gp ch yu ca ti:- ti lm r khi nim chung v pht trin bn vng h thng GTVT v pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT. a ra c cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT.- Trn c s thc trng h thng KCHT_GT ca Vit Nam, kinh nghim pht trin bn vng ca mt s nc ti xy dng mt s ch tiu c th v pht trin bn vng cho tng chuyn ngnh.- ti cng xy dng nh hng pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT v cc gii php thc hin.Kt qu nghin cu ny ng gp thm v c s l lun cng nh a ra nh hng c th cho vic pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT nc ta. ti c th l ti liu cc c quan c lin quan trong lnh vc lp, iu chnh chin lc, quy hoch pht trin KCHT_GT theo hng pht trin bn vng.CHNG IC S KHOA HC V THC TIN PHT TRIN BN VNG KT CU H TNG GIAO THNG VIT NAM1.1. C s khoa hc v pht trin bn vng kt cu h tng giao thng1.1.1. Mt s khi nim v kt cu h tng (KCHT)* Khi nim: Khi nim v KCHT mi c s dng nc ta khng lu, c phin dch t mt t ghp ca ting Anh l infra-structura. T Infra ngha ting Vit l nn tng, di, h tng, ph thm, t structura c ngha l kt cu, cu trc. V vy, t ghp Infrastructura c dch l Kt cu h tng.Mt s tp ch nc ngoi nh ngha rt ngn gn: Kt cu h tng l: Giao thng vn ti, Bu chnh vin thng, cp in, cp nc. Trong ti liu cho lp hc v phng php quy hoch kt cu h tng ti c quan nghin cu vng ca Lin hp quc ng ti Nht Bn a ra nh ngha kt cu h tng nh sau: Kt cu h tng l cng c b tr cho qu trnh sn xut, sinh hot ca mi c nhn v cc t chc x hi v c x hi tha nhn.T khi nim trn, khi nim kt cu h tng c hiu theo ngha rng v ngha hp:Hiu theo ngha rng th KCHT bao gm ton b cc ngnh thuc lnh vc phc v, cc ngnh ny c s lin kt vi nhau to thnh nn mng ca x hi.Hiu theo ngha hp th KCHT bao gm nhng cng trnh cng cng phc v qu trnh sn xut v sinh hot ca mi c nhn v cc cng ng x hi v c gi l c s h tng. Trong ngn ng giao tip thng ngy ta thng ni n hai ch h tng trong trng hp ny ta nn hiu l c s h tng, n ch l mt trong s nhng thnh phn ca KCHT.* Bn cht ca KCHTT khi nim trn cho thy KCHT bao gm nhng ni dung vt th v phi vt th, c xy dng nhm mc ch phc v cho cc hot ng sn xut kinh doanh, sinh hot ca mi c nhn v cc cng ng trong mt h thng kinh t x hi.* Phn loi KCHTTy theo phm vi v mc tiu phc v, ngi ta phn chia KCHT thnh KCHT kinh t hay cn gi l KCHT k thut v KCHT x hi.KCHT kinh t l tng th cc ngnh thuc h thng KCHT, cc ngnh ny phc v trc tip cho qu trnh sn xut v pht trin kinh t, bao gm: h thng giao thng (b, thy, hng khng), h thng cung ng in, nc, thng tin lin lc, bn cng, sn bayKCHT x hi bao gm tng th cc ngnh thuc KCHT, cc ngnh ny phc v cho cc hot ng dn sinh, ng thi gin tip phc v cho cc hot ng sn xut kinh doanh thng qua yu t con ngi: Trng hc, bnh vin, c s an dng ngh ngi, nh vn ha, cng vin,,,Theo quan im vt th v phi vt th, ngi ta chia KCHT thnh KCHT cng v KCHT mm.KCHT cng l ton b c s h tng thuc h thng KCHT.KCHT mm l nhng c ch chnh sch phc v cho qu trnh sn xut kinh doanh v hot ng ca con ngi.Trnh pht trin ca h thng KCHT kinh t v x hi lun l bc tranh phn nh mt cch chnh xc v y quy m, nng lc ca nn kinh t, ng thi nh hng trc tip n nn sn xut x hi v m bo cho cc dch v x hi c th n c vi tng ngi dn v tng cng ng dn c. Cng vi qu trnh tng trng v pht trin kinh t vai tr ca h thng h tng ngy cng tng ln.* Cc c trng c bn ca h thng KCHT.Cc nghin cu v KCHT cho thy h thng KCHT thng mang nhng c trng c bn l:- Tnh h thng: Th hin ch n tc ng ln hot ng sn xut x hi trn quy m c nc hoc trn nhng vng lnh th rng ln. S trc trc v h tng mt khu, mt xch no c th gy ra ch tc ton b h thng sn xut, nh hng n nhiu tc nhn tham gia.- Tnh ng b: Th hin cc b phn cu thnh ca h thng h tng phi c s lin kt ng b, cn i trong tng th hp l. S thiu ng b c th s dn n lm t lit c h thng cng trnh hoc lm cho cng trnh khng pht huy c ht tc dng.- Tnh tin phong, nh hng: Th hin mun pht trin sn xut v cc hot ng x hi th h thng h tng phi c i trc mt bc, ngha l phi c xy dng xong, hon chnh sau cc hot ng sn xut v i sng x hi mi c th din ra. Trong khong thi gian di h tng thng tc ng ti hng pht trin cc hot ng sn xut v m ng cho cc hot ng kinh t x hi pht trin.- Tnh cng cng: Th hin ch phn ln sn phn do KCHT to ra l nhng sn phm hng ha cng cng. Nhiu i tng, khng phn bit v tr x hi hoc kinh t u c th tham gia hng li.- Tnh vng: Th hin ch vic pht trin h tng phi tnh n v l thuc rt nhiu vo iu kin t nhin (a hnh, cc ngun ti nguyn, tnh cht sn xut x hi), iu ngha l vic pht trin h tng c s phi ty thuc vo cc iu kin a l c sn, vo hng pht trin kinh t ca tng vng, khu vckhng th c h thng KCHT ging nhau tri khp t nc, hoc h thng h tng th rt khc h tng h tng nng thn.* Vai tr ca KCHT i vi tng trng v xa i gim ngho.KCHT bao gm nhiu phn ngnh khc nhau, mi phn ngnh c vai tr ring trong qu trnh sn xut kinh doanh v trong i sng thng ngy ca mi c nhn, mi cng ng song vai tr ca mi phn ngnh u c nhng nt c trng ging nhau, c th khi qut vai tr chung ca KCHT l:KCHT c vai tr duy tr cc hot ng sn xut kinh doanh hot ng u n v lin tc trong gung my kinh t ca mi quc gia, mi vng lnh th.KCHT c vai tr lm ng lc thc y pht trin kinh t t nhp tng trng cao, to ng lc mi quc gia, mi vng khai thc ti a cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin tham gia vo cc hot ng kinh t.Thc y qu trnh hi nhp vRt ngn khong cch chnh lch giu ngho gia cc vng.1.1.2. Khi nim v pht trin bn vng* Khi nim pht trin bn vng: Khi nim pht trin bn vng c s dng mt cch chnh thc trn quy m ton cu v c nh ngha nh sau: Pht trin bn vng l s pht trin nhm p ng nhng nhu cu hin ti nhng khng gy tr ngi cho vic p ng nhu cu trong tng lai. Hay ni mt cch c th hn, pht trin bn vng l s pht trin mt cch hi ho c 3 mt kinh t - x hi - mi trng p ng nhu cu hin ti v vt cht, vn ha, tinh thn nhng khng lm tn hi, khng gy tr ngi n kh nng cung cp ti nguyn pht trin kinh t - x hi mai sau, khng lm gim cht lng cuc sng trong tng lai.Hnh 1: M hnh pht trin bn vngNh vy, PTBV phi m bo ng thi c ba mc tiu: mc tiu v kinh t, mc tiu v x hi v mc tiu bo v mi trng.Hnh 2: Phi hp cc mc tiu trong PTBVPTBV l mt bi ton kh, bn vng l mt vn kh khn thch thc i vi pht trin. Th gii khng ca ring ai do vy PTBV cng khng phi ca ring mt quc gia no, lnh vc no. Th gii ch PTBV khi v ch khi cc quc gia PTBV, quc gia PTBV khi cc lnh vc, cc ngnh, cc vng lnh th ca quc gia PTBV.Hnh 3: Pht trin bn vng theo lnh thHnh 4: Pht trin bn vng theo ngnh, lnh vc* Tiu chun nh gi s pht trin bn vng- Pht trin bn vng v mt kinh t: l t c s tng trng n nh v c cu hp l, p ng v nng cao i sng nhn dn; trnh c s nh tr, suy thoi trong tng lai v trnh c n nn cho th h mai sau.- PTBV v mt x hi: nhm t c tin b v cng bng XH m bo cht lng cuc sng, mi ngi u c c hi hc hnh, c vic lm, gim i ngho v xo b khong cch gia cc tng lp ca x hi; bo m s cng bng v quyn li v ngha v ca mi cng dn; duy tr v pht trin c tnh a nng v bn sc vn ho ca dn tc, khng ngng nng cao trnh vn minh v i sng vt cht tinh thn cho ngi dn.- Pht trin bn vng v mi trng: khai thc, s dng hp l cc ti nguyn thin nhin; phng nga, ngn chn v x l, kim sot nhim mi trng nhm bo v mi trng thin nhin v x hi.1.1.3. Khi nim v pht trin bn vng KCHT_ GTa. Khi nim v KCHT_GT Kt cu h tng giao thng (KCHT_GT) l cc cng trnh, vt kin trc, thit b v cc cng trnh ph tr khc phc v cho vn ti hng ho, hnh khch v s i li ca nhn dn mt cch an ton, thun tin, nhanh chng. H thng KCHT_GT c phn lm 5 chuyn ngnh: ng b; ng st; ng thy ni a; Hng hi; Hng khng (1) KCHT_GT ng b: l cng trnh ng b, cu ng b bn xe, bn xe v hnh lang an ton ng b. - Cng trnh ng b gm:+ ng b gm nn ng, mt ng, mp ng, l ng, h ph;+ Cu ng b (cu vt sng, cu vt khe ni, cu vt trong th, cu vt ng b, cu vt ng st); + Hm ng b (hm qua ni, hm ngm qua sng, hm chui qua ng b, hm chui qua ng st);+ Cng trnh chng va tri, tng, k chnh tr dng nc, chng st l;+ o giao thng, di phn cch, ro chn, tng h lan; + Ni dng xe, xe trn ng, trm iu khin giao thng, trm kim tra ti trng xe, trm thu ph cu, ng, cc thit b cn, m xe;+ H thng thot nc, chiu sng, hm k thut, k ng b; + Bn ph, cu phao, ni ct gi phng tin vt sng;+ H thng bo hiu ng b gm n tn hiu, bin bo hiu, gi long mn, cc tiu, ct cy s, vch k ng;+ Cc mc o c, ct mc l gii; + Cc cng trnh ph tr an ton giao thng.- Bn, bi xe: L ni cc phng tin ng b dng cho hnh khch ln/xung xe v xp/d hng ho ln/xung xe hoc l ni gi, lu xe.Bn, bi xe bao gm: bn xe khch (bi xe, nh ch, phng bn v v cc cng trnh ph tr khc); bn xe ti (bi xe, kho hng, nh ngh v cc cng trnh ph tr khc); bi xe v cc im xe trong cc th.- Hnh lang an ton ng b l phn t dc hai bn ng b (k c phn mt nc sng, sui dc hai bn cu, hm, bn ph, cu phao) nhm bo m an ton giao thng v bo v cng trnh ng b, bao gm cc loi:- Hnh lang an ton i vi ng b (trong th, ngoi th, song song vi sng ngi, knh rch, lin k vi ng st);- Hnh lang an ton i vi cc cng trnh khc nh cu, cng; hm ng b; bn ph, cu phao; k ng b.Phn loi ng b (Cao tc, Quc l); Phn cp k thut, phn cp qun l(2) KCHT_GT ng st: l cng trnh ng st, cu ng st, nh ga ng st v hnh lang an ton giao thng ng st.- Cng trnh ng st bao gm: ng st, cu, cng, hm, k, tng chn, h thng thot nc, h thng thng tin, tn hiu, h thng cp in v cc cng trnh, thit b ph tr khc ca ng st.- Ga ng st: l ni phng tin giao thng ng st dng, trnh, vt, xp, d hng ho, n tr khch, thc hin tc nghip k thut v cc dch v khc. Ga ng st c nh ga, qung trng, kho, bi hng, ke ga, tng ro, khu dch v, trang thit b cn thit v cc cng trnh ng st khc.- Hnh lang an ton giao thng ng st: l phn t dc 2 bn ng st v mt phn khong khng pha trn ng st- Phn loi ng st (Cao tc, thng); phn cp k thut (3) KCHT_GT ng thu ni a: bao gm ng thu ni a; cng, bn thu ni a; k, p giao thng v cc cng trnh ph tr khc. - ng thu ni a: L cc tuyn sng, knh trn h c qun l v a vo khai thc vn ti thu. + Theo phn cp qun l ng thu ni a c phn loi thnh ng thu ni a quc gia, ng thu ni a a phng v ng thu ni a chuyn dng. + Theo phn cp k thut sng knh, ng thu ni a c chia thnh 6 cp. - Cng, bn thu ni a: + Cng thu ni a l h thng cc cng trnh c xy dng phng tin thu ni aneo u, xp, d hng ho, n, tr hnh khch v thc hin cc dch v khc. + Bn thu ni a l v tr c lp c xy dng phng tin thu ni a neo u, xp, d hng ho, n, tr hnh khch. + Tu theo chc nng ca ca cng, bn thu ni a m c th c th phn cng thnh cng, bn ni a cng cng v cng, bn thu ni a chuyn dng. Cng, bn thu ni a chuyn dng l cng, bn thu ni a ca mt hoc mt s t chc kinh t ch dng xp, d hng ho, vt t phc v cho sn xut hoc phc v ng mi, sa cha phng tin cho chnh t chc .- Hnh lang bo v lung: l phn gii hn ca vng nc hoc di t dc hai bn lung lp t bo hiu, bo v lung v bo m an ton giao thng.(4) KCHT_GT hng hi: bao gm cc cng bin v h thng lung lch vo cng bin - Cng bin: l khu vc bao gm vng t cng v vng nc cng, c xy dng kt cu h tng v lp t trang thit b cho tu bin ra, vo hot ng bc d hng ho, n tr hnh khch v thc hin cc dch v khc. + Vng t cng l vng t c gii hn xy dng cu cng, kho, bi, nh xng, tr s, c s dch v, h thng giao thng, thng tin lin lc, in, nc, cc cng trnh ph tr khc v lp t trang thit b. + Vng nc cng l vng nc c gii hn thit lp vng nc trc cu cng, vng quay tr tu, khu neo u, khu chuyn ti, khu trnh bo, vng n tr hoa tiu, vng kim dch; vng xy dng lung cng bin v cc cng trnh ph tr khc. Cng bin c mt hoc nhiu bn cng. Bn cng c mt hoc nhiu cu cng. Bn cng bao gm cu cng, kho, bi, nh xng, tr s, c s dch v, h thng giao thng, thng tin lin lc, in, nc, lung vo bn cng v cc cng trnh ph tr khc. Cu cng l kt cu c nh thuc bn cng, c s dng cho tu bin neo u, bc d hng ho, n, tr hnh khch v thc hin cc dch v khc.- Lung vo cng bin: l phn gii hn vng nc t bin vo vng nc ca cng c xc nh bi h thng bo hiu hng hi v cc cng trnh ph tr bo m cho tu bin v cc phng tin thu khc ra, vo cng bin an ton. - Phn loi cng, phn cp qun l(5) KCHT_GT ng hng khng: bao gm sn bay, nh ga v h thng qun l khng lu.- Cng hng khng - sn bay: l khu vc xc nh c xy dng bo m cho tu bay ct cnh, h cnh v di chuyn. Cc cng trnh trong sn bay bao gm ng bng, ng ln, sn my bay, bi xe t.... Tu theo chc nng, cng hng khng c phn thnh cng hng khng quc t v cng hng khng ni a:+ Cng hng khng quc t l cng hng khng phc v cho vn chuyn quc t v vn chuyn ni a;+ Cng hng khng ni a l cng hng khng phc v cho vn chuyn ni a. Sn bay ch phc v mc ch khai thc hng khng chung hoc mc ch vn chuyn hnh khch, hnh l, hng ha, bu phm, bu kin, th m khng phi vn chuyn cng cng l sn bay chuyn dng.- H thng qun l khng lu: l cc cng trnh, trang thit b iu hnh bay. - Khu vc ln cn cng hng khng, sn bay: CHK, sn bay c khu vc ln cn bo m an ton cho hot ng hng khng dn dng v dn c trong khu vc . Gii hn khu vc ln cn cng hng khng, sn bay l 8km tnh t ranh gii cng hng khng, sn bay tr ra.Hnh 5: S h thng KCHT_GTb. Khi nim pht trin bn vng h thng GTVT+ Khi nim pht trin bn vng GTVT: Pht trin bn vng h thng GTVT l pht trin ng b, hi ho trn 3 lnh vc vn ti, KCHT_GT v cng nghip giao thng m bo pht trin trn 3 mt kinh t, x hi v mi trng p ng yu cu PTBV t nc, ng thi m bo s pht trin bn vng ca chnh h thng GTVTV mt kinh t: p ng yu cu pht trin kinh t t nc; gim ti a chi ph u t xy dng v khai thc. V mt x hi: to s i li ca ngi dn mt cch an ton, d dng tip cn, ph hp vi mi i tng, bo m sc kho con ngi, m bo s cng bng v hn ch tc ng n cuc sng ca ngi dn.V mt mi trng: khng nh hng n h sinh thi, hn ch s pht thi v cht thi ra mi trng, hn ch s tiu th cc ngun ti nguyn khng ti to, hn ch ting n v s dng hp l, tit kim t.Hnh 6: S pht trin bn vng h thng GTVTc. Khi nim v pht trin bn vng KCHT_ GT Pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT l p ng c nhu cu giao thng ca th h hin ti m khng nh hng n iu kin pht trin ca th h tng lai. Pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT phi yu cu PTBV t nc, PTBV h thng GTVT ng thi pht trin chnh h thng KCHT_GT. Ni cch khc, pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT phi ton din trn 5 phng din: kinh t, x hi, mi trng ti chnh v th ch.