Brands biology

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<ul><li> 1. (Cell Theory) 1 (All Cells) 1. ....................................................... 2. ....................................................... 3. ....................................................... 4. ....................................................... 3 1. 1.1 (Cell Wall) 1.2 (Plasma Membrane) 2. (Cytoplasm) 2.1 (Cytosol) 2.2 (Organelles) (2) ________________________ 2010</li></ul><p> 2. 2010________________________ (3)2. 1. - (Phospholipid) - - 2 - - (Semipermeable Membrane) - - ( - ) - ( ) 3. (Nucleus) 3.1 (Nuclear Membrane) 3.2 (Nucleoplasm) 3.3 (Chromatin) 3.4 (Nucleolus) 3. (4) ________________________ 20105. rRNA- rRNA - (DNA) 4. DNA 2 - - 3. 4. 2010________________________ (5)8. 7. (ER) 6. SERRER- - RER - - RER - 2 - SER (Lipid) 1) (RER) ER 2) (SER) ER - RNA - - () (ER) 5. (6) ________________________ 201011. 10. 9. DNADNA- 2 - (Matrix) DNA - - 2 - (Stroma) DNA - ( ) ( ) - - - (Endocytosis) 6. 2010________________________ (7)14. 13. 12. 2 - - - - - 1) 2) - 3) 7. 1. 10. 12. 9. 11. 8. 2. 3. 7. 4. 6. 5. 12. 13. 1. 14. 2. 11. 3. 10. 4. 9. 5. 6. 6.1 8. 8.1 7. (8) ________________________ 2010 8. 2 1. - - - 2. 2 2.1 2 - - - 2.2 - () - - - 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ( ) () () () 2010________________________ (9) 9. - 2 2 () () - (Semipermeable Membrane) - 2 1. 2 1.1 (Passive Transport) - (Ion) 3 1. (Diffusion) 2. (Osmosis) 3. (Facilitated Diffusion) (10) _______________________ 2010 10. 2010_______________________ (11)1.2 (Protein Channel) 1. 1.1 () (Ca2+) - -) (Cl (Ca2+), (Cl-), (Na+), (Protein Channel) (K+) () - - -1.2 (Active Transport) - 2. - (Vesicle) 2 2.1 (Exocytosis) 2.2 (Endocytosis) 3 1. (Phagocytosis) 2. (Pinocytosis) 3. (Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis) 11. (12) _______________________ 2010 1. (Vesicle) - - (Protein Carrier) ATP - (Protein Carrier) - Aquaporins 2. : (Protein Carrier) 3. ( Aquaporin Aquaporins) 12. 2010_______________________ (13)2.3 2.2 2. 2.1 - - () (Protein Receptor) - - 13. (Solvent) (Solute) (Solute) (Osmotic Concentration) 3 1. (Hypertonic Solution) 2. (Hypotonic Solution) 3. (Isotonic Solution) 3% () 3% (Osmotic Pressure) (14) _______________________ 2010 14. Hypotonic SolutionIsotonic SolutionHypertonic Solution ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2010_______________________ (15) 15. 1. 2. 3. - 4. 1. 2. 3. - 4. 5. 1. (Stoma) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2-3C 2. 3. (16) _______________________ 2010 16. 2. (Kidneys) 2 2 (Nephron) 1 () () 2010_______________________ (17) 17. (Nephron) () () (Long Section) (18) _______________________ 2010 18. 1. (Bowmans Capsule) 2 2. 2 Bowmans Capsule (Glomerulus) 3. (Convoluted Tubule) 3 (U) (Loop of Henle) +) (Aldosterone) ADH (Na 4. (Collecting Duct) 2010_______________________ (19) 19. 2 (1) (Glomerulus Filtration) 180 (180 ) (2) (Reabsorption) (Active Transport) (Passive Transport) (Pinocytosis) 178.5 (178.5 ) ADH (Vasopressin) 3. - - (Enzyme) - 3 3.1. CO2 (Medulla Oblongata) CO2 CO2 Medulla Oblongata (20) _______________________ 2010 20. 3.2 (Buffer) pH 1. (Hemoglobin) 2. (Protein) 3.3 (Kidneys) pH () 4. (Osmotic Pressure) 4.1 (Protist) (Contractile Vacuole) 4.2 (Osmotic Pressure ) 4.3 (Osmotic Pressure ) (Active Transport) 2010_______________________ (21) 21. 