Bugis - Μια κοινωνία με πέντε φύλα.

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Bugis - .

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  • Bugis,

    , , , ,

  • Bugis, :

    2

  • Bugis, :

    3

    Bugis ( ): , ,

    (calabai), (calalai), (bissu, metagender), ( ): , , intersex.

    Bugis 6 . . Bugis , (To) Ugi. Buginese (). 1.500 ...

    Bugis

    / (sex, ): , , intersex (""). , .

    , Bugis

    (gender):

  • Bugis, :

    4

    , , (calabai, : ), (calalai, : ), (bissu, , metagender) intersex ("") .

    Bugis

    (female women, ) makunrai, (male men, ) oroane. , Bugis intersex , Bugis .

    (gender system)

    Bugis ( ) ( )

  • Bugis, :

    5

    ( , , gender-body associatism). intersex , ( ), - (non-binary gender) ( ) , (hate crime), .

    Sharyn Graham

    Bugis Sulawesi 1998 (gender system). "-" (metagender) bissu ().

    (gender-ignorant) " " (transvestite priest), "" " " (cross-dressing)

  • Bugis, :

    6

    . , "" (gender caste). gender transcendent ( "" ) ( , gender role, ), .

    - (non-binary gender) 5-10 (support groups) - DSM-5 APA (http://www.dsm5.org/ 302.85 4, 5, 6 " " gender incongruence

  • Bugis, :

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    " " " " = "some alternative gender different from one's assigned gender", , , ).

    - ; , . , , ( ,

  • Bugis, :

    8

    , , " "). , . , Bugis .

    Bugis

    . intersex ( , ), . Bugis " " (gender threshold) () batin () () zahir (),

  • Bugis, :

    9

    . " " mukhannathun (, ) khanith ( xanith=) (gynecomimetic) ( "" , ) " ".

    ( Bugis ) . "" ( ), , "" . ( ),

  • Bugis, :

    10

    Bugis , . , , Bugis , (, - ) , ( ) "" ( 20 Alan Turing ).

  • Bugis, :

    11

    "": Bugis , . (gender segregation).

    Bugis

    , . . , , ( , , ).

    Sharyn Graham

  • Bugis, :

    12

    (MA) Bugis 35 . Mariani () . ///zie ( tumba) . : zie hir she/he her/his, zhe, e, s/he, ne, ey, hy, ot, thon, ve, ze, en, co , :

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hir#Summary

    Sharyn Graham 35 Bugis . , Ibu Qadri, ( ) . dewata,

  • Bugis, :

    13

    ( intersex) . Bugis , dewata ( ). 15 2000.

    : ///zie Mariani . . ///zie Mariani dewata ///hir Mariani. , , , , , , siri. ///zie Mariani . . , .

  • Bugis, :

    14

    .

    Bugis Batara Guru , , , . Bugis 16 ( , lontar). : . . , . Bugis .

    ,

  • Bugis, :

    15

    . / (manusia) (dewata). Bugis.

    Bugis

    ( "" ). . intersex, intersex . 12 . .

    Bugis

  • Bugis, :

    16

    / . Bugis , calalai (, , androfemales) calabai (, , gynomales) . , "" "", . Bugis .

    Greg Acciaioli

    (gender system) Bugis (gender pyramid) , , , . (metagender) (paragender) ( , gender plane) ""

  • Bugis, :

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    .

    ()

    , . , , . . () , , . , Burgis , .

    ///zie Rani, (: )

  • Bugis, :

    18

    , , ( ), ///@ ( ) ///@ ( ) (///@ Ema) . : a o a/o @, ( @ /).

    ()

    "" Bugis. ( , ) , , . , . , .

  • Bugis, :

    19

    , ,

    . ( ), Bugis . ; , ;

    ...

    Bugis (gender liberated): ( ), . , . Bugis ( ) (genderfluid) - , Bugis, .

  • Bugis, :

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    "" ( ) (cenqogender?) Bugis (gender binary). Bugis , .

    Bugis (gender-retarded) , (gender freedom) . , .

  • Bugis, :

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    ( ), ( ), (neutrois, , ) ( ) ( ) , ( , , , ). genderqueer "" , , , , , unisex , . , , ( , , ,

  • Bugis, :

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    ).

    . hijra () ( hijra ). ( ), , ( intersex , , ,

  • Bugis, :

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    , , , ).

    ( , , , ) - .

  • Bugis, :

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    (gender racism),

    "" ( , , , , , , , , , ). , "". , .

  • Bugis, :

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    : Andaya, L., The Bissu: A Study of a Third Gender in Indonesia, in: Barbara Andaya (ed.), Other Pasts: Women, Gender, and History in Early Modern Southeast Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press (2000), pp. 2746. Hamonic, G., Le Langage des dieux: cultes et pouvoirs pre-islamiques en pays Bugis Celebes-Sud Indonesie, Paris: Edition de CNRS (1987). Matthes, B. F., Over de Bissoes of Heidensche Priesters en Priesteressen der Boeginezen, Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeling Letterkunde (1872), 17:150.

  • Bugis, :

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    : http://athens.indymedia.org/front.php3?lang=el&article_id=1187995

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