Better Behaviour in Classrooms
Better Behaviour in Classrooms provides a professional and sympathetic approach to the difculties presented by disruptive behaviour, and offers a range of tried and tested strategies to help teachers develop a whole-school approach to behaviour management. By drawing on their considerable experiences of dealing with children's emotional and behavioural difculties, the authors acknowledge existing good practice and seek to build on it, showing how every teacher can improve their skills through a planned and stepped programme. The book provides a practical overview of whole-school behavioural patterns and a detailed focus on individual classroom interactions, explaining how prediction skills can be used to plan an effective behaviour management strategy. The book also includes helpful photocopiable resources and training materials for use with staff groups or individuals. It is an invaluable resource for all newly-qualied and established teachers concerned about behaviour. Head teachers, senior-management teams and advisory teachers will also nd it an excellent basis for the delivery of wholeschool INSET courses. Kay Mathieson is a Senior Teacher at a Pupil Referral Unit. Meg Price is a Principal Teacher in an inner-city secondary school.
Better Behaviour in Classrooms A framework for inclusive behaviour management
Kay Mathieson and Meg Price
London and New York
First published 2002 by RoutledgeFalmer 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by RoutledgeFalmer 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003. RoutledgeFalmer is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group 2002 Kay Mathieson and Margaret Price Illustrations Helen Roberts All rights reserved. The purchase of this copyright material confers the right on the purchasing institution to photocopy pages 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 76, 78, 79, 83, 90 and 92 only. No other part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested. ISBN 0-203-16461-X Master e-book ISBN
ISBN 0-203-25879-7 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0415253411 (Print Edition)
Communicating with the emotional brain From policy to practice: Consensus behaviour management within the institution The Big Picture: Behavioural patterns in the academic year Consensus-driven behaviour planning within the classroom Behaviour taught not caught, making the message clear Managing the emotional environment in the classroom Managing the physical environment in the classroom The reective practitioner: Considering the whole class environment Consolidation phase: Considering behaviour from the pupils perspective Transitions: Identifying areas of increased concern Planning spirit lifters: Incentives for good behaviour
7 15 20 24 28 33
3 4 5 6 7 8
41 49 52
Conclusion: The role of the teacher
INSET Sessions Communicating with the emotional brain
Theme: Authority Session 1 Activity 1 Summary 1 Session 2 Activity 2 Summary 2 Session 3 Activity 3 Summary 3 Authority a dirty word? Authority seeking a working denition
68 69 69 72
Styles of conict management the collaborative model Making the intervention count
73 77 80 81 81 82
Characteristics of the authoritative teacher Am I insulated against role strain? A personal audit
Theme: Behaviour issues Session 1 Activity 1a Activity 1b Session 2 Activity 2a Activity 2b Session 3 Activity 3a Activity 3b Session 4 Activity 4a Activity 4b Behaviour as an issue Whats the worst thing? Moderating decisions The establishment phase laying the foundations How would we like it to be? The behaviour management framework Consolidation phase making the most of it Reframing our view of behaviour Building strategies Transition phase dealing with the anxieties Coping with change Easing the change process
85 86 86 87
89 89 91
93 93 93 94 94 94
Suggested further reading Index
For Vi Ritchie She knows why
Thanks to Helen Roberts for her wonderfully quirky illustrations (pod.roberts@btinternet. com). Thanks to Simone, for her inuence and guidance. Thanks to Tricia for her support in clarifying ideas, to staff members of Acorn House and Victoria House pupil referral units, and to Alison and the staff of the EBD unit at St Machar Academy you have all showed us more about commitment and team work than we could have imagined. Thanks to Nora who helped us believe we could produce this book. Thanks to James for his continued support, constructive help and his typing expertise. Thanks to Will, Alex and Jessi for their cheerful encouragement. Thanks to our families who have enabled us to maintain a positive approach to the challenges of life.
Better Behaviour in Classrooms
ALL IN THE SAME BOAT?
It has been said that trying to effect change in educational practice is like sailing in a stormy sea in a leaky boat with a mutinous crew. Difcult, dangerous, and presumably doomed to a watery grave! If we, as teachers, are to hold up our hands as a mutinous crew, we can at least be forgiven for posing a few questions about the leaky boat. The issue of behaviour management, in particular trying to promote inclusive behaviour, is fundamentally an emotional one, and is ill-served by a coercive approach. The management of our pupils is a very personal matter. We invest a great deal more of ourselves, as people, into this than into any of the other elements of good pedagogy. The risk we take is a very public one, our management style and the behaviour of our pupils can be viewed by many other people.
Better Behaviour in Classrooms
The behaviour of students generates more passion at coffee time than just about any other aspect of education. The views we, as individuals, are willing to share in this situation are, of course, affected by the response we anticipate from colleagues. In this book we have sought to acknowledge the difculties that present in the management of the behaviour in our schools and classrooms. As practitioners we are aware of, and sympathetic to, mounting concerns over behaviour as an issue in education. The pragmatic and strategic approach we offer has been tried and tested over years both in mainstream and in off-site provision. If, as a profession, we can accept that the behaviour we require in our classroom can be taught, then we can apply our skills to behaviour, as we would in any other area of the curriculum. Behaviour as an issue can have the effect of polarising staff rooms, it can dishearten, distress and demoralise, as well as generating much ribald cynicism and thumping good war stories. So much of our self-belief as teachers comes from our condence in our ability to manage the youngsters in front of us. Its clear, then, that if change is needed in our practice, it will only be achieved by enhancing that self-belief. There is something incongruous in the notion that we can promote positive and optimistic regimes by anything other than positive and optimistic measures. We are unlikely to reduce exclusions by being told that we must, by being set targets and mandatory quotas. Such an approach is very likely to unite us as a profession, but more on emotional than rational grounds. We see the stories in the press where a hapless youngster, having been excluded from every school in the authority, is paraded about by indignant parents crying foul. We look at the picture of newly-scrubbed butter wouldnt melt innocence . . . and are not deceived! Up and down the country, teachers are instantly united in a surge of professional fellow-feeling. We are also sympathetic to the school when an exclusion is overturned by a local authority or a board of governors. Aware as we are, that allowing a pupil to remain on the school premises, to the chagrin of many of the staff, will do little for teacher morale and perhaps as importantly, absolutely nothing for that pupils education and is nothing whatsoever to do with inclusion. We will reduce exclusions only by actively promoting inclusive behaviour, which would seem to be a truism, but in fact is much more to do with nding and sharing a consensus of purpose and by developing our expertise in the management of behaviour in order to drive that consensus. Every school is a unique community, not a commodity. Schools must look for solutions that are congruent to the particular needs of all the stakeholders within that community the route to inclusion begins with that search. The teaching staff of any school is acknowledged as its greatest resource, and it is absolutely vital for teachers to feel condent and empowered in order to tackle the stresses of the job in an optimistic, vigorous and completely professional manner. The in-set section of this book explores the behavioural challenges teachers encounter on a daily basis, and provides a repertoire of skills and strategies to address them.
Better Behaviour in Classrooms
Communicating with the emotional brain