4.4 (Osmotic Pressure ) 4.5 (Nasal Gland) (Salt Gland) (22) _______________________ 2010 22. 5. 2 1. 2. (Hypothalamus) 2010_______________________ (23) 23. (Hypothalamus) (Hypothalamus) (Hypothalamus) Hypothalamus) (24) _______________________ 2010 24. 2010_______________________ (25) : : : : 25. (Immunity) 2 1. (Innate Immunity) 2 1.1 () 1.2 (Nonspecific Immunity) 2. (Acquired Immunity) () (Specific Immunity) 1. (Innate Immunity) 1.1 () - pH 3-5 - (Lysozyme) - - () (Mucus) 1.2 (Nonspecific Immunity) - 3 1. (Neutrophil) 2. (Macrophage) 3. Natural Killer Cell (NK Cell) - (Histamine) - (Fever) (Phagocyte) - (Interferon) RNA (26) _______________________ 2010 26. Phagocyte 2. (Acquired Immunity) (Specific Immunity) - (Lymphocyte) (Antibody) (Antigen) - (Lymphocyte) - (Bone Marrow) (Thymus) ( ) (Spleen) (Lymph Node) (Mucosal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue ; MALT) 2010_______________________ (27) 27. ...... ...... 1 (Antigen) (Antibody) (Antigen) ... (Antibody) ...... 2 (Vaccine) (Serum) (Vaccine) (Antibody) (Serum) 2 1. (Antibody) - - (Toxoid) - 3 1) 2) 3) (Toxoid) 2. (Antibody) - - - 1. (Allergy) : Antibody Antigen : (28) _______________________ 2010 28. 2. (Autoimmune Disease) : : (SLE) Antibody 3. (AIDS : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) : HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) (Helper T-cells) Antibody HIV 1. 2. 3. 4. RNA DNA DNA (Lymphatic System) 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 2 3.1 3.2 1. (Lymph) 2010_______________________ (29) 29. 2. (Lymphatic Vessels) (Thoracic Duct) (Subclavian Vein) (Vena Cava) 3. (Lymphoid Organs) 2 3.1 1. (Bone Marrow) 2. (Thymus) () (Aorta) - (Lymphocyte) : (30) _______________________ 2010 30. 3.2 1. (Spleen) (Macrophage) - () - - - 2. (Lymph Node) - - 3. (Tonsils) 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 2010_______________________ (31) 31. 1. 2 1.1 (Somatic Cell) 1.2 (Sex Cell) 2. 2 2.1 (Autosome) 2.2 (Sex Chromosome) 3. 2 (Diploid Cell) 4. 1 (Haploid Cell) 5. 6. 7. 2 7.1 (Karyokinesis) 7.2 (Cytokinesis) 8. 8.1 (Chromatin) 8.2 (Centromere) 8.3 (Chromatid) 8.4 (Chromosome) 8.5 (Homologous Chromosome) (Cell Cycle) 3 1. (Interphase) 3 1.2 S 1.3 G2 1.1 G1 2. (Mitosis) 4 2.1 (Prophase) 2.2 (Metaphase) 2.3 (Anaphase) 2.4 (Telophase) 3. (Cytokinesis) (32) _______________________ 2010 32. () - () 1 copy 2 - () 1 - - - - - 2010_______________________ (33) 33. - () - (Cytokinesis) - 2 1 () (Meiosis) 2 I II I () (Homologous Chromosome) I 2 1 II I I 2 (Homologous) II 4 (34) _______________________ 2010 34. 2010_______________________ (35) 1 2 I I I I I II 35. I IISpermatocyte (Diploid) Spermatids (Haploid)Sperm Cells (Haploid) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1 1 2 , , , (36) _______________________ 2 4 1 2 , , 2010 36. 1. 2 1. (Somatic Cells) () 2n (2 ) 2. (Sex Cells) (Sperm) (Egg Cell) n (1 ) 2. 