- V mt kinh t: p ng yu cu tng trng v pht trin kinh t t nc c hiu qu kinh t. - V mt x hi: m bo pht trin ng u gia cc vng min. Hn ch tc ng n x hi (ti nh c, gii phng mt bng chuyn dch t ai); gim thiu tai nn giao thng, tng kh nng tip cn n cc vng min trong c nc.- V mt mi trng: gim thiu tc ng n mi trng trong qu trnh xy dng, khai thc ng thi s dng hp l li th tim nng, ti nguyn, t ai...- V mt ti chnh: m bo kh nng cp vn bn vng trong qu trnh xy dng, nng cp v bo tr KCHT_GT.- V mt th ch: Xy dng h thng php lut, cc vn bn php quy p ng pht trin KCHT_GT.Hnh 7: S pht trin KCHT_GT1.2. C s thc tin v pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT1.2.1. Tin trnh thc hin pht trin bn vng ca th giiNm 1972: Hi ngh quc t v mi trng v con ngi hp ti Stockhom (Thy in) gm 113 nc, l cuc gp g u tin quy m ton cu xem xt v mi quan h gia mi trng v con ngi.Nm 1983: Lin hp quc thnh lp Hi ng th gii v Mi trng v pht trin (WCED).Nm 1992: Hi nggh thng nh tri t v mi trng v pht trin ti Rio de Janero (Braxin) 179 nc tham d; cam kt thng qua 5 vn kin quan trng:1) Tuyn b Rio v Mi trng v Pht trin vi 27 nguyn tc chung v PTBV2) Chng trnh ngh s 21 ton cu (Agenda 21) v pht trin bn vng3) Tuyn b cc nguyn tc qun l, bo v v pht trin bn vng rng.4) Cng c khung ca Lin hp quc v bin i kh hu ton cu5) Cng c v a dng sinh hcSau Hi ngh Rio nm 1992, Chng trnh ngh s 21 tip tc c tho lun v thc hin thng qua mt s hi ngh cao cp nh v Pht trin x hi, Cc thnh ph, Quyn con ngi, Ph n, Dn s, Kh hu v s nng ln ton cu, Lng thc...Nm 1997: i hi ng Lin hp quc kim im qu trnh 5 nm thc hin cc cam kt ti Rio, ghi nhn s n lc ca Th gii nhm tin ti pht trin bn vng.Nm 2002: Hi ngh thng nh Th gii v pht trin bn vng (Nam Phi). 196 nc tham d ng thun thng qua: Tuyn b Johannesburg v Pht trin bn vng v Chng trnh hnh ng K hoch thc hin Tuyn b Johannesburg Lng ghp 3 tr ct pht trin: Tng trng kinh t, gim ngho v cng bng x hi, bo v ti nguyn mi trng. Khng nh li gi tr ca chng trnh ngh s 21 ton cu. Nhn mnh s lo ngi v tin trnh thc hin pht trin bn vng cn chm.Hi ngh thng nh ny ra cc nhim v trng tm n nm 2015: Xo i gim ngho; Thay i cch thc tiu dng v sn xut; Bo v v qun l ti nguyn thin nhin; Pht trin bn vng trong iu kin ton cu ho; Nng cao sc kho ca con ngi.Tnh n cui nm 2003, c 70/191 nc (36%) xy dng, ph dut v thc hin Chng trnh ngh s 21 quc gia vi nhiu tn gi khc nhau nhng u nhm mc ch pht trin bn vng trong th k 21.Chng trnh ngh s 21 l g?: Chng trnh ngh s 21 l mt Khung k hoch chung thit k cc Chng trnh hnh ng nhm t c s pht trin bn vng trong th k 21. Chng trnh ngh s 21 ton cu c 179 nc tham d Hi ngh thng nh ton cu v mi trng v pht trin nm 1992 cam kt thc hin. Chng trnh ngh s 21 nu ln nhng thch thc trong th k 21; khng nh nguyn vng ca ton nhn loi pht trin theo mt cch thc m bo kt hp hi ho gia tng trng kinh t, xo i gim ngho, cng bng x hi, s dng hp l ti nguyn thin nhin v bo v mi trng. Chng trnh ngh s 21 ton cu gm 4 phn chnh:1) Nhng kha cnh x hi v kinh t ca s pht trin (nh i ngho, dn s, sc khe, m hnh tiu dng, nh c).2) Bo tn v qun l cc ngun ti nguyn3) Tng cng vai tr ca cc nhm x hi chnh4) Nhng phng tin thc hin (ti chnh, cng ngh, khoa hc, c ch hp tc, thng tin).1.2.2. Nhng cam kt quc t nhm bo v mi trng v PTBV ca Vit Nam 1) Nm 1990: Cng c quc t v quyn tr em2) Nm 1991: Cng c MARPOL v ngn nga nhim do tu bin3) Nm 1993: Vit Nam tr thnh thnh vin chnh thc ca Hip hi bo tn thin nhin quc t (IUCN).4) Nm 1994: Cng c v bun bn quc t nhng loi ng thc vt c nguy c b e do (CITES). Ngh nh th Montreal v cc cht lm suy gim tng zon; Cng c Vin v Bo v tng zn; Cng c Lin hp quc v Lut bin; Cng c khung ca Lin hp quc v Bin i kh hu, Cng c v a dng sinh hc.5) Nm 1995: Cng c BASEL v kim sot vn chuyn qua bin gii cc cht thi nguy hi v loi b chng.6) Nm 1998: Cng c chng sa mc ho.7) Nm 1999: Tuyn ngn quc t ca Lin hp quc v sn xut sch hn8) Nm 2000: Thc hin cc mc tiu Thin nhin ka. Vit Nam tng cng bo v mi trng1) Nm 1991: Ban hnh Lut bo v v Pht trin rng v thng qua k hoch quc gia v Mi trng v Pht trin bn vng 1991-2000.2) Nm 1992: Thnh lp B Khoa hc - Cng ngh v Mi trng3) Nm 1993: Thng qua Lut bo v mi trng, Lut du kh, Php lnh th y, Php lnh bo v v kim nh thc vt. 4) Nm 1994: Ban hnh Ngh nh 175/CP v Hng dn thi hnh Lut bo v mi trng.5) Nm 1995: Thng qua K hoch hnh ng quc gia v bo v a dng sinh hc.6) Nm 1996: Ban hnh Lut khong sn, Php lnh an ton v kim sot bc x.7) Nm 1998: B Chnh tr CSVN ra Ch th v tng cng cng tc bo v mi trng trong thi k CNH-HH thng qua Lut ti nguyn nc.8) Nm 1999: Ph duyt chin lc qun l cht thi rn ti cc th v khu cng nghip Vit Nam n nm 2020 v ph duyt Quy ch qun l cht thi nguy hi.9) Nm 2002: Thnh lp B Ti nguyn mi trng10) Nm 2004: Ph duyt chin lc quc gia v bo v mi trng thi k n nm 2010 v nh hng n 2020.b. Ni dung chng trnh ngh s 21 ca Vit Nam1) nh gi thc trng pht trin di gc bn vng2) Mc tiu di hn, nhng nguyn tc chnh ca pht trin bn vng3) Nhng lnh vc hot ng cn u tin nhm tin ti pht trin bn vng v cc kha cnh: Kinh t, x hi, mi trng.4) T chc thc hin pht trin bn vngMi Ngnh, a phng (Tnh, TP trc thuc Trung ng) cn xy dng nh hng chin lc v pht trin bn vng nhm khng nh nhng hot ng c th ca Ngnh, a phng mnh tin ti pht trin bn vng trn c s tham chiu nhng nh hng ln ca Chin lc pht trin kinh t-x hi v nh hng chin lc pht trin bn vng Vit Nam.c. Tm nguyn tc PTBV ca Vit Nam1. Con ngi l trung tm ca pht trin bn vng.2. Pht trin kinh t l nhim v trung tm, kt hp cht ch hp l v hi ho vi pht trin x hi, vi khai thc hp l, s dng tit kim v hiu qu ti nguyn thin nhin theo nguyn tc: mi mt kinh t, x hi v mi trng cng c li.3. Bo v v ci thin mi trng phi c coi l mt yu t khng th tch ri ca qu trnh pht trin. Phi p dng ng b cc cng c php l v kinh t, kt hp vi tuyn truyn vn ng.4. Pht trin phi m bo p ng mt cch cng bng nhu cu ca th h hin ti v khng gy tr ngi ti cuc sng ca cc th h tng li.5. Khoa hc v cng ngh l nn tng v ng lc cho CNH-HH, pht trin nhanh, mnh v bn vng t nc.6. Pht trin bn vng l s nghip ca ton ng, cc cp chnh quyn, cc B, Ngnh v a phng, ca cc c quan, doanh nghip, on th x hi, cc cng ng dn c v mi ngi dn.7. Gn cht vic xy dng nn kinh t c lp t ch vi ch ng hi nhp kinh t quc t.8. Kt hp cht ch pht trin kinh t x hi, bo v mi trng vi m bo quc phng an ninh, v trt t an ton x hi.d. 19 lnh vc u tin trong chnh sch pht trin * 5 lnh vc u tin pht trin kinh t bn vng: (1-5)1. Duy tr tng trng kinh t nhanh v bn vng.2. Thay i m hnh sn xut v tiu dng theo hng thn thin vi mi trng3. Thc hin qu trnh CNH sch4. Pht trin nng nghip v nng thn bn vng5. Pht trin bn vng cc vng v a phng* 5 lnh vc x hi cn u tin nhm pht trin bn vng: (6-10)6. Xo i gim ngho7. Gim mc tng dn s v to vic lm 8. nh hng qu trnh th ho v di dn9. Nng cao cht lng gio dc10. Chm sc sc kho, ci thin iu kin lao ng v v sinh mi trng* 9 lnh vc u tin nhm pht trin ti nguyn thin nhin v mi trng bn vng: (11-19)11. Chng suy thoi, s dng hiu qu v bn vng ti nguyn t12. Bo v mi trng nc v s dng bn vng ti nguyn nc13. Khai thc hp l v s dng tit kim, bn vng ti nguyn khong sn14. Bo v mi trng bin, ven bin, hi o v pht trin ti nguyn bin15. Bo v v pht trin rng16. Gim nhim khng kh cc th v khu cng nghip17. Qun l cht thi rn v cht thi nguy hi18. Bo tn a dng sinh hc19. Gim nh bin i kh hu, phng chng thin tai1.2.3. Cc ch trng, chnh sch ca NN c lin quan n PTBV h thng GTVT Thc hin Chng trnh Ngh s 21 v cc gii php pht trin bn vng chung cho ton th gii trong th k 21, Nh nc c ch trng, chnh sch lin quan n pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT nh sau:1) Quyt nh s 256/2003/Q-TTg ngy 2/12/2003 ca Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt Chin lc bo v mi trng quc gia n nm 2010, nh hng n nm 2020; trong xut 36 chng trnh, k hoch, n v d n u tin cp Quc gia, trong B GTVT ch tr: Chng trnh ci thin cht lng khng kh cc th. B GTVT phi hp vi chng trnh khc nh: K hoch Quc gia ng ph s c trn du. 2) Quyt nh s 153/2004/Q-TTg, ngy 17 thng 8 nm 2004 ca Th tng Chnh ph v nh hng Chin lc pht trin bn vng Vit Nam . Xy dng quy hoch pht trin h thng GTVT ng b, ng st, ng bin, ng HK phc v cho pht trin kinh t v cc hot ng x hi; Chng trnh pht trin giao thng nng thn v cc vng cn kh khn nhm khai thc li th trong tng vng, h tr cho cng tc xo i gim ngho v pht trin bn vng; Chng trnh pht trin giao thng ni th, giao thng cc vng kinh t tp trung v khu vc ng dn c; Xy dng chnh sch huy ng vn; xy dng c ch vn hnh, phn cp qun l, duy tu bo dng h thng giao thng vn ti.3) Ngh quyt s 41-NQ/TW ngy 15/11/2004 ca B Chnh tr v bo v mi trng trong thi k y mnh cng nghip ha, hin i ha t nc.4) Lut Bo v mi trng ca nc Cng ho x hi ch ngha Vit Nam s 52/2005/QH, ngy 29/11/2005: l vn bn php l quan trng nht quy nh cc yu cu v bo v mi trng trong tt cc cc hot ng pht trin kinh t, x hi, trong c cc yu cu v bo v mi trng hng ti pht trin bn vng i vi ngnh GTVT. nh gi mi trng chin lc trong Chin lc, quy hoch, k hoch pht trin ngnh, lnh vc trn quy m c nc. Cng trnh xy dng trong khu dn c phi c bin php bo m khng pht tn bi, ting n, rung, nh sng vt qu tiu chun cho php; Vic vn chuyn vt liu xy dng phi c thc hin bng cc phng tin bo m yu cu k thut khng lm r r, ri vi, gy nhim mi trng; Nc thi, cht thi rn v cc loi cht thi khc phi c thu gom, x l t tiu chun mi trng. 5) Lut Bo v mi trng ca nc Cng ho x hi ch ngha Vit Nam s 52/2005/QH, ngy 29/11/2005: l vn bn php l quan trng nht quy nh cc yu cu v bo v mi trng trong tt cc cc hot ng pht trin KT-XH, trong c cc yu cu v bo v mi trng hng ti PTBV i vi ngnh GTVT: i tng p dng l chin lc, quy hoch, k hoch pht trin ngnh, lnh vc trn quy m c nc: quy hoch s dng t; quy hoch pht trin vng kinh t trng im; quy hoch tnh, thnh ph; quy hoch tng hp lu vc sng quy m lin tnh. 6) Nghin cu ton din v: PTBV h thng GTVT Vit Nam (VITRANSS II); ang trin khai NC, bc u a ra cc tiu ch PTBV h thng GTVT nh sau:1. S gn kt gia cc phng thc cp Quc gia, quc t.2. S tun th vi chin lc gim ngho v tng trng.3. Cc vn v mi trng trong nc v ton cu.4. Ci thin cng tc phi hp gia cc d n quc gia v a phng.5. Tng cng u mi gia giao thng lin tnh v th.6. Tng cng kh nng thu hi vn v cc c hi cho m hnh PPP/PSP.7. Tng cng nng lc qun l. 1.2.4. Bi hc kinh nghim v PT bn vng KCHT_ GT ca mt s nc - Ti mt s nc pht trin1) Khai thc li th v v tr a l v iu kin t nhin pht trin h thng KCHT_GT mt cch hp l, hiu qu (Singapore, Hong Kong khai thc cng trung chuyn, sn bay trung chuyn quc t).2) KCHT_GT c pht trin trc mt bc v thi gian (5-10 nm) v quy m, nng lc to tin lm ng lc cho cc ngnh kinh t khc pht trin, thu ht u t. i vi giao thng th: Ginh qu t hp l pht trin ngay cc phng thc vn ti HK khi lng ln.3) Cc nc Chu u pht trin KCHT_GT theo hng ng b, lin hon, thng sut (kt ni vi KCHT_GT cc nc trong khu vc).4) Pht trin KCHT_GT theo hng hin i, tin nghi nh ng b cao tc, in kh ha ng st, tu in ngm trong th.5) Cung cp kh nng tip cn giao thng cng bng cho mi ngi, cho mi th h hin ti v tng lai: Nhm pht trin bn vng h thng KCHT_GT mt cch c hiu qu nht mt s quc gia nh Nht Bn, Anh, c xy dng mt loi h thng giao thng VTCC dnh cho mi i tng c bit thch hp vi c cc i tng l ngi khuyt tt. 6) Gim thiu nhim mi trng, s dng nng lng in, lm tng gim ting n ng b cao tc, kim sot nhim do PTGT gy ra. Pht trin KCHT_GT gn lin vi bo v mi trng sinh thi, c gii php gim thiu tc ng mi trng nh Singapore).Ti mt s nc ang pht trin, c iu kin tng t1) Pht trin KCHT_GT theo hng i ngay vo hin i tng trng kinh t, thu ht u t (Malaixia, Thi Lan xy dng ng b cao tc) 2) Pht trin giao thng nng thng nhm xa i, gim ngho, xa b s chnh lch gia thnh th v nng thn.3) Gi qu t ng k cho pht trin KCHT_GT lu di (50 - 100 nm sau).4) Mt s nc ang vp phi pht trin thiu bn vng nh BangKok (Thi Lan ) vi giao thng th. Cc nc ngho nh ng Nam , Chu Phi gy ch tc, cn tr u t nc ngoi.1.3. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu ca tng chuyn ngnh1.3.1. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu chungTiu ch pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT l Kinh t, x hi, mi trng, ti chnh v th ch. Tuy nhin c th xy dng nh hng PTBV cn xy dng cc tiu ch chung, ch tiu c th cho pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT 1) Bn vng v mt kinh t- p ng yu cu pht trin kinh t t nc trong tng thi k.- To thnh mng li lin hon, kt ni cc phng thc vn ti, kt ni vi mng li giao thng quc gia v a phng, quc gia v quc t.- Hin i, nng lc v cng sut d tr.- C hiu qu kinh t2) Bn vng v mt x hi- Pht trin kinh t i i vi cng bng x hi, gim i ngho, tng bc to s cn bng gia cc vng, min, c bit gia ng bng v min ni, gia nng thn v thnh th.- GTVT i vi ngi khuyt tt, ngi ngho trong x hi.- m bo ATGT, gim thiu ch tc giao thng, TNGT.- S dng hp l ti nguyn, qu t cho pht trin KCHT_GT - Ti nh c gii phng mt bng hp l nhm hn ch thp nht n c dn3) Bn vng v mt mi trng- Hn ch tc ng mi trng: khng kh, nc, ting n.