BCVT.bài Giảng Kỹ Thuật Vi Xử Lý - Phạm Hoàng Duy, 136 Trang

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  • -1-

    HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

    *****

    PHM HONG DUY

    BI GING

    K THUT VI X L

    H NI 06-2010

  • -2-

    Li ni u

    Cc b vi x l ng vai tr quan trng trong cc h thng s v chng c s dng

    trong rt nhiu ng dng nh cc h thng iu khin, h thng thng tin lin lc. Ti liu

    ny gii thiu cc khi nim cn bn ca h vi x l v tp trung trnh by vi x l Intel 8086

    v ghp ni tiu biu to nn h vi x l 8086, tin than ca cc h vi x l x86 sau ny.

    Cc kin thc thu nhn c t vic xy dng h vi x l 8086 cng s rt b ch cho vic

    pht trin cc h vi x l phc tp hn cng nh cc h thng nhng.

    Cu trc ca ti liu nh sau.

    Chng 1 gii thiu cc khi nim tng quan ca h vi x l v cc b phn cn bn

    cu thnh h vi x l ni chung. Chng ny cng tm tt qu trnh pht trin v phn loi

    cc b vi x l n nay.

    Chng 2 trnh by chi tit v vi x l Intel 8086 bao gm s khi v cch t chc

    b nh. Ngoi ra, chng ny gii thiu tp lnh x86 v qu trnh thc hin lnh.

    Chng 3 cung cp cc kin thc cn bn lp trnh vi vi x l 8086 bng cch gii

    thiu cc cu trc chng trnh v cc cu trc r nhnh v lp tiu biu kt hp vi cc v

    d.

    Chng 4 tp trung gii thiu cch thc ghp ni vi x l 8086 vi cc thit b khc

    to thnh h vi x l cn bn. Chng ny trnh by chu trnh c/ghi ca vi x l 8086. y

    l c s tin hnh ghp ni d liu vi cc thit b khc nh b nh hay cc thit b vo/ra

    khc. Chng ny gii thiu c ch truyn thng ni tip v cch thc ghp ni vi vi x l

    8086.

    Chng 5 cung cp cc kin thc cn bn v cc k thut trao i d liu vi cc thit

    b ghp ni vi h vi x l ni chung bao gm vo/ra thm d (lp trnh), vo/ra s dng ngt

    v vo/ra trc tip b nh. Trong ba phng php, vo/ra trc tip b nh cho php trao i

    khi lng d liu ln vi tc cao v cn c vi mch c bit. Chng ny cng gii thiu

    vi mch tr gip cho cc phng php vo ra nh vi mch iu khin ngt, vi mch iu

    khin vo ra trc tip b nh.

  • -3-

    Chng 6 trnh by s b cc khi nim v cc h vi iu khin (hay h vi x l trn

    mt vi mch). Chng ny cn cung cp cc thng tin cn bn v h vi iu khin Intel 8051

    v mt s ng dng.

    Chng 7, chng cui cng, gii thiu mt s b vi x l tin tin ca Sun

    Microsystems v Intel da trn kin trc IA-32 v IA-64.

    Ti liu c bin son da trn tham kho cc ti liu c bit l cun K thut Vi

    x l ca tc gi Vn Th Minh v da trn trao i kinh nghim ging dy vi cc ng

    nghip v phn hi ca sinh vin ti Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng. Ti liu c

    th c dng lm ti liu hc tp cho sinh vin i hc, cao ng ngnh cng ngh thng

    tin. Trong qu trnh bin son, d c nhiu c gng song khng trnh khi thiu st, nhm

    tc gi mong nhn c cc gp cho cc thiu st cng nh kin cp nht v hon thin

    ni dung ca ti liu.