2.1 (Chromatin) 2 (Diploid) (Homologous Chromosome) (Haploid) 2.2 DNA (Centromere) (Nucleosome)DNA (Sister Chromatids) 2010_______________________ (37) 37. () DNA 1 3 2 3 (Histone Protein) (Non-Histone Protein) (Nucleosome) 8 DNA 150 () DNA 1 (Genome) 1 2.3 2 1. (Autosome) 2. (Sex Chromosome) 46 (2n = 46) 23 44 (22 ) 2 () 46 44 + XY 46, XY 46 44 + XX 46, XX 3. DNA DNA (38) _______________________ 2010 38. DNA DNA (Gene) DNA (Polymer) (Monomer) 3 pentose sugar 1. (Pentose) (Deoxyribose) 2. (Nitrogenous Base) (Ring) 2 2.1 (Purine) 2 (Guanine) (Adenine) 2.2 (Pyrimidine) 2 (Cytosine) (Thymine) 3. ( PO 3- ) 4 DNA 2010_______________________ (39) 39. DNA DNA 3 DNA 5 5' (5 ) 3 3' (3 )...Hiso Hiso 1 : (Nucleic Acid) 2 1. RNA (RiboNucleic Acid) 2. DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) Hiso 2 : (Monomer) (Nucleotide) Hiso 3 : RNA nucleotide DNA nucleotide RNA nucleotide 1. 2. 3. 5 ()DNA nucleotidePO 34 A, U, C, G Ribose sugar (C5H10O5)PO 34 A, T, C, G Deoxyribose sugar (C5H10O4) Hiso 4 : 1 1 1 : 1 Hiso 5 : 4 DNA A T 2 A T C G 3 C G Hiso 6 : RNA DNA 5 ... (40) _______________________ 2010 40. Hiso 7 : DNA (complementary basepair) = = Hiso 8 : DNA DNA 1. (Gamete) (Sperm) (Egg Cell) 2. (Gene) 3. (Allele) 2 A a ( 2 ) A a ABO 3 IA, IB i ( 3 ) 4. (Homozygous Gene) TT, tt, IAIA 2 4.1 (Homozygous Dominance) AA, TT 4.2 (Homozygous Recessive) aa, tt 5. (Heterozygous Gene) Tt, Rr, IAi IAIB 6. (Dominance Dominant Trait) 1 2 (Homozygous Dominance) 7. (Recessive Trait) (Homozygous Recessive) 2010_______________________ (41) 41. 8. (Phenotype) ( ) 9. (Genotype) () 3 TT, Tt, tt (Gene) (DNA) DNA (Homologous) (Homologous Chromosome) (Homologous Chromosome) DNA (Codon) (42) _______________________ 2010 42. (Law) 2 1 (Law of Segregation) ( I ) 1 2 (Law of Independent Assortment) 2010_______________________ (43) 43. 1. (Complete Dominance) 100% (Homozygous Dominance) TT Tt ( P) (WW) (ww) ( F1) 2. (Incomplete Dominance) 100% 100% RR ()Rr ()rr () 3. (Co-Dominance) AB IAIB (44) _______________________ 2010 44. (Multiple Allele) 2 ABO 3 ABO (Allele) ABO 3 IA, IB, i IA A IB B i 2 i IA IB 2 i ABO () 1. IAIA 2. IAi 3. IBIB 4. IBi 5. IAIB 6. ii A A B B A B () A A B B AB O A A AB A B O () (Antibody) 2 A B A A B O A B 2010_______________________ (45) 45. ABO A B AB O A B A B B A A B ABO()()()ABABO () () (Antigen) (Antibody) (46) _______________________ 2010 46. A B AB OA B AB O : (Polygene) () 2 1. 2 A, B (Red) a, b (White) 2. 3 A, B, C (Red) a, b, c (White) 2 1. (Continuous Variation Trait) (Quantitative Trait) 2. (Discontinuous Variation Trait) 1 (1 ) 2010_______________________ (47) 47. (Autosome) (Sex Chromosome) 1. (Albino) 2. (Thalassemia) 3. (Sickle Cell Anemia) X 1. (Hemophilia) 2. (Color Blindness) 3. 4. G-6-PD (Pedigree) (Mutation) (Gene Mutation DNA Mutation) DNA (Genetic Engineering) DNA (Recombinant DNA) 2 (Restriction Enzyme) (DNA Ligase Enzyme) (48) _______________________ 2010 48. (GMOs) (Recombinant DNA) DNA (Host) GMO (Cloning) () (Somatic Cell) 2010_______________________ (49) 49. (DNA Fingerprint) DNA (50) _______________________ 2010 50. (Biological Diversity) 3 2 1. 2. 2 1. (Prokaryotic Cells) 2. (Eukaryotic Cells) () 5 1. (Monera Kingdom) 2. (Fungi Kingdom) 3. (Protista Kingdom) 4. (Plantae Kingdom) 5. (Animalia Kingdom) 2010_______________________ (51) 51. 7 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (Species) (52) _______________________ 2010 52. 5 : 6 2010_______________________ (53) 53. ... (Virus) (Antibiotic) 2009 (54) _______________________ 2010 54. (Biomes) 2 1. 2. 1. 1. 200-4...</p>