- Bo v mi trng sinh thi, gi gn mi trng cnh quan, a dng sinh hc.4) Bn vng v ti chnh- Kh nng cp vn bn vng cho cc d n u t pht trin KCHT_GT (c s tham gia ca khu vc t nhn)- Cn i hp l gia vn u t pht trin v vn bo tr h thng KCHT_GT.5) Bn vng v th ch- Qun l nh nc chuyn ngnh v h thng KCHT_GT - Qun l khai thc ca cc doanh nghip tham gia u t qun l khai thc h thng KCHT_GT.Bng 1.1. Tm tt cc tiu ch, ch tiu chungTTTiu chCc ch tiu chung1Kinh t(1) Quy m, nng lc, cng sut, nng sut(2) Tnh k ni, ng b(3) Tnh hin i(4) Tnh hiu qu2X hi(5) Xa i gim ngho, pht trin cng bng gia cc vng min(6) An ton giao thng(7) Qu t, ti nh c, GPMB3Mi trng(8) Mi trng sng: khng kh, ting n, t(9) Mi trng sinh thi4Ti chnh(10) Ngun cp vn bn vng5Th ch(11) Qun l nh nc chuyn ngnh(12) Qun l hot ng kinh doanh, khai thc.1.3.2. Cc tiu ch, ch tiu ca tng chuyn ngnha) KCHT_GT ng b(1) Quy m, nng lc, cng sut: Mt ng b: c nh gi bng t l chiu di ng trn mt n v din tch t nhin. n v tnh km/km2; s ln ng; nng lc thng qua (CPU/ngy m)(2) Tnh kt ni: c nh gi bi s lin hon thng sut ca con ng; ng b v tiu chun k thut, khai thc. (3) Tnh hin i: h thng KCHT_GT ng b hin i c nh gi bng t l % chiu di ng cao tc so vi chiu di mng quc l; tc lu thng(4) Hiu qu kinh t: hiu qu kinh t ca cc tuyn ng u t xy dng mi, nng cp c nh gi bng ch s ni hon (IRR).(5) Xa i gim ngho: tng bc pht trin ng u gia cc vng min.(6) An ton giao thng: Gim thiu tai nn giao thng: c xc nh nh gi mc an ton giao thng ng b, n v tnh l s ngi cht/10.000dn v s ngi cht/10.000dn /100.000 phng tin;(7) Qu t cho pht trin: S dng t hp l cho KCHT_GT ng b. Ti nh c, gii phng mt bng, hn ch tc ng n x hi:(8) Mi trng sng: nhim khng kh, ting n...(9) Mi trng sinh thi: Cnh quan mi trng, a dng sinh hc (din tch t thuc khu bo tn b chim dng; st l, xi mn t).(10) Ngun cp vn bn vng: a dng ha vn do ngn sch Nh nc, vn vay, x hi ha u t, vn u t ca khu vc t nhn.(11) Qun l nh nc chuyn ngnh: Phn cp qun l u t xy dng khai thc KCHT(12) Qun l hot ng kinh doanh khai thc: Theo c ch th trngb) KCHT_GT ng st(1) Quy m, nng lc, cng sut: Mt ng st (km/1000km2, km/1000 ngi).(2) Tnh kt ni, ng b: Tiu chun kh ng, h thng thng tin tn hiu, h thng nh ga, bn v, cu cng, kt ni vi cc phng thc vn ti khc.(3) Tnh hin i: Tnh hin i ca h thng KCHT_GT ng st: s km ng st cao tc, s km ng in kh ha, tc chy tu.(4) Hiu qu kinh t: Cc d n u t c hiu qu kinh t (5) Xa i gim ngho, tng bc pht trin ng u gia cc vng min: Kh nng tip cn n cc vng min, giao thng cho ngi khuyt tt.(6) An ton giao thng: Gim thiu tai nn giao thng ng st: t l giao thng ng st, s v, s ngi cht, b thng.(7) Qu t cho pht trin: S dng t hp l cho KCHT_GT ng st: t l t dnh cho pht trin KCHT_GT ng st c nh gi bng t l % t xy dng kt cu cu ng, nh ga, bn bi v hnh lang an ton giao thng (8) Mi trng sng: nhim khng kh, ting n, rc thi...(9) Mi trng sinh thi: Cnh quan mi trng, a dng sinh hc: din tch t thuc khu bo tn b chim dng; st l, xi mn t.(10) Ngun cp vn bn vng: Da vo vn do ngn sch Nh nc, x hi ha u t, vn u t ca khu vc t nhn.(11) Qun l nh nc chuyn ngnh: Phn cp qun l u t xy dng khai thc KCHT(12) Qun l hot ng kinh doanh khai thc: Theo c ch th trng, thng mi ha ngnh ng st.c) KCHT_GT ng thy ni a(1) Quy m, nng lc, cng sut: Khai thc li th, tim nng pht trin ng sng: s lng, tng chiu di sng knh, h; mt sng, knh (km/km2; km/1.000dn); lu vc sng, knh (km2); ngun ti nguyn nc (m3), phn b mng li..., s lng cng bn sng c xy dng v khai thc: (2) Tnh kt ni, ng b: gia cng, bn vi lung lch ra vo cng; giao thng hu phng ca cng, bn (kt ni vi cc phng thc vn ti khc).(3) Tnh hin i: h thng cng trnh chnh tr, h thng phao tiu, bo hiu, thng tin lin lc, t l c gii ha bc xp cc cng, bn. (4) Hiu qu kinh t: u t pht trin v bo tr h thng KCHT_GT c hiu qu kinh t.(5) Xa i gim ngho, tng bc pht trin ng u gia cc vng min: (6) An ton giao thng: s v tai nn, s ngi cht, ngi b thng; t l tai nn do KCHT_GT ng sng gy ra.(7) Qu t cho pht trin: S dng t hp l cho pht trin KCHT_GT(8) Mi trng sng: nhim khng kh, ngun nc(9) Mi trng sinh thi: Bo tn cc khu sinh thi, vng t nng nghip ven sng.(10) Ngun cp vn bn vng: Tng cng vn t ngn sch Nh nc(11) Qun l nh nc chuyn ngnh: Phn cp qun l u t xy dng khai thc KCHT(12) Qun l hot ng kinh doanh khai thc: Theo c ch th trngd) KCHT_GT hng hi(1) Quy m, nng lc, cng sut: Mt cng (bn /km b bin); tng cng sut, kh nng p ng yu cu xut nhp khu hng ho; h thng lung lch ra vo cng, tnh trng k thut. (2) Tnh kt ni, ng b: Tnh ng b gia cng, bn vi lung lch ra vo cng; giao thng hu phng ca cng, bn. (3) Tnh hin i: lung lch, cng bn, cng ngh xp d hin i, nng sut thng qua 1m cu tu. (4) Hiu qu kinh t: C hiu qu kinh t. (5) Xa i gim ngho, tng bc pht trin ng u gia cc vng min. (6) An ton giao thng: s v tai nn, s ngi cht, ngi b thng; t l tai nn do KCHT_GT hng hi gy ra. (7) Qu t cho pht trin: Qu t cho pht trin cng bin: cc d n ci to, nng cp cng bin, lung lch ra vo cng, khu nc ca cng. (8) Mi trng sng: nhim mi trng nc, khng kh, t.(9) Mi trng sinh thi: Bo v vng b bin, c bit cc bi tm, cc khu du lch.(10) Ngun cp vn bn vng: Tng cng vn t ngn sch Nh nc(11) Qun l nh nc chuyn ngnh: Phn cp qun l u t xy dng khai thc KCHT(12) Qun l hot ng kinh doanh khai thc: Theo c ch th trng.e) KCHT_GT hng khng(1) Quy m, nng lc, cng sut: s lng, phn loi cng hng khng theo vai tr, chc nng, vng hp dn ca cc CHK, kh nng tip cn cc loi my bay, nng lc ca cc nh ga (HK/m, T/m).(2) Tnh kt ni, ng b: Tiu chun k thut, kh nng kt ni vi cc loi hnh vn ti khc (h thng giao thng ni sn bay vi thnh ph, khu cng nghip...). (3) Tnh hin i: cng hng khng, sn bay, nh ga, tnh trng k thut, hot ng 24/24. (4) Hiu qu kinh t: c kh nng thu hi vn u t. (5) Xa i gim ngho, tng bc pht trin ng u gia cc vng min. (6) An ton giao thng: tiu chun k thut m bo an ton hng khng; m bo an ninh, an ton tuyt i trn tt c cc lnh vc. (7) Qu t cho pht trin: cc d n ci to, nng cp cng hng khng, sn bay, ng bng, nh ga v cc cng trnh ph tr khc...)(8) Mi trng sng: nhim v ting n, khng kh, rc thi.(9) Mi trng sinh thi: (10)Ngun cp vn bn vng: Tng cng vn t ngn sch Nh nc, khu vc t nhn.(11) Qun l nh nc chuyn ngnh: Phn cp qun l u t xy dng khai thc KCHT(12) Qun l hot ng kinh doanh khai thc: theo c ch th trng.CHNG 2 PHN TCH, NH GI THC TRNG V S PHT TRIN BN VNG KCHT_GT VIT NAM2.1. Tng quan mng li KCHT_GT Vit NamVit Nam c mt h thng GTVT vi y cc loi hnh: ng b, ng st, ng thy ni a, hng hi v hng khng.2.1.1. KCHT_GT ng bV mng ng: Tnh n thng 12/2008, tng chiu di mng ng b Vit Nam c 251.887km trong ng quc l 17.395km chim 6,9%; ng tnh 23.138km chim 9,2%; ng huyn 54.962km chim 21,8%; ng x 141.442km chim 56,2%; ng th 8.535km chim 3,4% v ng chuyn dng 6.415km chim 2,5%. Hin trng kt cu mt ng phn loi nh sau:Bng 2.1. Tng hp mng li ng b TTLoi ngChiu dai (km)Loi mt ngBTXM, BTNNhaCp phitkm%km%km%km%1Quc l17.3958.09446,56.44737,12.85416,400,02ng tnh 23.1384.17518,011.03047,74.81620,83.11713,53ng huyn54.9624.3437,910.99220,034.89763,54.7308,64ng x141.44220.05814,29.2266,534.89724,777.26154,65 thi8.5353.24138,02.75032,297611,41.56818,46ng chuyn dng6.4151602,584713,22.59340,42.81543,9Tng s251.88740.07115,941.29216,481.03332,289.49135,5Ngun: Cc ng b Vit NamMt ng: mt ng b trn ton quc cha cao, mi t khong 0,78 km/km2 v 3,09 km/1000 dn; trong mt ng quc l cn chim t l rt thp, t 0,053 km/km2 v 0,21 km/1000 dn; thp so vi cc nc khu vc (Trung Quc: 0,2 km/km2; 1,44km/1000 dn; Hn Quc 1,01 km/km2; 2,1 km/1000 dn; Thi Lan 0,11 km/km2; 0,9km/1000dn);Mt ng b phn theo vng (Km/Km2)Cht lng k thut ng b ca nc ta cn mc thp trong khu vc. Tnh hnh xy dng ng b thi gian qua: trong nhng nm tr li y, nhiu on tuyn ng quc l quan trng c xy mi, nng cp t cht lng tt nh ng H Ch Minh (giai on 1), QL1, QL10, QL2; QL3;.... v ang xy dng c nhiu cu ln nh cu M Thun, Kin, Bi Chy, Thanh Tr, Bnh, Rch Miu, Cn Th; xy dng v a vo s dng nhiu hm ng b nh hm Hi Vn, hm o Ngang, cc hm trn ng H Ch Minh,... T l ri mt h thng quc l v ng tnh tng ln r rt, c bit h thng quc l vi t l ri mt t ti 95%, cn li 5% l ng cp phi.H thng ng b c xy dng qua nhiu thi k lch s, c tiu chun v qui m khc nhau, c bit cc ng min ni phn ln xy dng trong chin tranh vi mc tiu phc v kp thi nhim v chin u nn tiu chun v qui m thp, trong khi h thng ng ng bng, gn cc th ln c kh hn. Trong 10 nm tr li y, nhiu tuyn ng quc l, ng quan trng ca a phng c ch trng u t, nng cp v m rng t c cc tiu chun cao hn, phn no p ng c nhu cu pht trin ca phng tin v dn c.Bng 2.2. So snh mt s ch tiu mng ng b Vit Nam vi mt s ncTTNc, khu vcQuy m ch yu (ln xe)T l ri mt nha (%)T l ng cao tc (%)S xe t/1000 dn1Cc nc pht trin4-6-810012-15400-6002Cc nc trong khu vc2-4-660-652,0050-1003Singapore4-6954,442004Hn Quc4-670-752,40-5Thi Lan2-4600,18-6Vit Nam25008- Trc xuyn quc giaH thng trc dc xuyn quc gia gm c hai tuyn quc l l quc l 1A v ng H Ch Minh vi tng chiu di khong 3.784 km. Hai trc dc chy gn nh song song vi nhau theo sut chiu di lnh th, khong cch trung bnh gia hai trc t 20 km n 40 km, nhng on hp (khu vc min Trung) khong 10km. Hai trc dc ny c ngha rt quan trng trong s pht trin kinh t x hi chung ca t nc, to iu kin kt ni gia ba vng bc - trung nam, v l hai trc cc trc ngang khu vc min Trung Ty Nguyn kt ni vo to iu kin tng nng lc vn hnh ca c h thng cng nh kt ni gia cc vng su, vng xa, vng kinh t kh khn vi cc khu vc pht trin.- Khu vc pha Bc+ H thng nan qut: h thng nan qut gm cc quc l 1B, 2, 3, 5, 6, 18, 18C, 32, 32B, 32C,70, Ni Bi Bc Ninh; tng chiu di khong 2.739 km, c y cc cp k thut t cp V n cp I, vi cc loi kt cu mt BTXM, b tng nha, lng nha v dm. Cc trc nan qut kt thc ti cc cng bin, ca khu bin gii hoc ni vo cc tuyn vnh ai bin gii, i qua trung tm cc tnh v u hng tm v H Ni (trc tip hoc gin tip ni vo cc quc l 1, 2, 3 ri ni v H Ni); mng li cc trc nan qut phi hp vi h thng vnh ai v cc quc l khc ni chung l tng i hp l, c bit mt s trc cao tc (c cng tnh cht hng tm) v sp c trin khai xy dng nh cao tc H Ni Hi Phng (song song QL5), cao tc H Ni Lng Sn (song song QL1), cao tc Ni Bi H Long (song song QL18), cao tc H Ni Thi Nguyn (song song QL3), cao tc H Ni Lo Cai (song song QL2) cng b sung tnh cht hp l v nng cao nng lc cho ton mng. + H thng ng vnh ai bin gii, ven bin: H thng ng vnh ai bin gii gm 3 vnh ai vi tng chiu di 2.036,59km, trong , vnh ai 1 gm cc quc l 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, 4E, 4G, vnh ai 2 (QL279) v vnh ai 3 (QL37); tng s km ng vnh ai bin gii, c y cc cp k thut t cp V n cp I v cc loi kt cu mt BTXM, b tng nha, lng nha, dm v cp phi. Cc tuyn vnh ai xu hng bt u t cng v kt thc ti cc ca khu; h thng vnh ai chy theo hng vng cung (song song vi ng bin gii Vit Nam Trung Quc, Lo), cc vnh ai cch nhau trung bnh khong (20-70) km, c tc dng kt ni v phn b cc trc nan qut; ni chung h thng ng vnh ai tng i hon chnh, tuy nhin c mt s on cha thng (thuc vnh ai 1) trn a phn cc tnh Cao Bng, Lai Chu, in Bin, Sn La.ng ven bin: gm trc quc l 10, v mt phn quc l 18 (on t Ung B (giao QL10) ti ca khu Mng Ci tnh Qung Ninh).+ H thng cc quc l khcH thng cc quc l khc bao gm cc quc l 12B, 2B, 2C, 23, 21, 21B, 31, 34, 3B, 43, 38, 39, 12, 100, Lng Ho Lc, Bc Thng Long Ni Bi. Cc tuyn quc l ny kt ni vo cc trc nan qut, vnh ai v kt ni cc a phng, tng cng nng lc giao thng cho ton mng v p ng nhu cu giao thng ca nhn dn gia cc a phng.- Khu vc min Trung - Ty NguynKhu vc min Trung - Ty Nguyn c 30 quc l, trong trc dc c 3 quc l (khng k 2 trc dc chnh thuc trc dc Bc Nam l QL1, ng HCM) l quc l 15, 14, 14C, cn li l cc trc ngang (27 quc l), gm cc quc l 12A, 7, 8A, 8B, 9, 14B, 14D, 14E, 19, 24, 24B, 25, 1D, 26, 1-Hyunai, 1C, 27, 27B, 28, 40, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 49B, 217. Tng s km quc l khu vc ny t khong 4407 km, vi y cc cp k thut t cp V ti cp I v cc loi kt cu mt ng.Cc trc ngang c xu hng xut pht t cc cng bin pha ng hoc t QL1 chy ngang sang pha Ty, ct ngang hai trc dc QL1 v ng H Ch Minh v tip tc chy v pha bin gii vi Lo, Cam Pu Chia; trong c 5 quc l (QL12A, 9, 19, 46, 49) xut pht t cng bin v kt thc ti ca khu bin gii, 3 quc l (QL7, 8, 217) xut pht t QL1 v kt thc ti ca khu bin gii, cn li l cc trc ngang kt ni qua 2 trc dc, t trc QL1 ra cng bin hay kt ni vi a phng.