Business Statistics

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Teacher's Instruction ManualGrade 12(Sinhala)

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  • i jHdmdr ixLHdkh .=re udf.damfoaY ix.%yh

    12 jk fYa%Ksh

    jHdmdr wOHhk fomd;fka;=joHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh

    cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

    uyr.u

  • ii

    ixLHdkhixLHdkhixLHdkhixLHdkhixLHdkh

    12

  • iii

    fmrjokfmrjokfmrjokfmrjokfmrjok

  • iv

    ix{dmkhix{dmkhix{dmkhix{dmkhix{dmkh

    $

  • v $
  • vi

    `{` , &$

  • vii

    iii

    fufyhu yd WmfoaYl;ajh ( uydpdh ,d,a fmfrd uhd, wOHCI ckrd,a, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

    WmfoaYl;ajh yd wCIKh ( wdpdh whs t,a .sksf.a h, iyldr wOHCI ckrd,a, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

    Ihud,d kdhl;ajh ( ta isjfkairdcd uhd, m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,Od, jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;khIhud,d lgqj (

    f,aLl uKav,h (

    m.Kl joka ieliqu ( hQ ux.,sld fr;ak h, jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

    iageka,s is,ajd uhd, fcHIaG lldpdh,iudc ixLHdk wOHhk wxYh,Y%S chjOk mqr Yaj oHd,h

    tia fla wd is,ajd uhd,fcHIaG lldpdh,iudc ixLHdk wOHhk wxYh,Y%S chjOk mqr Yaj oHd,h

    'tia'mS' chiQh uhd"fcHIaG lldpdh,;SrK oHd wOHhk wxYh,Y%S chjOk mqr Yaj oHd,h

    tia' isjrdcisxy uhd"fcHIaG lldpdh"wdl oHd wOHhk wxYh,fmardfoKsh Yaj oHd,h

    rejka w;a l=udr uhd,iyldr jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

    ixch r;akj uhd,iyldr jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

    ta isjfkairdcd uhd, m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

    ta'' fiQh uhd, m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,OdjHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

    mS l=iqudj;S h, jHdmD;s ks,Odks,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh

    t'ta'whs' m;aKS fmfrd h,jHdmD;s ks,Odks,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

    tia'fla' m%Ndyrka uhd" jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

    jhs chisxy uhd, kd,kao oHd,h,fld

  • viii

    mgqk

    y bf.kq - b.eka l%shdj,sh 1

    10 jHdmdr ixLHdkh Ihfhys Ih m:h iy tys iajNdjh .fIKh lrhs 2

    20 jHdmdr f;dr;=re ikaksfokh lrhs 9

    30 jHdmdr o;a; Yaf,aIKh lrhs 32

    40 p,Hh w;r mj;sk inkaO;d .fIKh lr mqfrdal:kh lrhs 48

    50 jHdmdl wjodkug uqyqK ug we;s iQodku m%oYkh lrhs 77

    y bf.kq - b.eka - we.hS ie,iq 116

  • 1ksmqK;dj 1'0 ( jHdmdr ixLHdkh Ih m:h iy tys iajNdjh .fIKh lrhs'ksmqK;d ugu 1'1 ( jHdmdr ixLHdkh iy tys iSudjka uYkh lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 04

    bf.kq M,y ixLHdkfhys iajNdjh bka bgq lrkq ,nk ldhh wkqj fmkajd fohs'y ixLHdkfhka Wmu M, ,eu i|yd tys jdis" wjdis fjka lr olajhs'y ixLHdkh i|yd O ksjpk f.dvk.d" jvd;a iqiq ksjpkh f;darhs'y uQ,dY% mYS,kh lrka wjYH f;dr;=re ,nd .kshs'y Yla;Ska yd iSud ms

  • 2bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia (y my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka Tjqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkak y my; lafjk ud;Dld j,g wkqj isiqka lKavdh j,g fjka fldg ,nd fok ud;Dldj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrjkak'

    y o;a; /ia lsu y o;a; ixOdkh lsu yd bm;a lsu y o;a; Yaf,aIKh y ks.ukj,g t

  • 3 y "Intelligent business decision makers use statistics to plan, control and reduce the uncertainty involved in business decisions."