    H ni, 06/2010

    Tc gi

  • -4-

    Mc lc

    Chng I. Tng quan v vi x l v h vi x l ................................................................. 6

    I.1 Gii thiu v vi x l ................................................................................................................. 6 I.2 H vi x l ................................................................................................................................. 7 I.3 Cc c im cu trc ca vi x l ............................................................................................ 9

    I.3.1 Cu trc cn bn ................................................................................................................... 9 I.3.2 Kin trc RISC v CISC ...................................................................................................... 11 I.3.3 Cc c im ....................................................................................................................... 12

    I.4 Lch s pht trin v phn loi cc b vi x l ........................................................................ 12 I.4.1 Giai on 1971-1973 .......................................................................................................... 12 I.4.2 Giai on 1974-1977 .......................................................................................................... 13 I.4.3 Giai on 1978-1982 .......................................................................................................... 13 I.4.4 Giai on 1983-1999 .......................................................................................................... 13 I.4.5 Giai on 2000-2006 .......................................................................................................... 14 I.4.6 Giai on 2007-nay ............................................................................................................. 15

    Chng II. B vi x l Intel 8086 ....................................................................................... 16

    II.1 Cu trc bn trong ca 8086/8088 ........................................................................................... 16 II.1.1 S khi ............................................................................................................................ 16 II.1.2 Cc n v chc nng: BIU, EU, cc thanh ghi v but trong ............................................ 17 II.1.3 Phn on b nh ca 8086/8088 ....................................................................................... 20

    II.2 B ng x l ton hc 8087 ................................................................................................... 21 II.3 Tp lnh ca 8086/8088 ........................................................................................................... 22

    II.3.1 Khi nim lnh, m ho lnh v qu trnh thc hin lnh ................................................... 22 II.3.2 Cc ch a ch ca 8086/8088 ...................................................................................... 23 II.3.3 Tp lnh ca 8086/8088 ...................................................................................................... 27

    II.4 Ngt v x l ngt trong 8086/8088 ......................................................................................... 33 II.4.1 S cn thit phi ngt CPU ................................................................................................. 33 II.4.2 Cc loi ngt trong h 8088 ................................................................................................ 33 II.4.3 p ng ca CPU khi c yu cu ngt ............................................................................... 34 II.4.4 X l u tin khi ngt .......................................................................................................... 36

    Chng III. Lp trnh hp ng vi 8086/8088 .................................................................... 37

    III.1 Gii thiu khung ca chng trnh hp ng ............................................................................ 37 III.1.1 C php ca chng trnh hp ng .................................................................................... 37 III.1.2 D liu cho chng trnh .................................................................................................... 38

    III.2 Cch to v chy chng trnh hp ng................................................................................... 48 III.3 Cc cu trc lp trnh c bn .................................................................................................... 49 III.4 Gii thiu mt s chng trnh c th ...................................................................................... 55

    III.4.1 V d 1 ................................................................................................................................. 56 III.4.2 V d 2 ................................................................................................................................. 56 III.4.3 V d 3 ................................................................................................................................. 58 III.4.4 V d 4 ................................................................................................................................. 60 III.4.5 V d 5 ................................................................................................................................. 61

    Chng IV. Phi ghp vi x l vi b nh v cc thit b vo/ra ...................................... 62

    IV.1 Cc tn hiu ca vi x l v cc mch ph tr ......................................................................... 62 IV.1.1 Cc tn hiu ca 8086/8088................................................................................................. 62 IV.1.2 Phn knh tch thng tin v vic m cho cc but ....................................................... 66 IV.1.3 Mch to xung nhp 8284. ................................................................................................... 67 IV.1.4 Mch iu khin but 8288 ................................................................................................. 68

  • -5-

    IV.1.5 Biu thi gian ca cc lnh ghi/c ............................................................................... 70 IV.2 Phi ghp vi x l vi b nh .................................................................................................. 72

    IV.2.1 Gii thiu b nh ................................................................................................................ 72 IV.2.2 Gii m a ch cho b nh ................................................................................................. 74

    IV.3 Phi ghp vi x l vi thit b vo ra ....................................................................................... 79 IV.3.1 Gii thiu v thit b vo/ra................................................................................................. 79 IV.3.2 Gii m a ch thit b vo ra ............................................................................................ 80

    IV.4 Gii thiu mt s vi mch h tr vo ra ...............................................................................

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