- Khu vc min NamKhu vc min Nam chia thnh hai khu vc khu vc ng Nam B v khu vc ng bng sng Cu Long hai khu vc ny gm cc quc l 51, 13, 1K, 20, 22, 22B, 30, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 80, 91. Tng chiu di 2.371,16 km, c y cc cp k thut t cp V ti cp I v cc dng kt cu mt t BTXM, b tng nha ti cp phi. Khu vc ng bng sng Cu Long l c h thng knh rch chng cht, do vy trn h thng quc l c rt nhiu cu; hin ti cn mt s v tr cha xy dng c cu (c bit l cc cu ln) nh v tr ph Hu Giang (QL1), M Li (QL50), i Ngi, Rch Miu, C Chin (QL60), Vm Cng, Thi Ho (QL80),... V cu cng: Hin nay, trn cc quc l v ng tnh c 7.213 cu (c chiu di trn 4m)/187.287 md trong cu vnh cu chim khong 50% cn li l cu bn vnh cu v cu tm. Ngoi ra trn mng quc l v ng tnh cn khong 115 bn ph v hn 1.500 ng trnV hnh lang an ton giao thng: HLAT giao thng l b phn quan trng ca kt cu h tng ng b, bo v an ton cng trnh giao thng v an ton giao thng vn ti, hnh lang an ton ng b thuc phm vi t dnh cho ng b c bo v v nghim cm xy dng cng trnh khc tr nhng cng trnh thit yu. Thi gian qua cng tc gn gi k cng php lut m bo trt t ATGTB c x hi quan tm, trong c vic gi vng hnh lang an ton ng b thng thong, chng ln chim s dng tri php t hnh lang dnh cho ng b. Tuy nhin tnh trng vi phm hnh lang an ton ng b ngy cng a dng, phc tp, mt trong nhng vn ni cm hin nay l u ni ng ngang tri php vo quc l. Mc du cc vn bn php lut bn quy nh r ni dung, b rng hnh lang an ton v trch nhim ca B, ngnh v c quan a phng, tuy nhin cng tc bo v hnh lang ATGTB cn cha hiu qu th hin s phi hp cha tt gia cc b ngnh lin quan cng nh chnh quyn a phng cc cp. Tnh trng ln chim hnh lang an ton ng b ang din ra ph bin hu ht cc a phng.Vi phm hnh lang ATGTB khng ch c ngi dn xy dng nh ca, lu qun tri php m cn c cc ngnh nh: in lc, bu in, cp thot nc, xng du... Mt khc , cng trnh ca ngnh lin quan n s dng t hnh lang an ton v u ni vo ng cng khng c quy hoch, dn n vic u ni vo ng b khng hp l, to ra cc tim n TNGT. Nhiu cng trnh cn nh hng n bn vng cng trnh ng b v lm xu i mi trng vn ti nh gim tc xe chy, nh hng n gi thnh vn doanh. Theo thng k ca Thanh tra giao thng ng b c B GTVT cng b th hin c 73.445 cng trnh kin c v 1.089 trm xng du vi phm hnh lang ATGT; 2.868 ng ngang m tri php v 548 trng hp cp t hnh lang sai qui nh.Kho st ca Ban thanh tra thuc Cc ng b trn 40 tuyn quc l tnh n cui nm 2007 c tng s 79.599 cng trnh vi phm hnh lang an ton giao thng trong 74.144 cng trnh xy dng kin c, 990 trm xng du v 4.425 ng ngang m tri php. Tnh trng quy hoch th st dc, ko di v ly quc l l ng trc tr thnh ph bin cng gy nh hng khng tt n mng li giao thng2.1.2. KCHT_GT ng sta. V mng ngMng li ng st Vit Nam vi tng chiu di 2.995km ni lin cc khu dn c, trung tm vn ho nng nghip v cng nghip tr khu vc ng bng sng Cu Long.ng st Vit Nam ni lin vi ng st Trung Quc qua hai hng: Vi Vn Nam - Trung Quc qua tnh Lo Cai Vi Qung Ty - Trung Quc qua tnh Lng Snng st Vit Nam cng c tim nng ni lin vi mng li ng st Campuchia, Thi Lan v Malaysia n Singapore v tuyn ng st ca Lo khi c pht trin. ng st Vit Nam ang s dng ba loi kh ung, l loi ung 1.000mm, ung tiu chun (1.435mm) v ung lng (chung c 1.435mm v 1.000mm). Mng li ng st quc gia phn b theo 7 trc chnh l: Thng Nht (H Ni Si Gn), H Ni Hi Phng, H Ni - ng ng, H Ni Lo Cai, H Ni-Qun Triu, Kp Lu X, Kp H Long.Bng 2.3. Chiu di - Kh ng-Nng lc thng qua trn cc tuynTTTuyn chnhChiu di(km)Kh ngT l (%)Nng lc thng qua(i tu/ngy m)VMax(km/h)1H Ni-TP.H Ch Minh1.7261.000mm69,318902Gia Lm Hi Phng971.000mm3,924703Yn Vin Lo Cai2851.000mm11,419704H Ni - ng ng164Kh lng6,616605ng Anh Qun Triu55Kh lng2,217506Kp Ung B H Long1061.435mm4,314507Kp Lu X561.435mm2,3Tng cng2.489100Ngun: Cc ng st Vit NamBng 2.4. S liu chiu di cc loi ng ca SVN.Loi ngChiu diChim t l (%)ng chnh tuyn2.489 km71,7Trong :100- ng kh 1.000 mm2.108 km84,7- ng kh 1.435 mm 162 km6,5- ng lng 219 km8,8ng trnh v ng nhnh 506 km14,6ng ga477 km13,7Tng cng 3.472 km100Ngun: Cc ng st Vit Namb. V cu trc ng stCu trc ng st gm nn t, cu v hm. Cu trc ng c t trn cc kt cu ng st. Cu trc ng bao gm ray, cc thanh ging, t vt v ba lt. Tt c tu vn hnh trn ng u c kim sot bng h thng tn hiu. V mi thng tin v vn hnh khai thc tu khn cp hng ngy c thc hin thng qua h thng thng tin lin lc. Sau y l trnh by tm tt v cc cng trnh trang thit b hin c ca SVN.Bng 2.5. Cng trnh trang thit b ca ng stTuyn-kmCu trc ng stNn tCuHmCngSlgkmSlgKmSlgKm2,6002.4501.8135739125.11981100%94,2%2,2%0,5%3,1%Ngun: Cc ng st Vit NamT bng trn ta thy hu ht cc kt cu ng st l nn t (94%). Nn t ny c th l nn o hoc nn p. Bng 2.6. T phn "Chiu rng nn ng ca cc tuyn SVN (n v: km)Chiu rngH Ni -S. GnY.Vin -L.CaiHN - . ngL X - KpKp - H. LongG Lm - HP.Anh- Q. triuV.in- B.HngTng4.4m1726,5273,95,390,76,72103,15.0 hoc 6.4m10,8160,255,7104,947,741,1420,4Tng1726,5284,7165,555,7104,990,754,441,12523,5Hu ht chiu rng mt v lng nn u l 4,4m. Chiu rng gy nhiu kh khn cho vic duy tu bo dng ng v nng cao tc chy tu. * Cu: C tt c 1.813 cu ng st vi chiu di 45.368m v 31 cu chung ng st - ng b di 11.753m, trong tng chiu di cu trn tuyn H Ni - TP H Ch Minh l 36.056 mt, chim t l 63% tng chiu di cu trn ng st. C 180 cu dm thp tm thi di 18.084m, chim 31% tng chiu di cu ng st. Tng chiu di cc cu b tng l 13.274m trong 9.179m trn tuyn H Ni - TP H Ch Minh. Trong c hn 100 cu c tc chy tu thp hn hn ch tc ca khu gian. Tc ca khu gian c xc nh cc iu kin v hng tuyn v kt cu ng st v kh nng ca u my toa xe. V vy tc hn ch ca cu thp hn tc hn ch ca khu gian ngha l cc ch s ca cu thp hn so vi cc ch s ca kt cu ng st hay hng tuyn trong khu gian v cn ci to nhanh chng. C 5.128 cng vi chiu di 80.850m trn ng st. Bng 2.7. S lng cu hn ch tc TuynTc chy tu (km/h)Khu gian hn ch tc khng k cc cu hn ch tc 2,54Si Gn Kin Lng (qua k. Lp V)III303III30-40> 2,55Si Gn C Mau (tuyn ven bin)III30-40> 2,56Si GnKin Lng (k. Thp Mi)III30> 2,5Bng 3.10. Cc cng chnh pha Bc TTTn cngTnh,Thnh phTheo 16/2000/Q-TTgTheo 323/Q-BGTVTTheo 13/208/Q-BGTVTC tu ln nhtCng sutC tu ln nhtCng sutC tu ln nhtCng sutICng hng ho(T)(103 T/nm)(T)(103 T/nm)(T)(103 T/nm)1Cng H NiH Ni2.5001.0001.2001.0005002Cng Khuyn LngH Ni1.0001.2251.0001.6803Cng Vit TrPh Th1.2304001.2506002.500 ( 3.0004Cng Ninh BnhNinh Bnh2.5001.0001.5701.0002.5005Cng Ninh PhcNinh Bnh1.0002.4303.0006Cng Ho BnhHo Bnh5502005503005507Cng a PhcThi Nguyn2004003003007008Cng Ph ngH Ni4002.3006001.100Bng 3.11. Cc cng a phng pha Bc TTTn cngTnh,Thnh phTheo 323/Q-BGTVTTheo 13/208/Q-BGTVTC tuln nhtCng sutC tuln nhtCng sutCng hng ho(T)(103 T/n)(T)(103 T/n)1Cng ChmH Ni4004004004002Cng Bc HN (XD mi)H Ni1.0004.5004002.0003Cng Chu PhanVnh Phc2005102008004Cng c BcVnh Phc2005005Cng Vnh ThnhVnh Phc4005006Cng Nh ThyVnh Phc4005007Cng Hng YnHng Yn1.0003508Cng Triu DngHng Yn1502004003009Cng M SHng Yn1.00035010Cng Sn TyH Ty30040030040011Cng Hng VnH Ty40035040030012Cng Nam nh (XD mi)Nam nh4003501.0001.00013Cng Tn (XD mi)Thi Bnh1.0002501.00020014Cng Thi BnhThi Bnh50050015Cng Nh Trc (XD mi)H Nam60020016Cng Cu YnNinh Bnh40020017Cng p CuBc Ninh20050020050018Cng A L Bc Giang20065020060019Cng c LongBc Ninh20030020Cng Bn HBc Ninh20030021Cng Knh VngBc Ninh20030022Cng Cng CuHi Dng60046060050023Cng S Du Hi Phng6001.5006001.50024Cng Vn PhYn Bi20015020020025Cng Tuyn QuangT.Quang20020020030026Cng Lc Cu (XD mi)Lo Cai20012027Cng T BSn La20015020020028Cng T HcSn La20020020020029Cng Vn YnSn La20020020015030Cng Ba CpHo Bnh20025031Cng Bn NgcHo Bnh200300Bng 3.12. Cc cng chnh pha NamTTTn tuynTheo 16/2000/Q-TTgiu chnh, b sungCp k thutB (m)H (m)Cp k thutB (m)H (m)1Ca Tiu CampuchiaI1004-6I>90> 72Ca nh An-Tu ChuI1004-6I>90> 73Si Gn-C Mau (qua k. X No)III303III30-40> 2,54Si Gn -Kin Lng (qua k. Lp V)III303III30-40> 2,55Si Gn-C Mau (tuyn ven bin)III30-40> 2,56Si Gn-Kin Lng (k.Thp Mi)III30> 2,57Si Gn-Bn Sc (S. Si Gn)III50-70> 1,58Si Gn-Bn Ko (S. Vm C ng)III50-70> 1,59Si Gn-Mc Ho (S. Vm C Ty)III50-70> 1,510Mc Ho-H TinIV20-30> 211Si Gn-Hiu Lim (S. ng Nai)III50-70> 1,512Knh Phc Xuyn-Knh 28III20-30> 213Rch Gi - C MauIII50-70> 1,514Vng Tu-Th Vi-BSCL -Vng Tu-Th ViI>90> 7-Th Vi-Cc tnh BSCLIII50-70> 1,53.3.2. Pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT hng hiu t pht trin ng b kt cu h tng cng bin v h thng lung vo cng; xy dng cng ca ng quc t 3 vng kinh t trng im; pht trin cng trung chuyn quc t tip nhn tu trng ti ln, p ng c nhu cu vn ti. Xy dng cc cng hnh khch chuyn dng phc v vn ti Bc Nam v du lch ng bin. 1) Phn loi cng bin theo vng, khu vc hp dn, trong c phn nh chc nng ca tng cng, bn: Cng bin loi 1: gm 17 cng bin. y l nhng cng bin quan trng, c kh nng tip nhn tu bin c ln, bao gm cc bn tng hp, chuyn dng...trong cng mt khu vc v c kh nng h tr cho nhau, thun li trong vic qun l, khai thc.Cng bin loi 2: gm 23 cng bin. y cng l cc cng bin tng hp hoc chuyn dng nhng phn tn, nh, l.Cng bin loi 3: l nhng cng khng lin b. Cng c lp, khng c kh nng h tr cho nhau, l cc cng du kh ngoi khi.Trn c s Q s 16/2008/Q-TTg ngy 28/1/2008 ca Th tng Chnh ph cng b danh mc phn loi h thng cng bin Vit Nam, d kin phn loi h thng cng bin VN nh sau:Bng 3.13. Cc cng bin loi 1 TTTn cng binTn bn cngThuc Tnh, TP1Cm PhThan Cm PhQung Ninh2Hn GaiTH Ci Ln, Xng du B12, NM T H Long, Khch Hn Gai3Hi PhngCa ng Lch Huyn, TH Hi Phng, TH Vt Cch, TH on X, TH nh V, Container Cha V, Container VN(Viconship), Hi PhngXD nh V, Transvina, Hi ng, Ca Cm, Thng L, GAS i Hi, Total Gas HiPhng, XD Petec Hai Phng, Kh ha lng Thng Long, NM T Bch ng, NM T Nam Triu, NMT Ph Rng, Caltex, Lilama Hi Phng, NM C hp H Long, C kh H Long, XD K99, B Bin phng, Cng ty 128, TBVT Cha V, ng Hi4Nghi Sn TH Nghi Sn, XM Nghi SnThanh Ha5Ca L TH Ca LNgh An6Vng ngVng ngH Tnh7Chn MyChn My, Alean Vit NamTThin-Hu8 NngTin Sa, Sng Hn, Nguyn Vn Tri, Lin Chiu NngXD Ni Hin, XD Petec, XM Hi Vn, Hi Sn9Dung QutDung QutQung Ngi10Quy NhnQuy Nhn, Th NiBnh nh11Vn Phong Cng TCQTVn Phong Khnh Ha12Nha TrangNha Trang13Ba NgiBa Ngi14TP H Ch MinhSi Gn, Tn Thun ng, Tn Cng, LDPT tip vn s 1, Ct Li, Hip Phc.TP H Ch MinhNMSCTB Ba Son, GAS Si Gn, XD Nh B, Du thc vt (Navioil), NMT Si Gn, NMT AnPh,, Bn Ngh, Rau Qu, Bng Sen, Ct Li, XD Saigon Perto, Petechim, XM Sao Mai, XD Ct Li Petec, X51, TM SP HD Lm Ti Chnh, Vitaico, XD VK.102, CN Tu thy Si Gn, in Hip Phc, XM Chinhphong HP, XM Holcim Hip Phc, XM Nghi Sn,,, XM Fico, XD Minh Tn, Trng KTNV Hng giang2, Bin ng, CD Calofic.15Vng TuBaria Serece, in Ph M, PV Gas Vng Tu, Vietsovpetrro, XM Cm Ph, Thng cng Vng Tu, Thng lu PTSC, H lu PTSC.BR-Vng TuXD PTSC, XD K2 Phn cng du VT, Interflour Ci Mp, XD ng Xuyn, m Ph M, Thp Ph M, CD Holeim Th Vi, Vung Tau Shipyard, C Vng Tu, Thy Sn Ct L, Hi Sn Trng Sa16ng Naing Nai, G Du A, G Du B,ng NaiVedan Phc Thi, CD Long Thnh, Gas PVC Phc Thi, Ph ng, CD Phc Khnh, Ha du AP, XM Lafarge, Gas SCT17Cn ThCn Th, Container Cn Th, Ci Cui, Bnh MinhCn ThXD Tr Nc, Total Gas Cn Th, Tng kho XD Cn Th, CD Phc Thnh, Lng thc Sng Hu, XD Hu Giang, XD Petro Mekong, X55, Vn ti thy Cn Th, XD Ty Nam B.2) Pht trin cc cng bin ch yu, c vai tr quan trng, c tnh cht t ph:- Khu vc pha Bc: hon thnh m rng cc cng thuc khu vc Hi Phng, Qung Ninh (Ci Ln, inh V); xy dng cng ca ng quc t Lch Huyn tip nhn tu c trng ti n 80.000DWT; u tin pht trin cc bn container v cc bn cng chuyn dng; xy dng cng khch ti khu vc Hi Phng, Qung Ninh. - Khu vc min Trung: hon thnh nhanh vic u t xy dng v a vo khai thc 2 bn khi ng Cng trung chuyn quc t Vn Phong to tin xy dng cng trung chuyn quc t c tm c khu vc v quc t; hon thnh xy dng, nng cp v m rng cc cng: Nghi Sn, Vng ng, Tin Sa, Dung Qut, Quy Nhn; xy dng mi cng tng hp Lin Chiu ( Nng); cc cng chuyn dng phc v cho cc nh my nhit in, xut khu alumin. La chn v xy dng bn cng khch quc t khu vc Hu - Nng, Nha Trang.- Khu vc pha Nam: ci to, nng cp v xy dng 3 cm cng bin khu vc ng Nam B:+ Cm cng TP H Ch Minh bao gm khu vc Ct Li, Hip Phc v Ci Mp, Th Vi (B Ra-Vng Tu);+ Cm cng ng Nai bao gm cc khu cng ng Nai, Ph Hu, G Du A v B, Phc An. + Cm cng B Ra - Vng Tu bao gm cc khu cng G Du C, Ph M, Ci Mp-Th Vi, Bn inh - Sao Mai... 3) Pht trin h thng lung lch ra vo cc cng bin:iu ny m bo s pht trin ng b gia cng v lung lch, cho php tu ra vo cng an ton, tin li, khai thc tt nht tim nng ca cng, bn xt v kha cnh c tu vo cng kinh t nht.nh hng pht trin h thng lung lch ra vo cng bin nh sau:u t ci to, nng cp cc tuyn lung cng bin hin c, c bit l cc lung vo cc cng bin ln nh: lung cng bin Hn Gai (vo bn cng Ci Ln); lung Lch Huyn (vo cng bin Hi Phng); lung Vng Tu-Si Gn (tuyn qua sng Lng Tu v tuyn qua sng Soi Rp); lung vng Tu-Th Vi (vo cng Vng Tu-Th Vi; lung Sng Hu qua ca nh An (vo cng Cn Th); Xy dng lung tu mi vo sng Hu qua knh Quan Chnh B cho tu trng ti 10.000 DWT y ti v tu 20.000 DWT gim ti gn vi vic m rng, nng cp cm cng Cn Th-Ci Cui tr thnh cm cng u mi khu vc min Ty Nam B. Xy dng, khi thng v nng cp cc lung tu bin khc. Bng 3.14. Cc lung tu ch yuTTTn lungRng(m) su y lung (m)Bn knh(m)Thit kThc t1Hn Gai-Ci Ln:- Hn Mt- Bi Chy-Ci Ln 1508080-12,0-8,1-6,8-12,0-7,9-6,8ThngThng8002Hi Phng: Nam Triu Bch ng- Sng Cm10010080-4,2-4,2-4,2-4,2-4,2-4,28758758003 Nng: Tin Sa - Cu 6 - Cu 2,3,41106050-10,0-6,2-3,7-10,0-6,2-3,7Thng5252654Quy Nhn80-8,5-8,56305Vn Phong200--15,1Thng6Si Gn-Vng Tu150-8,5-8,57307Hip Phc(Soi Rp)150-8,5-8,57308ng Nai150--6,87309Th Vi:- Ci Mp- Ph M- G Du 15015090-14,7-13,3-7,8-9,3-9,3-5,0100090065010nh An - Cn Th80-3,2-2,67204) Pht trin, nng cp, hin i ha h thng n bin:iu ny khng th tch ri vic xy dng, nng cp cc lung tu bin vo cc cng bin. Mc ch l m bo an ton hng hi trong mi thi tit, c bit l vo ban m v sng m. nh hng pht trin h thng n bin nh sau:- Duy tr tt hot ng ca h thng n bin (hin nay l 78 chic) theo hng ng dng ng b cc thit b, cng ngh mi, m bo cht lng v hiu qu. Nghin cu s dng nng lng gi, sng, mt tri cung cp nng lng cho h thng ny.- Pht trin h thng n bin m bo v s lng, tiu chun k thut. Trc mt ch trng u t xy dng mi mt s n bin trn qun o Trng Sa (Nam Yt, Trng Sa ln, Sn Ca, Sinh Tn, T Chnh A, T Chnh B, Phc Nguyn) nhm khng nh ch quyn quc gia v phc v an ninh, quc phng, va m bo an ton hng hi i vi hot ng ca tu thuyn ti vng bin ny. - Xy dng mi mt s n bin phc v an ton hng hi nh Sn ng, Lch Ghp, Hn La, Ca Rn, Ca Tng ... v trn cc o gn b. 5) Pht trin, nng cp, hin i ha h thng i thng tin duyn hi:iu ny nhm m bo thng tin lin lc hng hi thng sut, ng thi kt ni lin thng vi cc h thng thng tin ca ngnh Thy sn, Trung tm d bo kh tng thy vn Trung ng v h thng thng tin ca cc t chc, c quan c lin quan trn vng bin.3.3.2. Pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT hng khngMc tiu:a nng lc khai thc cc cng hng khng ln 3- 3,5 ln vo nm 2020; hon thnh vic nng cp, m rng v xy dng mi cc cng hng khng t tiu chun quc t; tp trung u t cc cng hng khng quc t trong khu vc H Ni v TP H Ch Minh vi quy m v cht lng phc v ngang tm vi cc cng hng khng quc t ln trong khu vc:Tip thu xy dng v duy tr Qun l bay Vit Nam trnh tin tin trong khu vc v trn th gii, to nn tng n nm 2020 c bn chuyn sang t ng ha cng tc qun l, iu hanh bay. C th:- Xy dng mt h thng qun l bay hin i, m bo tm ph ca cc trang thit b lin lc, dn ng v gim st trong ton b vng FIR ca Vit Nam vi chnh xc, tin cy cao. Cc d liu c x l, trao i, kt ni, lu tr v truy cp t ng gia cc h thng; m bo tt c cc hot ng bay c kim sot, iu hnh v qun l cht ch v an ton. m bo tt cng tc khai thc h thng khng vn nh: khai thc SB, kh tng, khng bo v tm kim - cu nn hng khng nhm t c hiu qu kinh t cao nht cho khai thc bay.- Duy tr v nng cao cc trang thit b ph tr dn ng, thng tin lin lc v ra da gim st hin ti ph hp v p ng y yu cu ca cc hng hng khng, nh khai thc bay hay ngi s dng vng tri; ng thi trin khai thc hin ng b (trn mt t v my bay) theo giai on cc b phn la chn ca H thng thng tin, dn ng, gim st v qun l iu hnh bay c chn lc cng ngh thng tin d liu v ni mng thng tin vin thng hng khng (ATN) khng a trong hai vng thng bo bay. M rng v tng cng nng lc ca mng thng tin v tinh im i im trn tuyn trc (Bc - Trung - Nam) v i/n cc trm thng tin, cc cng hng khng ni a. Nghin cu, p dng cng ngh mng ATN mt t trn phm vi ton quc. nh hng pht trina. Phn loi sn bayHin nay, Vit Nam mi phn loi h thng sn bay theo chng bay ni a vag quc t m cha c s phn loi theo mc hnh khch thng qua, loi v kch c ca my bay cng nh chc nng trong ton b h thng sn bay.Theo khuyn co ca ICAO, xut mt h thng phn loi sn bay theo chc nng v kch c ca my bay c khai thc trong sn bay, c th nh sau:+ Sn bay chnh yu Sn bay quc t (Sn bay cp I): Cc sn bay chnh yu (Cp I) c th tip nhn khng ch cc chuyn bay ni a m cn c cc chuyn bay quc t c li di. Cc sn bay chnh yu ny s phc v nh cc sn bay ca ng cho Vit Nam v cc sn bay trung chuyn vng i vi cc tuyn ni a. Cc cng trnh sn bay s c thit k tip nhn cc my bay phn lc ln.+ Sn bay th yu Sn bay chnh (Sn bay cp II): Cc sn bay th yu (Cp II) l nhng sn bay chnh trong khu vc. Cc sn bay ny s c kt ni vi tt c cc sn bay chnh yu theo tuyn bay trc tip. Cc cng trnh sn bay s c thit k tip nhn cc my bay phn lc c trung bnh. + Cp III Sn bay vng: Cc sn bay Cp III l cc sn bay ni a vng. Nhng sn bay ny s c kt ni vi cc sn bay chnh yu. Cc cng trnh sn bay s c thit k tip nhn cc my bay phn lc loi nh hoc my bay tuabin phn lc-cnh qut.Bng 3.15. Mt s yu t k thut v sn bayPhn cp sn bayCp ICp IICp IIIVai tr ca sn bayQuc tng diKhu vcLoi my bay thit kLJ/MJSJSJ/TP/STPNng lc cht ti250~150150~65M ICAO 4E4D4C/3C/2BLoi ng bngCc thit b dng c chnh xcCc thit b dng c chnh xcCc thit b dng c khng chnh xcChiu di ng bng (m)3.6002.0002000~1200Chiu rng ng bng (m)454545~30Chiu rng l ng bng (m)7,57,57,5/0Chiu rng ca di t an ton ng bng (m)300300150Chiu rng ca ng ln (m)232323/15Chiu rng ca l ng ln (m)10,57,57,5/0Loi cu nn v cu ho8 ~ 106 ~ 84 ~ 8H thng n hiu hng khngPhc v khai thc ban mPhc v khai thc ban mPhc v khai thc ban ngyb. Tiu chun v mi trngTrn c s kt qu d bo, lng nc s dng hng ngy ti CHK vo nm 2020 s khong 10.000m3/ngy m lng nc thi d bo tng ng vi lng nc trn. V vy, nu trong trng hp nc thi khng c x l th nng cc cht nhim chnh s l (tnh theo s lng hnh khch s dng nh v sinh l 20%): BOD5 (200C): 131g/m3(mg/l) COD : 248g/m3(mg/l) SS : 350g/m3(mg/l)Nng ca cc tc nhn gy nhim ln hn nhiu so vi tiu chun Vit Nam v nc thi cng nghip 20mg/l i vi ngun tip nhn loi A v 50mg/l i vi ngun tip nhn loi B theo (TCVN 5945 2005). V vy, cng tc xy dng v hot ng ca h thng x l nc thi t Tiu chun ti cc Cng hng khng sn bay l bt buc theo iu 27 Lut Bo v mi trng. Cc gi tr BOD, COD v SS cn c loi b tng ng l 85%, 86% v 80% nu xem ngun tip nhn cn Tiu chun loi A. D bo nguy c nhim do cht thi rn, cht thi lng ti cc CHK: Ngun cht thi rn ti cc Cng hng khng sn bay ch yu l cht tho c ngun gc hu c nh thc n tha, cht thi c ngun gc khc nh giy, bao b, carton, gi vn, nha, da, cao su, g, thu tinh, kim loi v gch ngi, snh s. Cc ngun cht thi ny c thi t qu trnh hot ng bay ca tu bay, t hot ng khai thc thng mi ti nh ga, kho hng, khu ch bin sut n, x nghip sa cha my bay, khi c quan vn phng v ca khch n tin. T kt qu tng hp thng k phn tch v tn sut chuyn bay v lu lng nghin cu ti Cng HKQT Ni Bi nm 2003, khi lng hnh khch c tng ln 100.000 khch/nm th s c khi lng cht thi tng nh sau: Tng lng cht thi rn 1m3/ngy Tng lng cht thi lng tng 0,6m3/ngyTi cc CHK-SB s tng trng kinh t, tng hiu qu khai thc thng mi l ng ngha vi vic tng khi lng cht thi v tng nguy c nhim mi trng do vy cn phi c k hoch v nhng chnh sch ng trong pht trin kinh t i i vi vic bo v mi trng. Trc mt cn c nhng gii php nhm gim thiu nhim c th do hot ng hng khng gy ra l ting n, kh thi v cht thi rn, cht thi lng ti cc cng hng khng. 2) nh hng pht trin cng hng khng sn baya. n nm 2020Mng CHK n nm 2020 c nh hng trn quan im ly m hnh kt cu trc nan lm c s chnh vi H Ni, Nng, TP H Ch Minh l 03 im gom thu lu lng hng khch, hng ha ni vi cc ng bay ni a v quc t. Vic nh hng mng CHK n nm 2020 cng c cn nhc nhu cu pht trin mt cch hp l cc CHK ti cc khu vc c vai tr quan trng v kinh t v quc phng nhm thc y s pht trin ca cc khu vc ny thng qua vic m cc tuyn bay ni a lin vng cng nh cc tuyn bay quc t khu vc khi c nhu cu.n nm 2020 c 26 CHK c a vo khai thc, s dng, trong c 10 CHKQT (Ni Bi, Ct Bi, Ph Bi, Nng, Chu Lai, Cam Ranh, Tn Sn Nht, Long Thnh, Cn Th, Ph Quc) v 16 CHKN (in Bin Ph, N Sn, Lo Cai, Qung Ninh , GIa lm, Vinh, ng Hi, Ph Ct, Tuy Ha, PleiKu, Bun Ma Thut, Lin Khng, Rch Gi, C Mu, Cn Sn, Vng Tu). Tng din tch t cc CHK n nm 2020 l 23.000 ha, trong din tch t do HKDD qun l l 11.200 ha, t dung chung vi qun s l 6.500 ha, t do qun s qun l: 5.300 ha. Trong giai on n nm 2020 nghin cu xy dng cc sn bay phc v cho hot ng hng khng chung, bay airtaxi bng tu bay trc thng v tu bay cnh bng loi nh ti cc tnh vng su, vng xa, cc tnh cha c CHK.- Phn chia cng hng khng theo khu vc.+ Khu vc pha Bc (9 CHK): 02 CHKQT (Ni Bi, Ct Bi), 07 CHKN (in Bin, N Sn, Lo Cai, Gia Lm, Qung Ninh, Vinh, ng Hi).+ Khu vc min Trung (07 CHK): 04 CHKQT ( Nng, Chu Lai, Ph Bi. Cam Ranh), 03 CHKN (Ph Ct Tuy Ha, Pleiku).+ Khu vc pha Nam (10 CHK): 04 CHKQT (Tn Sn Nht, Long Thnh, Cn Th, Ph Quc), 06 CHKN (Bun Ma Thut, Lin Khng, Rch Gi, C Mau, Cn Sn, Vng Tu).- Cc cng hng khng quc t. (1) CHKQT Ni Bi.+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT ca Th , c vai tr trung tm (c quc t v quc ni) ca khu vc pha Bc. Trong tng th mng CHK n nm 2020, tip tc duy tr pht trin CHKQT Ni Bi cng cng HKQT Tn Sn Nht, CHKQT Long Thnh, CHKQT Nng l cc CHK trc chnh ca cc tuyn bay ni a; CHKQT Ni Bi cng vi CHKQT Long Thnh, CHKQT Tn Sn Nht l cc u mi vn chuyn hnh khch quc t quan trng nht ca t nc. + Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s.+ Quy m: CHKQT Ni Bi t cp 4E theo tiu chun ca ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo tip nhn my bay B747-400 hoc tng ng. Giai on n nm 2020, u t m rng, nh ga hnh khch T2 ln 15 triu HK/nm kt hp vi vic nng cp, m rng nh ga T1 nhm m bo cng sut khai thc ca cng ln 25 triu hnh khch/nm vo nm 2020. Nghin cu, trin khai u t CHKQT Ni Bi v pha Nam.(2) CHKQT Ct Bi+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT phc v cc hot ng bay quc t vi cc im trong khu vc, v phc v cc ng bay ni a lin vng gia Trung B v Nam B vi ng Bc B kt hp vi chc nng d b cho CHKQT Ni Bi.+ Tnh cht s dng: sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s.+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4E theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo tip nhn my bay B777 hoc B747 (hn ch ti trng) trong giai on 2010-2015. Trong giai on n nm 2020, trin khai cc d n u t ng b a CHK Ct Bi tr thnh CHKQT vi cng sut cng t t 2-2,5 triu hnh khch/nm v 40-50.000 tn hng ha/nm.(3) CHKQT Ph Bi + Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT phc v cc hot ng bay quc t trong khu vc v cc hot ng bay lin vng Bc B-Bc Trung B - Nam B. + Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s.+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4E theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v 24/24 gi cc loi my bay B777 hoc tng ng. Cgn sut cng 2 triu hnh khch/nm v 100.000 tn hng ha/nm.(4) CHKQT Nng:+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT c vai tr trung tm (c quc t v quc ni) ca khu vc Min Trung. Trong tng th mng CHK n nm 2020, tip tc duy tr, pht trin CHKQT Nng cng CHKQT Tn Sn Nht, cng hng khng quc t Ni Bi l 03 CHK trc chnh ca cc tuyn bay ni a; tip tc tp trung u t, tng cng cc hot ng bay quc t to iu kin cn thit pht trin CHKQT Nng thnh CHKQT quan trng phc v cc ng bay quc t n min Trung t cc quc gia trong khu vc. + Tnh cht s dng: sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s + Quy m: CHK t cp 4E theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo tip nhn my bay B747-400 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 6 triu hnh khch/nm v 200.000 tn hng ha/nm.(5) CHKQT Chu Lai:+ Vai tr, chc nng: l trung tm trung chuyn hng ha quc t, ng thi phc v cc ng bay ni a lin vng gia Trung B vi Bc B v Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4E theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo m bo tip nhn my bay A-380(F) hoc tng ng. Trin khai cc d n u t ng b a CHK Chu Lai tr thnh CHKQT vi vai tr l CHK trung chuyn hng ha quc t vi cng sut 2 triu tn hng ha/nm v 2,5 triu hnh khch/nm.(6) CHKQT Cam Ranh+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT phc v cc hot ng bay quc t trong khu vc v cc hot ng bay lin vng Bc B - Nam Trung B - Nam B. + Tnh cht s dng: sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s. + Quy m: CHK t cp 4E theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo phc v 24/24 gi cc loi my bay B777 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 3 triu hnh khch/nm v 100.000 tn hng ha/nm.(7) CHKQT Tn Sn Nht+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT c vai tr trung tm (c quc t v quc ni) ca khu vc pha Nam. Trong tng th mng CHK n nm 2015, tip tc duy tr pht trin CHKQT Tn Sn Nht cng CHKQT Ni Bi, CHKQT Nng l 03 CHK trc chnh ca cc tuyn bay ni a; cng CHKQT Ni Bi l 02 trung tm trung chuyn hnh khch quc t quan trng nht ca t nc. T sau nm 2015 CHKQT Long Thnh s m nhn vai tr trung tm trung chuyn hnh khch, hng ha. + Quy m: CHK t cp 4E theo tiu chun ICAO, m bo tip nhn my bay B747-400 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 17 triu hnh khch/nm v 300.000 tn hng ha/nm.(8) CHKQT Long Thnh + Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT ln nht ca c nc v l mt trong nhng trung tm trung chuyn hnh khch quc t ca khu vc theo tiu chun quc t. + Quy m: CHK t cp 4 F (cp cao nht theo tiu chun ICAO), m bo tip nhn my bay A380 hoc tng ng, cng sut cng 80-100 triu HK/nm v 5 triu tn HH/Nm.(9) CHKQT Cn Th + Vai tr, chc nng : L CHKQT phc v cho hot ng bay quc t trong khu vc, bay ni vng v lin vng gia Bc B, Trung B vi khu vc ng Bng Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s + Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v 24/24 gi cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng (giai on 1) v B777 hoc tng ng (giai on 2). Cng sut cng 2 triu hnh khch/nm, v 100.000 tn hng ha/nm.(10) CHKQT Ph Quc+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKQT phc v cho hot ng bay quc t trong khu vc, bay ni vng v lin vng gia Bc B, Trung B vi o Ph Quc (Trung tm du lch v giao thng).+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: - Ti v tr Dng ng: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v cc loi my bay ATR72/F70 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 300.000 hnh khch/nm v 2.000 tn hng ha/nm. CHK ti Dng ng s dng li khai thc khi CHK Ph Quc mi c xy dng li ti Dng T i vo hot ng.+ Ti v tr Dng T: CHK t cp 4E theo tiu chun ICAO, m bo phc v cc loi my bay B777 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 3 triu hnh khch/nm v 100.000 tn hng ha/nm.- Cc cng hng khng ni a i vi cc CHKN, n nm 2020 tip tc tp trung u t cho cc CHK nm ti cc a phng c tim nng ln v kinh t, du lch (Vinh, ng Hi, Lin Khng, Qung Ninh); cc CHK nm trong khu vc a bn chin lc: Ty Bc, Ty Nguyn, Ty Nam B (in Bin, N Sn, Pleiku, Bun Ma Thut, Cn o) nhm thc y kinh t, du lch ti cc a phng cng nh yu cu m bo an ninh quc phng. C th: (1) CHK in Bin Ph+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN ch yu phc v cho hot ng bay ni vng. + Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v ban ngy cc loi my bay ATR72/F70 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 300.000 hnh khch/nm v 500 tn hng ha/nm.(2) CHK ng Hi+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay lin vng Bc B - Bc Trung B - Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: : Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v ban ngy cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 800.000 hnh khch/nm v 500 tn hng ha/nm.(3) CHK N Sn+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay lin vng Ty Bc -Trung B - Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v ban ngy cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 800.000 hnh khch/nm v 2.000 tn hng ha/nm.(4) CHK Vinh+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay lin vng Bc B - Bc Trung B - Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: : Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v ban ngy cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 800.000 hnh khch/nm v 2.000 tn hng ha/nm.(5) CHK Gia Lm + Vai tr, chc nng: l CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay ch khch tuyn ngn, bay tc xi, bay th thao v cc hot ng trin lm hng khng, hot ng bay hng khng chung.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 3C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II m bo phc v ban ngy cc loi my bay ATR72/F70 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 167.000 hnh khch/nm v 2000 tn hng ha/nm.(6) CHK Ph Ct+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay lin vng Bc B - Nam Trung B - Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4D theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo phc v cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 500.000 hnh khch/nm v 5.000 tn hng ha/nm. (7) CHK Tuy Ha+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay lin vng Bc B - Trung Trung B - Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo phc v cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 300.000 hnh khch/nm v 2.000 tn hng ha/nm.(8) CHK Pleiku+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay lin vng Ty Nguyn - Nam B.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo phc v cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 300.000 hnh khch/nm v 1.000 tn hng ha/nm.(9) CHK Lin Khng+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v ch yu cho hot ng bay ni vng v lin vng gia Bc B, Trung B vi Ty Nguyn v kt hp khai thc cc hot ng bay quc t.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4D theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s II, m bo phc v 24/24 gi cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 2 triu hnh khch/nm v 100.000 tn hng ha/nm.(10) CHK Bun Ma Thut+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v ch yu cho hot ng bay ni vng v lin vng gia Bc B, Trung B vi Ty Nguyn.+ Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s.+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s I, m bo phc v 24/24 gi cc loi my bay A320/A321 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 800.000 hnh khch/nm v 3.000 tn hng ha/nm.(11) CHK Cn o+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay ni vng + Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 3C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s II, m bo phc v cc loi my bay ATR72/F70 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 500.000 hnh khch/nm v 2.000 tn hng ha/nm.(12) CHK C mau+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay ni vng + Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 3C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s II, m bo phc v cc loi my bay ATR72/F70 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 300.000 hnh khch/nm v 1.000 tn hng ha/nm.(13) CHK Rch Gi+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay ni vng + Tnh cht s dng: Sn bay dng chung dn dng v qun s+ Quy m: CHK t cp 4C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s II, m bo phc v cc loi my bay ATR72/F70 hoc tng ng. Cng sut cng 300.000 hnh khch/nm v 2.000 tn hng ha/nm.(14) CHK Vng Tu+ Vai tr, chc nng: L CHKN phc v cho hot ng bay trc thng, bay tc xi ni vng.+ Quy m: CHK t cp 3C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II. Cng sut cng 100.000 hnh khch/nm v 500 tn hng ha/nm, ch yu khai thc cc loi my bay trc thng, my bay cnh bng loi nh phc v cc tuyn bay ngn (Cn o, cc gin khoan,) vi mc ch khai thc du lch, du kh. C quan qun l khai thc: B Quc Phng.(15) CHK Lo Cai+ Quy m: CHK t cp 3C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp I, m bo phc v cc loi my bay ATR72 hoc tng ng. + Trc nm 2010 hon thnh cng tc kho st, quy hoch tng th.(16) CHK Qung Ninh+ Quy m: CHK t cp 3C theo tiu chun ICAO v sn bay qun s cp II, m bo phc v cc loi my bay ATR72 hoc tng ng. + Trc nm 2010 hon thnh cng tc kho st, quy hoch tng th.- Cc SB nh, SB chuyn dng v bi p trc thng.+ Nghin cu, quy hoch xy dng cc sn bay phc v cho hot ng bay trc thng v my bay cnh bng loi nh ti cc tnh vng su, vng xa, cc tnh cha c CHK nh: Lai Chu, Cao Bng, Lng Sn, Kon Tum, c Nng, Thanh Ha, H Tnh, Qung Tr, Bnh Thun, An Giang,p ng nhu cu pht trin v ph hp vi nhu cu quy hoch pht trin cc vng v cc a phng. Trong giai on n nm 2020, u tin quy hoch xy dng cc sn bay Lai Chu (tnh Lai Chu). Cao Bng (tnh Cao Bng), Phan Thit (tnh Bnh Thun).+ tn dng ti a nng lc cc CHK cng nh m bo tnh hiu qu trong khai thc, n nm 2020 vic khai thc cc hot ng bay hng khng chung (bay nng nghip, lm nghip, a cht, tm kim cu nn, hun luyn, th thao,) s c thc hin ti cc CHK c quy hoch nu trn. Trong giai on sau 2020, trn c s nhu cu thc t s nghin cu, quy hoch cc SB chuyn dng ring phc v cho cc mc ch ny. + Cc hot ng bay trc thng phc v vn chuyn hnh khch, hng ha thng l, bay phc v kinh t quc dn s tip tc c thc hin ti cc CHK c quy hoch nu trn. i vi nhu cu khai thc bay trc thng, my bay cnh bng loi nh phc v cc mc ch khc (Phc v hot ng ca cc t chc, doanh nghip, c nhn), cc bi p trc thng s c xem xt, cp php cho tng trng hp c th trn c s quy hoch ca tng vng, yu cu v an ninh, quc phng ca tng a phng.2) nh hng pht trin h thng qun l, iu hnh baya. n nm 2020- Lnh vc khng lu+ T chc vung tri cho mi trng CNS/ATM mi. Xy dng h thng ng hng khng hin i, ph hp vi quy hoch mng CHK, sn bay v cng tc qun l khng lu mi (ATM) bao gm nhiu loi ng HK.+ u t mi 02 d n ACC H Ni v TP H Ch Minh v cc c s qun l khng lu ng dng cng ngh CNS/ATM theo l trnh k hoch khng vn khu vc ca ICAO.+ Trin khai u t, t chc qun l lung khng lu (ATFM). Tip tc hon thin h thng cc ng bay quc t, ni a trong FIR H Ni v H Ch Minh. Thc hin gim phn cch cao (RVSM) theo l trnh ca ICAO.+ Trin khai thc hin chng trnh t ng ho cng tc qun l iu hnh bay song song vi vic thc hin qu trnh chuyn i sang h thng CNS/ATM mi ph hp vi tin trnh chung ca khu vc v th gii.- Lnh vc thng tin, dn ng, gim st+ Thng tin: M rng, tng cng th tch ph sng chng ln bng phng tin VHF, m bo d phng v trm trong cc phn khu. p dng cng ngh thng tin d liu v ni mng thng tin vin thng HK (ATN) khng a trong hai vng thng bo bay. M rng v tng cng nng lc ca mng thng tin v tinh im i im trn tuyn trc (Bc Trung - Nam) v i/n cc trm thng tin,cc CHKN. Nghin cu, p dng cng ngh mng ATN mt t trn phm vi ton quc.+ Dn ng: Thay th ton b phng thc dn ng bng NDB sang phng thc dn ng bng DVOR/DME. Nghin cu, p dng tng bc cng ngh dn ng bng v tinh trong tng th chng trnh CNS/ATM mi.+ Gim st: Duy tr v tng cng nng lc h thng gim st hng khng theo cng ngh truyn thng (ra a). Trin khai tng bc cng ngh gim st ph thuc t ng (ADS-B) trong c hai vng thng bo bay.- Lnh vc kh tng + Hon thnh vic u t cc trm quan trc thi tit t ng ti cc CHKN; mng ra a kh tng c bit ti cc CHKQT.+ Lp mng c s d liu kh tng (kt ni, trao i, lu tr s liu v cc d liu kh tng khc) kt hp vi vic xy dng m hnh d bo kh tng khng theo phng php s tr ti cc c s cung cp dch v kh tng. Hon thnh chng trnh trin khai mng D-ATIS ti tt c cc CHKQT theo tiu chun ICAO.- Lnh vc thng bo tin tc hng khng + Trin khai d n t ng ho thng bo tin tc hng khng (AIS); h thng t ng x l, in n bn HK, bao gm c bn s. + Xy dng h thng qun l cht lng (ISO 9000) cc dch v thng bo tin tc hng khng t ng ton cu t nm 2006.- Lnh vc tm kim - cu nn + Tp trung u t lc lng tm kim - cu nn ti trung tm QLBDDVN,cc CHK c v trang thit b, con ngi i i vi vic hon thin t chc hot ng. + u t chng trnh tr gip tm kim my bay b nn bng my tnh bao gm c s s d liu tm kim cu nn (kt ni, trao i, lu tr s liu TK_CN, k c s liu t trm v tinh/LUT gip nh v my bay b nn)+ u t 04 my bay chuyn dng tm kim - cu nn HK, nng tng s ln 06 chic vo nm 2020.- Trang b cc trang thit b tu bay.+ Trang b cc h thng trang thit b trn tu bay p ng cc yu cu v dn ng khu vc RNAV/RNP, gim tiu chun phn cch cao (RVSM), h thng FANS 1/A (H thng dn ng tng lai).+ Trin khai mng qun l khai thc bay (AOC) v mng lin lc cng cng ca hnh khch (PPC) ph hp vi cu hnh mng vin thng ATN ton ngnh HKDD (trong u tin trin khai ngay mng d liu ACAS). - Cng tc bay hiu chun + Hon thnh vic u t thit b, con ngi v qui trnh khai thc u nm 2010 ngnh HKDD c th m nhim vic trin khai cng tc bay hiu chun cho ton b trang thit b phc v cng tc qun l, m bo hot ng bay theo cc qui nh ca ICAO.+ Tip tc hon thin c v trang thit b, c s h tng, con ngi phc v cng tc bay hiu chun. T nm 2016 nghin cu u t i my bay phc v cng tc bay hiu chun thit b cho ton ngnh cng nh c th tham gia cc hp ng bay hiu chun cho cc quc gia khc. Bng 3.16. Danh mc d n pht trin cc CHKTTTn Cng hng khngCp CHK(Loi MB tip thu ti a)Nng lc thng qua Hnh khch(106HK)Hng ha(Tn)aCc CHK Quc t1Ni Bi4E (B747)25500.0002Tn Sn Nht4E (B747)18500.0003 Nng4E (B747)6200.0004Long Thnh4F (A380)80-1005.000.000bCc CHK Quc t phc v cho pht trin vng5Ct Bi4E (B767)2.5100.0006Ph Bi4E (B767)2100.0007Chu Lai4E (B747)2.55.000.0008Cam Ranh4E (B767)3100.0009Cn Th4C (A320, A321)2100.00010Ph Quc 4E (B767)215.000cCc CHK ni a1in Bin4C (ATR72, F70)0.38002N Sn4C (A320, A321)0.82.0003Vinh4C (A320, A321)0.82.0004ng Hi4C (A320, A321)0.85005Gia Lm4C (ATR72, F70)0.12.0006Lo Cai4C (ATR72, F70)0.33007Qung Ninh4C (A320, A321)0.53008Ph Ct4C (A320, A321)0.52.0009Tuy Ha4C (A320, A321)0.31.00010Pleicu4C (ATR72, F70)0.32.00011Bun Ma Thut4C (A320, A321)0.83.00012Lin Khng4C (A320, A321)210.00013Cn Sn4C (ATR72, F70)0.52.00014C Mau4C (ATR72, F70)0.31.00015Rch Gi3C (ATR72, F70)0.32.00016Vng Tu3C (ATR72, F70)0.05500f) Giao thng thi- Qu t dnh cho giao thng th phi t 20 - 25% tng din tch t xy dng thnh ph.- Mt bnh qun ng giao thng (khng k ng khu dn c) ti khu vc trung tm 6 - 8 km/km2, cc khu vc khc 3 - 5 km/km2.- T chc vn ti hnh khch cng cng cho cc th:i vi thnh ph trung tm xy dng h thng ng st th: u t xy dng cc tuyn ng st th thnh mng li ng st vn ti hnh khch cng cng hon chnh p ng nhu cu i li ca nhn dn trong vng. i vi cc th khc t chc vn ti hnh khch cng cng ch yu bng cc loi xe but va v nh.Hn ch ti a s dng phng tin c nhn, khng ch ch tiu xe con t 80-100 xe/1.000 dn.- T chc qun l giao thng th mt cch khoa hc bng cc trang thit b hin i nh hng pht trin giao thng th ti 2 thnh ph ln l H Ni v Thnh ph H Ch Minh nh sau: + Thnh ph H Ni:Cc quc l v cao tc hng tm: ci to, m rng cc quc l hng tm hin ti ln thnh ng c 4 n 6 ln xe c gii; xy dng cc ng cao tc song hnh vi cc quc l c lu lng ln, theo cc hng: cao tc H Ni - Lng Sn; cao tc Php Vn - Gi - Thanh Ha; cao tc H Ni - Hi Phng; cao tc H Ni - Vit Tr; cao tc H Ni - Thi Nguyn; cao tc Ni Bi - H Long; cao tc Lng - Ho Lc.Cc ng vnh ai: vnh ai II vi tng chiu di khong 43,6km; vnh ai III c chiu di khong 65km; vnh ai IV: c chiu di khong 148km, quy m 6-8 ln xe; vnh ai V vi chiu di khong 320km.Cc trc chnh th: Ci to m rng kt hp vi xy dng mi cc trc chnh th vi tng chiu di l 290,3km.Cc nt giao thng: ci to v xy dng mi 46 nt giao lp th trn cc ng vnh ai v trc chnh th; ci to v m rng khong 150 nt giao bng trong ni . ng st th H NiMng li ng st th ca H Ni n nm 2020 bao gm 5 tuyn:- Tuyn s 1 (Ngc Hi-Yn Vin, Nh Qunh) c chiu di khong 38,7km;- Tuyn s 2 (Ni Bi - Thng nh) di khong 35,2km.- Kt ni vi tuyn s 2 c tuyn ng st th H Ni - H ng, c chiu di khong 14km, sau nm 2020 s pht trin tuyn ny ti Xun Mai.- Tuyn s 3 (Nhn - ga H Ni - Hong Mai) c chiu di 21km. Sau nm 2020 s pht trin tuyn s 3 ln ti Sn Ty, tng chiu di d kin ca tuyn s 3 l 48km.- Tuyn s 4 (ng Anh - M Linh) c chiu di khong 53,1km;- Tuyn s 5 (Nam H Ty - Ha Lc) dai khong 34,5km. Thnh ph H Ch Minh:Cc ng hng tm i ngoi+ Ci to, nng cp cc quc l hng tm hin ti (QL1, 1K,13, 22).+ Xy dng cc ng cao tc c nng lc thng xe ln: thnh ph H Ch Minh - Vng Tu, thnh ph H Ch Minh - Long Thnh - Du Giy - Lt, thnh ph H Ch Minh - Th Du Mt - Chn Thnh, thnh ph H Ch Minh - Mc Bi, thnh ph H Ch Minh - Trung Lng - Cn Th, ng cao tc lin vng pha Nam thnh ph H Ch Minh - Nhn Trch. Cc ng vnh ai: xy dng ng vnh ai 1 thnh ng th cp I; xy dng khp kn ng vnh ai 2, quy m ng th cp I; xy dng ng vnh ai 3; ng vnh ai 4 ni cc th v tinh thnh ph H Ch Minh. Cc ng ph chnh ni : xy dng mi i l ng - Ty theo hng: ng ba Ct Li - hm Th Thim - ng Bn Chng Dng - Hm T - An Lc; xy dng mi ng Bc - Nam on Nguyn Vn Linh - Khu cng nghip Hip Phc; ci to, nng cao nng lc thng xe cc ng ph chnh trong ni ph hp vi quy hoch chung xy dng th c duyt theo hng hn ch gii phng mt bng ph hp vi iu kin c th ca tng tuyn ng. H thng ng trn cao: xy dng 4 tuyn ng trn cao lin thng vi nhau gii quyt giao thng trc tuyn cc trc c lu lng giao thng ln. Cc nt giao thng: ci to, xy dng mi cc nt giao thng chnh khc mc hoc ng mc, tp trung trn cc ng vnh ai, cc ng hng tm, cc ng ph chnh ni .ng st th TP. HCM:- Xy dng 2 tuyn ng st nh: Trng Bng - Tn Thi Hip, Th Thim - Nhn Trch - Cng hng khng quc t Long Thnh.- Xy dng 6 tuyn tu in ngm (Metro) xuyn tm v vnh khuyn- Xy dng 3 tuyn xe in chy trn mt t g) Giao thng nng thnng b: duy tr, cng c v nng cp mng li giao thng hin c theo ng tiu chun k thut ng giao thng nng thn, p ng yu cu c gii ha sn xut nng nghip, nng thn. Ci to v xy dng h thng cu, cng t tiu chun k thut. Tp trung m ng mi n trung tm cc x, cm x cha c ng, cc nng, lm trng, cc im cng nghip. Tip tc xy dng h thng ng lin thn, x to thnh mng li giao thng nng thn lin hon n cc thn, x; gn kt mng li giao thng nng thn vi mng li giao thng quc gia. Tng bc xy dng h thng hm chui, cu vt ti cc giao ct gia ng cao tc, quc l v ng a phng, m bo an ton giao thng. Nghin cu s dng vt liu, kt cu v cu kin lp rp ti ch ph hp vi iu kin v kh hu ca tng vng . S dng hp l phng tin vn ti truyn thng, pht trin phng tin c gii nh ph hp vi iu kin kt cu h tng giao thng nng thn v ph hp vi mc sng ca a s dn c.ng sng: cn u t mt cch ng b h tng k thut ca GTNT ng sng. Theo quy hoch cc tuyn lung sng do TW qun l ng vai tr ch o vn ti trn trc lin vng, lin tnh, cc tuyn sng nh do a phng khai thc tu theo v tr phn cp thnh trc vn ti th cp kt ni thnh tuyn vn ti thu cp tnh, cp huyn, cp xCc tuyn vn ti ny do tnh, huyn qun l, u t, khai thc. g) Qu t cho pht trin KCHT_GT - Cn c vo mc tiu chung v s dng t v chin lc pht trin cc ngnh: ng b, ng st, ng thy ni a, hng hi, hng khng dn dng n nm 2030 th qu t ginh cho KCHT_GT c d bo pht trin nh sau:Bng 3.17. Tng hp qu t ginh cho KCHT_GT n nm 2030Hng mc200720202030Din tch (nghn ha)T l(%)Din tch (nghn ha)T l(%)Din tch (nghn ha)T l(%)ng b394,71,192544,71,645589,41,785ng st5,50,01726,30,07931,60,096ng bin1,30,0042,90,0093,20,010ng thy ni a0,20,0010,20,0010,30,001Cng hng khng10,90,03323,00,06925,00,076t khc85,20,25714,90,0451,00,030Tng497,71,5612,01,85659,21,99Nh vy qu t cho KCHT_GT tng dn t hin ti 1,5% ln 1,85% vo nm 2020 v 1,99% vo nm 2030.+ Qu t cho giao thng th:Vi cc th ln nh H Ni, Tp. HCM, Nng, Hi Phng, Cn Th, t dnh cho giao thng th chim khong 25%, cn cc th loi II, loi III, loi IV ch chim t 6-15% qu t th. c tnh bnh qun cho c nc, t dnh cho giao thng trong cc th c nc chim khong 11% din tch t th tng ng vi 89.000 ha.3.3.3. Mt s chng trnh d n trng imTrn c s nh hng pht trin KCHT_GT xc nh mt s cc chng trnh, d n c tnh cht t ph tc ng n pht trin kinh t t nc, kt ni cc vng min trn phm vi ton quc v kt ni vi mng li giao thng trong khu vc; to c hi phn b dn c hp l, hn ch tai nn giao thng v ch tc giao thng cc th ln, ng thi hn ch nhim mi trng khu vc nng thn.Bng 3.18. Mt s chng trnh, d n pht trin KCHT c tc ng ln n PTBVTT Tn chng trnh, d nQuy m cng tc quy hochCc tc ng chnhKinh t X hiMi trngIng b1H thng cao tcXy dng 5.873km ng b cao tcXX2Quc lX-Quc l 1ANng cp hon chnh QL1AX-ng H Ch MinhXy dng mi vi tng chiu di 3.167kmX-Quc l ven binXy dng mi tuyn ng ven bin di 2.870kmX4ng tnhX5H thng cuXy dng cc cu qua sng ln v thay th cc cu yu trn quc l.X6ng thXy dng ng vnh ai v cc trc hng tmX7ng GTNTXy dng ng n x cha c ng tIIng st1ng st cao tcBc - Nam di 1.630km, kh 1.435mm, ng i, in kh ho, tc ln nht 350km/h.X2ng st cn cao tcTuyn H Ni ng ng di 156km, tc thit k 200km/h, ng i kh 1435mm, sc ko in, Tuyn Lo Cai-H Ni-Hi PhngHnh lang ng TyX3ng st thngBc Nam di 1.726km nng cp ci to a vo cp k thut (cp 1 SQG kh 1000mm), tc thit k 120km/hX4ng st chuyn dngNi vi cc cng bin, cc khu CN vi chiu di 426km.X4ng st thH Ni, TPHCM (ng st trn cao v tu in ngm).IIIHng hi1Cng trung chuyn quc t Vn Phong Khnh HaTip nhn tu ti 100.000 tn Cng sut tim nng 300 triu tnX2Cng ca ng quc t Lch Huyn-Hi PhngTip nhn tu ti 80.000 tn Cng sut tim nng 100 triu tnX3Cng ca ng quc t Ci Mp, Sao Mai-Bn nh (B Ra Vng Tu)Tip nhn tu ti 80.000 tn Cng sut tim nng 100 triu tnX4Lung nh AnKnh Quan Chnh BCho tu 2 vn tn vo cng Cn ThXIVng thy ni a1Nng cp knh Ch GoT C3 ln C2Nng lc thng qua 20 triu tn/nm X2H Ni-VitTr-Lo CaiTng ln cp 2,3,4 trong tng on XVHng khng1CHK Quc t Ni BiXy mi nh ga hnh khch T2, cng sut 16 triu HK/nm X2CHK Quc t NngNh ga ng ln, sn my bayCng sut 6 triu HK/nmX3CHK Quc t Tn Sn NhtNh ga khch quc t miNh ga hng haM rng sn my bayCng sut 17 triu HK/nmX4CHK Quc t Long ThnhXy dng mi tim nng cng sut cng 80-100 triu HK/nmXGhi ch: : Rt tt; : Tt; : Trung bnh XX: Rt xu; X: XuCHNG 4CC GII PHP, CHNH SCH CH YU V L TRNH THC HIN4.1. Khung gii php, chnh sch chung4.1.1. Nhm cc gii php v kinh t- p ng nhu cu vn ti vi cht lng ngy cng cao + Nhanh chng xy dng KCHT_GT th hin i, u tin xy dng h thng KCHT_GT p ng vn ti nhanh, khi lng ln gii quyt tnh trng n tc giao thng v hn ch nhim mi trng ti cc thnh ph ln c bit l H Ni v TP H Ch Minh.+ Xy dng, thc hin quy hoch pht trin giao thng vn ti cp huyn, x m bo pht trin giao thng nng thn c k hoch di hn, hi ha, hp l v gn kt c vi h thng giao thng vn ti quc gia. Kin ton t chc v hon thin th ch qun l i vi giao thng nng thn.+ Ch trng pht trin KCHT_GT trong vng, c bit v ng b: tp trung ci to mng li ng b, tng tnh lin kt mng li v m bo giao thng thng sut, lin tc. Ch trng pht trin KCHT_GT bn vng m bo tnh lin kt gia cc trung tm kinh t p ng nhu cu vn ti cht lng ngy cng cao em li hiu qu kinh t cao nht, tit kim c thi gian v chi ph vn chuyn. + C chnh sch thu ht u t xy dng cng ca ng, ca Lch huyn, cng trung chuyn Quc t Vn Phong.+ Thnh lp qu tp trung ca Nh nc cho bo tr v u t KCHT ti cc cng hng khng t cc ngun thu nh thu ph cc i tng s dng trc tip KCHT_GT hng khng thng qua gi v my bay, l ph sn bay, ph thu qua gi bn xng du hng khng. + Pht trin Tng cng ty ng st Vit Nam, thnh lp Tp on ng st Vit Nam a ngnh a s hu hot ng theo m hnh cng ty m - cng ty con. Trong cng ty m l cng ty Nh nc c nhim v qun l, bo tr h thng kt cu h tng ng st.+ Nh nc tp trung u t ci to, nng cp v bo tr lung tuyn, tham gia u t pht trin cc cng u mi, cng chnh cc khu vc quan trng m bo tnh ch ng trong hot ng khai thc h thng cng ng thy ni a phc v pht trin kinh t - X hi.4.1.2. Nhm cc gii php v x hi- u tin pht trin KCHT_GT cc vng, min kinh t kh khn, to iu kin pht trin cn bng gia cc vng min, xa i gim ngho: C chnh h tr pht trin KCHT_GT n cc huyn min ni.- Tng kh nng tip cn cho mi i tng tham gia giao thng: + Nh nc cn h tr u t xy dng cng trnh giao thng phc v ngi tn tt, ngi cao tui tham gia giao thng nh ng tip cn phng tin giao thng, cc phng tin c chng, cc cng trnh hng dn cho ngi tn tt+ Khuyn khch mi i tng tham gia giao thng bng cc phng thc vn ti hnh khch cng cng c bit c chnh sch tr cc cho hc sinh, sinh vin, ngi tn tt, ngi cao tui...- Gim thiu tai nn giao thng:+ Xy dng, nng cp h thng kt cu h tng giao thng: m rng, ci tuyn cc on tuyn thng xy ra tai nn giao thng; u tin pht trin h thng giao thng thng minh qun l, iu hnh giao thng, c bit cho cc th ln v trn mng ng cao tc v tc cao.+ Tng cng cng tc kim sot giao thng v cng ch thc hin vi phm an ton giao thng v ln chim hnh lang an ton giao thng.+ Thm nh ATGT i vi cc d n xy dng, nng cp KCHT_GT.+ Tng cng cng tc ph bin gio dc an ton giao thng: t chc gio dc tuyn truyn an ton giao thng cc trng hc, c quan v t chc x hi- Qu t v vn ti nh c, gii phng mt bng:+ Ginh qu t hp l cho pht trin KCHT_GT c bit l cc th, khu cng nghip, khu kinh t;+ Gn lin vic GPMB vi ti nh c, m bo nguyn tc to cho ngi thuc din ti nh c c i sng v vic lm tt hn ni c.4.1.3. Nhm cc gii php v mi trng: - Lng ghp quy hoch pht trin GTVT vi quy hoch bo v mi trng: gii php tng hp quan trng nht v c hiu qu nht trong bo v mi trng l lng ghp bo v mi trng vi quy hoch pht trin kinh t x hi. Ngoi quy hoch mi trng quc gia th cn c th c cc quy hoch bo v mi trng vng. Chnh v vy, t c cc yu cu v bo v mi trng v pht trin bin vng ngnh th cc chin lc pht trin giao thng vn ti cn phi da trn v ph hp vi quy hoch bo v mi trng.- Thc hin nghim chnh vic nh gi mi trng chin lc (MC) i vi cc d n quy hoch pht trin, nh gi tc ng mi trng (TM) i vi cc d n u t pht trin KCHT_GT.- Xem xt mi trng i vi quy hoch pht trin vn ti ng b v ng st: giao thng vn ti ng b v ng st c xem xt l hot ng giao thng vn ti tiu th nhiu nhin liu, chim dng qu t ln v pht thi lng ln cc cht nhim khng kh, ting n. Chnh v vy, cc vn mi trng cn phi c xem xt, cn nhc trong qu trnh lp quy hoch pht trin giao thng vn ti ng b, c bit l khi cc quy hoch i qua cc vng sinh thi nhy cm v qua cc khu th ng c. Vic lng ghp cc vn mi trng trong quy hoch nhm c cc gii php bo v mi trng hp l v trnh c cc tc ng pht sinh v cc tc ng di hn n mi trng trong giai on khai thc vn ti.Khuyn khch thc hin v ng dng cc nghin cu khoa hc cng ngh: khuyn kch thc hin cc nghin cu khoa hc trong khu vc thc hin d n nh cc nghin cu v tng lng phn tim tng trong t, khuyn khch cc nghin cu chi tit v quy lut hoat ng ca h thng thy vn khu vc, nghin cu v kh nng v nguy c xm nhp mn ti cc vng ca sng ln trong iu kin c s can thip ca cc hot ng pht trin... Thc y vic ng dng cc h thng v cng ngh thn thin vi mi trng trong qu trnh thc hin nhm hn ch cc r ro, tc ng mi trng nh cng ngh k lt mi, cng ngh trong no vt lng sngNghin cu kh nng v khuyn khch vic a vo vn hnh cc phng tin sch hoc phng tin c th s dng nhin liu sch nh nghin cu kh nng dng nhin liu t c hi ti mi trng.Gii php bo v cht lng mi trng nc:Bo v cht lng mi trng nc l mt yu cu cn thit trong quy hoch vi xu hng thc y pht trin GTVT c bit l giao thng vn ti ng thu. Hu ht cc tuyn giao thng vn ti thu, cng sng, cng bin, cm cng cn u c quy hoch nng cp hoc xy m trong khu vc, nhiu tuyn ng b cng c xy dng, do cc bin php bo v cht lng mi trng nc cn c thc hin: Nghin cu c im ca h thng thu vn, phn b ca h thng nc ngm, hnh thnh bn ti nguyn nc nhm thit k khu cu cng thot nc hn ch ngp ng. i vi ng thu, la chn cng ngh no vt v thi gian thi cng thch hp nhm hn ch s lan nhanh cht nhim trong trm tch y xung khu vc thng ngun C quy hoch cc bi cha cht bn y v thit k cng ngh x l ph hp, nht l i vi cc d n xy mi cng ng sng. i vi nhng d n ti cc vng trng, vng ca sng th cn thit phi xem xt n ri ro do xm nhp mn v phn ho t v nc. Ngoi ra, ti cc bn cng cn phi xy dng chng trnh kim sot i vi vi cc s c mi trng, c bit l s c v trn v r r du.Gii php bo v cht lng mi trng khng kh nhim mi trng khng kh do hot ng giao thng vn ti ch yu l trong qu trnh khai thc vn ti. Mc du trong qu trnh xy dng, nhim khng kh ch yu l do bi, tuy nhin, mc tc ng ca cc cht nhim khng khi trong qu trnh khai thc vn ti li ph thuc rt ln v khu quy hoch mng giao thng. Chnh v vy, nn mt s gii php nhm gim thiu tc ng n cht lng mi trng khng kh cn thit phi cp trong khu quy hoch pht trin GTVT, c th: Quy hoch khong cch hp l gia cc cng ng sng, nh ga, bn bi so vi khu vc dn c xunh quanh v quy hoch vng m gia cc cng trnh giao thng vi cc khu dn c nhm hn ch s tip xc ca cng ng dn c vi cc cht nhim khng kh t cc khu vc trn. Quy hoch cng nn ch n la chn cng ngh ca phng tin vn ti, c bit l i vi cc loi phng tin mi s c a vo lu hanh. Xy dng chng trnh quan trc cht lng khng kh chung cho ton mng li giao thng vn ti. La chn cng ngh thi cng cng trnh v thi gian thi cng cng trnh hp l nhm hn ch pht tn bi v nhng cht nhim khc. Gii php bo v ti nguyn tS xm phm n ti nguyn t v chuyn i mc ch s dng t l nhng tc ng khng th trch trong cc quy hoch pht trin giao thng vn ti, c bit l i vi quy hoch pht trin ng cao tc, bn cng, nh ga. Do , mt s gii php k thut c th cn phi xem xt n trong qu trnh thc hin quy hoch, nhm hn ch ti a cc tc ng bt li i vi ti nguyn t trong khu vc: m bo s hi ho v ph hp gia quy hoch pht trin giao thng vn ti v quy hoch s dng t trong khu vc. Xy dng bn th nhng ca cc vng. C gng iu chnh quy hoch, chn la cc phng n thay th trnh m tuyn ng qua khu vc nhy cm d ln, st, vng t phn nng, t mn, vng t d b xi l. La chn cc bin php x l thch hp i vi cc loi t c no vt.. trong qu trnh xy dng cng v no vt lung tu: c th chn lp nu lng nhim kim loi nng cao hoc c th s dng vo mc ch khc. La chn cc hng tuyn sao cho din tch t mt canh tc, t l thp nht. Gii php hn ch xi l, ngp ltPht trin xy dng h tng giao thng vn ti thu l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng lm tng qu trnh xi l b sng. Do cn thit phi p dng cc gii php cng ngh v sinh thi thch hp nhm gim thiu tc xi l v bo v mi trng i b. Tuy nhin vic u tin v quan trong nht trong quy hoch l nghin cu xc nh r cc khu vc, tuyn sng c nguy c xi l cao, hoc nghin cu su v cc c tnh sinh thi, ia cht, th nhng ca cc tuyn t c th quy hoch trnh cc khu vc ny hoc thit lp cc gii php hn ch xi l v bo v i b ph hp nht. Mt s gii php c th c th p dng nh sau: Bo v trc tip mi b trn nhng tuyn sng i qua cc khu th, khu nng thn khng phi l vng rng hoc t ngp nc nhay cm c th p dng cc gii php cng ngh nh: cng ngh k lt mi dng cc cng ngh bn vng lm lp o ph pha ngoi gi cho t, ct khng b ra tri theo dng nc; cng ngh cng trnh gim tc ven b gii php ny rt ph hp vi nhng tuyn sng c vn tc ven b ln, y sng su v mi b dc ln. Bo v mi b i vi nhng on tuyn sng i qua cc vng sinh thi nhy cm nn p dng gii php sinh thi trong bo v b chng xi mn nh s dng cy c Vertiver lm phn m chn sng trn cc tuyn sng v khi phc mi trng sau khi d n i vo hot ng. Trn nhng tuyn sng khi c xc nh c nhiu nguy c v xi l cn xy dng cc quy nh, hn ch tc vn hnh ca cc loi phng tin trn nhng tuyn sng .i vi cc d n pht trin ng b, ng st th cn thit phi thit k khu cu cng thot l, trnh ngp ng. Gii php bo v ti nguyn thin nhin:S phm phm n din tch cc h sinh thi l mt trong nhng tc ng kh r rng i vi nhng quy hoch pht trin mi c s h tng giao thng do chuyn i mc ch s dng t, mt s gii php gim thiu tc ng c th l: Xc nh c tnh h sinh thi khu vc trong phm vi quy hoch. Mc a dng sinh hc trong vng quy hoch: thnh phn, s lng cc loi sinh vt: thc vt thu sinh, ng vt thu sinh v h ng thc vt trn cn trong khu vc c th b tc ng khi thc hin quy hoch. nh gi gi tr sinh thi ca cc h sinh thi: khu vc c ngha v bo v mi trng nh khu vc sinh sn ca mt s loi thu sinh vt, khu vc c ngha v phng chng xi l, l lt nh gi v gi tr kinh t ca h ng thc vt trong khu vc quy hoch. nh gi v c tnh a cht, th nhng nn y, ch thu vn ca tuyn ng sng, bin, bn cng c th d bo c mc tc ng ca qu trnh no vt, un nn chnh tr dng n cc h sinh thi xung quanh. nh gi cc tc ng th sinh do hot ng pht trin km theo khi thc hin quy hoch.Gii php phng chng cc s c mi trngS c khng mong mun trong qu trnh vn chuyn hng ha, ch yu l trn du v trn cc loi hng ha c hi trong qu trnh vn chuyn c th gy nn nhiu tc ng su sc n mi trng. Do , trong qu trnh quy hoch cng phi tnh n loi tc ng y ri ro ny. Nhm phng trnh tc ng v hn ch nh hng trong qua trnh thc hin quy hoch cn xem xt n cc chng trnh phng chng ri ro mi trng. Chng trnh phng chng ri ro mi trng nhm ngn chn r r xng du v vt liu c hi c gii phng vo mi trng l hu qu khng mong mun do cc tai nn trong qua trnh vn chuyn. V vy cn phi c cc vn bn php quy, hnh lang php l ph hp, ngun lc bao gm ngun ti chnh, trang thit b v ngi kim sot cng trng nhm duy tr tiu chun an ton mi trng trong hot ng giao thng vn ti. c bit l chng trnh phng trnh s c trn du, tai nn r r trong qu trnh vn chuyn cc loi hng ho c hi.4.1.4. Nhm cc gii php v ti chnh+ Tng mc u t cho KCHT_GT bng ngn sch Nh nc hnh nm t ti a 4-5%.+ Cn i gia xy dng nng cp v bo tr: Vn bo tr cc nc pht trin chim t nht 20% (c nc l 50% hoc cao hn) tng s vn u t vo ng b, Vit Nam ch dnh 10% tng s vn cho bo tr. Vi hin trng c s giao thng nc ta hin nay cn nhiu yu km cha ng b cn phi dnh vn cho bo tr t nht l 30%.+ Khuyn khch mi thnh phn kinh t tham gia kinh doanh trong lnh vc xy dng kt cu h tng giao thng. Trong ch trng khuyn khch khu vc t nhn tham gia u t xy dng KCHT s em li hiu qu cao do s qun l vn ca khu vc ny cht ch.+ Huy ng mi ngun lc, ch trng ngun ni lc, to iu kin thun li thu ht vn u t t mi thnh phn kinh t di nhiu hnh thc cho xy dng KCHT_GT, c bit l u t theo hnh thc BOT, BT, BTO, ....trong v ngoi nc. p dng hnh thc Nh nc u t xy dng KCHT_GT cho cc n v, c nhn thu khai thc c vn bo tr hoc u t vo cc cng trnh khc. + H tr tng cng hp tc bng phng thc PPP: Cam kt v chnh tr v h tr ca bn lin quan nhm m bo c y thnh vin h tr vic chuyn giao ri ro.Cc chnh sch iu tit v nh gi nhm to ra th trng cnh trnh+ Thnh lp qu ng b qua cc ngun thu thu nhin liu s dng i vi phng tin giao thng; ph s dng ng b, ph cu, ph; ph thu hng nm vi mi kiu loi phng tin; ph thu i vi cc xe vn ti nng; ph v tin pht i vi xe qu kh qu ti; ph thu i vi qu cnh quc t; ph cp php i vi phng tin khi ra nc ngoi.+ C c ch c bit huy ng vn t cc thnh phn kinh t trong v ngoi nc nh vn ODA, vn vay u i ca nc ngoi, pht hnh tri phiu Chnh ph,.. u t xy dng h thng ng st th, cc tuyn ng st huyt mch trng yu nh tuyn ng st Bc Nam (c bit l ng st cao tc), ng st thuc chng trnh hai hnh lang mt vnh ai kinh t Vit Trung v cc ng st kt ni vi cng bin.+ Nh nc khuyn khch to iu kin cho cc t chc, c nhn trong v ngoi nc b vn u t xy dng cc cng trnh trn tuyn giao thng thu, cc cng bng cc hnh thc nh BOT hoc lin doanh theo cc qui nh hin hnh.+ Trn c s quy hoch s dng t c Chnh ph ph duyt, UBND cc tnh sm lp d n, chuyn mc ch s dng t vi mi qu t hin c to vn xy dng KCHT ni chung v KCHT_GT ni ring. Phi c chnh sch r rng chnh quyn u tin qu t cho giao thng tnh (cc bn, bi xe,.. ....)+ Tun th nghim quy nh v qun l vn u t xy dng KCHT_GT nht l phi tun th quy hoch v m bo hon thin thit k chi tit khi la chn v giao d n cho nh u t thc hin. + Tun th nhng nguyn tc ca c ch ti chnh s dng qu t to vn xy dng kt cu h tng giao thng.+ i vi cc cng, bn u t mi t ngn sch Nh nc, tng bc thc hin vic cho php doanh nghip KCHT kinh doanh, thu hi mt phn vn u t.+ Khuyn khch ngun vn u t trc tip ca nc ngoi (FDI), cc dng u t BT, BOT, PPP... cho pht trin KCHT- GT hng khng .4.1.5. Nhm cc gii php v th ch+ Kin ton t chc b my qun l ng b; nng cao nng lc v qun l ng b cao tc.+ Thnh lp qu bo tr v u t pht trin KCHT_GT, trc ht l qu bo tr ng b. a cng tc bo tr ng theo k hoch thnh mt nhim v khng th thiu trong pht trin giao thng nng thn, thc hin cam kt bo tr cho cc d n u t xy dng, nng cp kt cu h tng giao thng nng thn+ xut chng trnh bo tr di hn+ Tng cng quy nh v xe ti ch qu kh, qu ti.+ Sa i b sung cc tiu chun thit k, qun l ng b trong cc khu vc hay b st l/l lt.+ Tip tc thc hin cc chng trnh nng cao an ton giao thng ng b + Dnh qu t cho pht trin KCHT_GT hp l m bo pht trin lu di (qu t cho GTVT chim khong 3% t xy dng), qu t giao thng th phi bo m 20-25 % qu t xy dng th.+ m bo nguyn tc gi t giao t cho nh u t xy dng d n KCHT_GT.+ C chnh sch n b t hp l cho ngi c t b thu hi v phi di di ti nh c.+ Cn p dng m hnh qun l hiu qu hn trong lnh vc khai thc cng: Xy dng c ch xy dng - cho thu khai thc cng bin thu hi vn u t. 4.2. Mt s chnh sch pht trin KCHT_GT theo tng chuyn ngnha. ng b- Kin ton t chc b my quan ly ng b; nng cao nng lc v qun l ng ng b cao tc;- Thnh lp quy ng b qua cc ngun thu thu nhin liu s dng i vi phng tin giao thng; ph s dng ng b, ph cu, ph; ph thu hng nm vi mi kiu loi phng tin; ph thu i vi cc xe vn ti nng; ph v tin pht i vi xe qu kh qu ti; ph thu i vi vn ti qu cnh quc t; ph cp php i vi phng tin khi ra nc ngoi. - xut chng trinh bao tri dai han; - Tng cng quy inh v xe tai ch qu kh, qua tai; - Sa i, b sung cc tiu chun thit k, qun l ng b trong cac khu vc hay b st l/lu lut; - Tip tuc thc hin cac chng trinh nng cao an toan giao thng ng b.b. ng st- Pht trin Tng Cng ty ng st Vit Nam thnh Tp on ng st Vit Nam a ngnh a s hu hot ng theo m hnh cng ty m - cng ty con. Trong cng ty m l cng ty Nh nc c nhim v qun l, bo tr h thng kt cu h tng ng st;- C ch huy ng vn u t pht trin KCHT_GT ng st: c c ch c bit huy ng vn t cc thnh phn kinh t trong v ngoi nc nh vn ODA, vn vay u i ca nc ngoi, pht hnh tri phiu Chnh ph... u t xy dng h thng ng st th, cc tuyn ng st huyt mch trng yu nh tuyn ng st Bc - Nam (c bit l ng st cao tc), ng st thuc chng trnh hai hnh lang mt vnh ai kinh t Vit Trung v cc ng st kt ni vi cng bin.c. ng thy ni a- Nh nc tp trung u t ci to, nng cp v bo tr lung tuyn, tham gia u t pht trin cc cng u mi, cng chnh cc khu vc quan trng m bo tnh ch ng trong hot ng khai thc h thng cng ng thu ni a phc v pht trin kinh t - x hi.- Nh nc khuyn khch to iu kin cho cc t chc, c nhn trong v ngoi nc b vn u t xy dng cc cng trnh trn tuyn giao thng thu, cc cng bng cc hnh thc nh BOT hoc lin doanh theo cc quy nh hin hnh.- i vi cc cng, bn u t mi t ngn sch Nh nc, tng bc thc hin vic cho php doanh nghip thu kt cu h tng kinh doanh, thu hi mt phn vn u t. d. Hng hi- C chnh sch thu ht u t xy dng cng ca ng ca ng Lach Huyn, cng trung chuyn quc t Vn Phong. - Cn ap dung m hinh quan ly hiu qua hn trong linh vc khai thac cang: xy dng c ch xy dng - cho thu khai thac cng bin thu hi vn u t. . e. Hng khng- Thnh lp qu tp trung ca Nh nc cho bo tr v u KCHT ti cc cng hng khng t cc ngun nh thu ph cc i tng s dng trc tip KCHT_GT hng khng thng qua gi v my bay, l ph sn bay, ph thu qua gi bn xng du hng khng;- Khuyn khch ngun vn u t trc tip ca nc ngoi (FDI), cc dng u t BT, BOT, PPPcho pht trin KCHT_GT hng khng.4.3. L trnh thc hin4.2.1. Giai on t nay n 2015a. Thnh lp t chc gim st, nh gi pht trin bn vng B Giao thng vn ti thnh lp Hi ng gim st pht trin bn vng (hoc Ban gim st pht trin bn vng). y l c quan thng trc lm u mi phi hp hot ng lin quan n cng tc gim st pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT gip B tng hp, lp bo co, phn tch thng tin v chun b bo co nh k gi Hi ng pht trin bn vng quc gia trnh Th tng Chnh ph xem xt ph duyt.C cu t chc gm: - 1 Th Trng ph trch chung- n v ch tr: V Kt cu h tng- n v phi hp: cc V K hoch u t, Ti chnh, An ton giao thng, Mi trng.- n v thc hin: + Cc Cc ng B, ng st, ng Thy ni a, Hng hi, Hng khng. Cc n v ny c nhim v t chc thc hin gim st, nh gi pht trin bn vng trong phm vi ngnh, lnh vc qun l ca mnh. nh k lp bo co cng tc gim st, nh gi pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT gi Hi ng gim st pht trin bn vng ca B. + Cc S giao thng vn ti cc tnh, thnh ph lp Ban chuyn trch gim st pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT, hng dn cp huyn thc hin cc nhim v gim st, nh gi pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT. Ban chuyn trch gim st pht trin bn vng ca S giao thng vn ti c nhim v tng hp, qun l, bo co nh k v cng vic gim st, nh gi pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT gi ln Hi ng hoc ban ch o pht trin bn vng tnh, thnh ph v B Giao thng vn ti.b. T chc thc hin- R sot cc Chin lc, Quy hoch chung c ph duyt - xut chnh sch dnh cho pht trin KCHT: hp l gia cc ngnh, gia cc vng min, gia xy dng, nng cp v bo tr.- Xy dng cc ch tiu, ch s pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT ca tng ngnh lm cc cn c kim tra gim st, nh gi pht trin bn vng;- Xy dng v thc hin chng trnh o to ngun nhn lc nh gi pht trin bn vng;- Hi ng pht trin bn vng ca B ch o r sot nh k tin thc hin, nh gi pht trin bn vng ca cc d n pht trin KCHT_GT tng hp bo co ln Hi ng pht trin bn vng Quc gia.4.2.2. Giai on 2015 - 2020- Thc hin, kim tra, nh gi pht trin bn vng theo cc ch tiu ch s pht trin bn vng ca cc chuyn ngnh: ng b, ng st, ng thy ni a, hng hi v hng khng;- Tip tc b sung, hon thin cc ch tiu, ch s pht trin bn vng cho ph hp vi s pht trin kinh t ca t nc v xu th pht trin bn vng ca th gii.KT LUN V KIN NGHKt lun- ti lm r khi nim chung v pht trin bn vng h thng GTVT v pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT. a ra c cc tiu ch, ch tiu pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT.- Trn c s thc trng h thng KCHT_GT ca Vit Nam, kinh nghim pht trin bn vng ca mt s nc ti xy dng mt s ch tiu c th v pht trin bn vng cho tng chuyn ngnh.- ti cng xy dng nh hng pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT v cc gii php thc hin.Kt qu nghin cu ny ng gp thm v c s l lun cng nh a ra nh hng c th cho vic pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT nc ta. ti c th l ti liu cc c quan c lin quan trong lnh vc lp, iu chnh chin lc, quy hoch pht trin KCHT_GT theo hng pht trin bn vng.Kin ngh.Phm vi nghin cu ca ti kh rng, cp n nhiu ngnh, lnh vc cho nn khng th xy dng cc ch tiu pht trin bn vng cng nh cc gii php thc hin. p ng yu cu ca B GTVT v thc hin chng trnh hnh ng ca Chnh ph thc hin nh hng chin lc pht trin bn vng (Chng trnh ngh s 21) cn:1) Tip tc nghin cu xy dng mt s ch tiu c th (Cc ch tiu quan trng v pht trin bn vng KCHT_GT)2) Nghin cu nh hng pht trin bn vng lnh vc cng nghip GTVT.3) Lp bo co tng hp nh hng pht trin bn vng ngnh GTVT. Xy dng chng trnh, k hoch c th gip Ban ch o hoc Hi ng gim st pht trin bn vng GTVT thc thi nhim v.TI LIU THAM KHO1. Chng trnh hnh ng ca Chnh ph thc hin nh hng chin lc pht trin bn vng (chng trnh Ngh s 21).2. Quyt nh s 256/2003/Q-TTg ngy 2/12/2003 ca Th tng Chnh ph ph duyt Chin lc bo v mi trng quc gia n nm 2010, nh hng n nm 2020.3. Quyt nh s 153/2004/Q-TTg ca Th tng Chnh ph v nh hng Chin lc pht trin bn vng Vit Nam, ngy 17 thng 8 nm 2004.4. Lut Bo v mi trng ca nc Cng ho x hi ch ngha Vit Nam s 52/2005/QH, ngy 29/11/2005.5. Chin lc pht trin GTVT Vit Nam n nm 2020 v tm nhn n 2030.6. Chin lc pht trin GTVT ng st Vit Nam n nm 2020 v tm nhn n nm 2050.7. iu chnh, b sung quy hoch tng th pht trin giao thng vn ti ng thy ni a Vit Nam n nm 2020.8. Quy hoch pht trin giao thng vn ti Hng khng Vit Nam giai on 2015 v nh hng n 2020.9. ti nghin cu mt s vn v pht trin bn vng h thng GTVT Vit Nam nm 2005.10. D n Nghin cu ton din v pht trin bn vng h thng GTVT Vit Nam (VITRANSS II)11. Quy hoch mng ng b cao tc Vit Nam.12. Nghin cu lng ghp cc vn mi trng vo quy hoch pht trin ng st, ng b, ng bin.13. The IRF World Road Statistics 2006, 200714. Sustainable Transport Development in Republic of Korea - Sungwon Lee15. Sustainable Development and Sustainable Transportation - Elizabeth DeakinPTBVMc tiux hiMc tiu kinh tMc tiu sinh thiTh gii pht trin bn vngQuc gia pht trin bn vnga phng pht trin bn vngPTBV gio dcPTBVy tPTBV cc lnh vcPTBVGTVTPTBV nng nghipPTBV Cng nghipH thng KCHT_GTng, cu, cngBn,bi xeHLATng bng, cuNh ga ng stHLATng stLung tuynCng,Bn sngHLATThy ni aSn bayNh gaKhng luLung vo Cng binCng bnHLATHng hiKCHT_GTThy ni aKCHT_GTHng hiKCHT_HKHng khngKCHT_GTng bKCHT_GTng stPht trin bn vngH thng GTVTKt cu h tngVn tiCng nghip GTVTKinh tX hiMi trngKinh tX hiMi trngKinh tX hiMi trngPht trin bn vngKCHT_GTTheo chuyn ngnhng bng stng TNHng hiHng khngTheo cp Quc giaVng, khu vcChng trnh d n Theo tiu chKinh tX hiMi trngTi chnhTh ch EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s S pht trin phng thc vn ti theo cc hnh langPAGE i_1309822050.xlsChart10.07270.09910.19930.56690.03120.0309EastQuc l, 6.9%ng tnh, 9.2%ng huyn, 21.8%ng x, 56.2%ng th, 3.4%ng chuyn dng, 2.5%Sheet1Quc lng tnhng huynng xng thng chuyn dngEast7.27%9.91%19.93%56.69%3.12%3.09%