    ^nqoau;a ;Srlhka iska jHdmdr ;SrK .ekSf ie,iq lsug" md,khg iy

    wjodku wju lsug ixLHdkh Nd; lrhs'&

    y my; i|yka m%Yakj,g ms

  • 4ksmqK;d ugu 1 ' 2 (jHdmdr lafIa;%h ;=< ixLHdkfhys odhl;ajh Yaf,aIKh lrhs'

    ld,fo ixLHdj ( 06

    bf.kq M, (y ixLHdkh jHdmdr lafIa;%hg jeo.;a jk wjia:d m%ldY lrhs'y ixLHdkh ;=< fhdod .kq ,nk Ys,amSh l%u k lrhs'y jHdmdr wjia:djkag iqiq ixLHdk Ys,am l%u ksjerj .

  • 5y my; i|yka lreKq u;= lrka idlPdjla fufyhjkak'y oYkh jQ mska;+rj,ska m%;sY; w.hka" l%udkql+, j f.dvke.=Kq f.dvke.s,a,la"

    m%ia;drhla" j.=jla oDYHudk jk nj'

    y oDYHudk jQ rEmigyka O Ys,amSh l%u u; bm;a lr we;s nj'y tajdfha l%udkql+, njla fuka u is;a weo .kakd iq njla o mj;sk nj'y jHdmdl lghq;=j, m%.;sh iudf,dapkh lsug fuu igyka Nd; lrk nj'y tjeks igyka iy rEmigyka o" ixLHd;aul kq o f.dvke.Su ;=

  • Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y jHdmdr lafIa;%fha my; wjia:dj, ;SrK .ekSu i|yd ixLHdk Ys,amSh l%u fhdod

    .kshs'

    y wjia:dy wf, mfhaIK ilaIKy kj m%jK;d yd mqfrdal:ky ie,iq lsu yd ;;a;aj md,khy msjehlrKh yd .Kkhy udkj im;a l

  • 7wNHdih 1

    1' jHdmdr lghq;=j, ixLHdkh fhdod.; yels wji:d olajka ta tla tla wjia:dj,

    Nd; l< yels ixLHdk Ys,amSh l%u i|yka lrkak'

    2' ixLHdk oHdf Nd; lrk my; i|yka fh flfhka ia;r lrkak'

    i. ia;rd;aul ixLHdkh yd wkq;sl ixLHdkhii. ix.ykh iy kshehiii. ilaIK yd mlaIKiv. ,dlaIKslhv. p,Hh

    3' " iEu oHdjla i|yd u ixLHdkh wksjdh f'" by; m%ldYfha i;H wi;H;djolajd Tf ms

  • 8ksm qK;dj 2'0 ( jHdmdr f;dr;=re /ialr ikaksfokh lrhs'ksmqK;d ugu 2 ' 1 ( O uQ,dY% fhdod .kska o;a; /ia lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 15

    bf.kq M,y jHdmdl o;a; O wdldrj,g j. lrhs'y m%d:l yd oa;shsl o;a; uQ,dY% ykajd foka tajdfha jdis iy wjdis u;=lr olajhs'y m%d:l o;a; uQ,dY% u.ska o;a; /ia lsu i|yd O WmlrK ksudKh lrhs'y j.SlrK m%fNao i,ld n,ka fhda.H;u m%fNaoh f;darhs'y wksYa;;dj wju lr .ekSu i|yd ie,iq ilihs'

    bf.kq- b.eka ls%hdj,sh (msiquy f;a ludka;fha kshef,k llrejkaf.a jk hou ms

  • 9y flgqm;a l< m%Yakdj,sh$ Wmf,aLkh o;a; /ia lsug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk wh w;=frka lsysmfofkl=g ,nd ksjer m%;spdr ,ef hs mlaId lrkak' ^mQj mlaIdj is

    lrkak'&

    y ,efnk m%;spdr mok lrf.k m%Yakdj,sh$ Wmf,aLkh kej; ixfYdaOkh lrkak'y ixfYda; m%Yakdj,sh bm;a lrkak'y ix.Kkh yd kshe ilaIKh w;r fjki myokak'y Tf wkdjrK ksudKYS,Sj yd iduQysl j iuia; mka;shg bm;a lsug iQodk

    jkak'

    Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y tla/ia lrkq ,nk o;a; m%d:l- oa;shsl" m%udKd;aul- .=Kd;aul" wNHka;r- ndysr

    f,i j. l< yels nj'

    y wruqKg wod< j uq,ajrg ,nd .kakd o;a; m%d:l o;a; nj'y m%d:l o;a; fndfyda g YajdikSh;ajfhka by< h yels w;r" hdj;ald,Sk o jk nj'

    y uqs; fyda oHq;a yd bf,lafg%daksl udOHj,ska o o;a; /ia l< yels w;r tajdieug u oa;shsl o;a; jk nj'

    Wod( wka;cd,h

    y oa;shsl o;a; ,nd .ekSu myiq yd blauka jqjo iuyrg hdj;ald,Sk fkdjk nj'y o;a; /ia lsf O l%uj, jdis yd wjdis .

  • 10

    ksmqK;d ugu 2'2 ( jHdmdr o;a; ixOdkh lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 15

    bf.kq M, (y o;a; je,a yd jDka; m;% igyka ms

  • 11

    bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia (y my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka Tjqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkaky o;a; ixOdkh l< yels my; i|yka l%uj,ska Tf lKavdhug ,efnk l%uh flfrys

    wjOdkh fhduq lrkak'

    y iuqys; ixLHd; jHdma;shy idfmalaI ixLHd; jHdma;shy .=rejrhd$ .=rejh iska imhkq ,nk ly,l fiajlhska 100la miq.sh udih ;=q Nd;fhka .Kkh ir, lr.; yels nj'

    =

    =n

    jjLogn

    G1

    1log

    y rdYSka foll wkqmd; uska lafjk wiudk yrhka iys; p,Hhkays idudkHksrEmKh lsug yrd;aul uOHkH iqiq jk nj'

    y ta i|yd my; iQ;%h fhdod.; yels nj'

    ==

    n

    iix

    nH

    1

    1

  • 38

    ksmqK;d ugu 3'3 ( idfmalaI msysf Kq Nd;fhka o;a;j, msysu .%y lrhs'

    ld,fo ixLHdj ( 12

    bf.kq M,y ifmalaI msysf Kq k lrhs'y o;a; msysu idfmalaI Kq weiqka ia;r lrhs'y jHdma;shl iajrEmh ykd .ekSug p;=:l" oYul iy m%;sY;l Nd; lrhs'y mlaIKhl ,l=Kq wdYs%; j ;udg ysjk ia:dkh uekka jgyd .kshs'y iudcfha ;udg ysjk ;ek wka wh iu .

  • 39

    y Tf wkdjrK ksudKYS,Sj o" iduQyslj o fldgq fl igykla weiqka o iuia;mka;shg bm;a lsug iQodk jkak'

    Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y o;a; je,la iudk fldgia y;rlg fnfok ia:dk ;=fka w.h p;=:l f,i ykajk

    nj'

    y tajd 321 ,, QQQ jYfhka wxlkh lrk nj'y o;a; je,la iudk fldgia oyhlg fnfok w.hka" kjh oYul f,i ykajk nj'y tajd 9321 ..........,, DDDD jYfhka wxlkh lrk nj'y o;a;je,la iudk fldgia ishhlg fnfok w.hka wkQkjh m%;sY;l f,i ykajk

    nj'

    y tajd 99321 ..........,, pppp jYfhka wxlkh lrk nj'y idfmalaI msysf Kq ,nd .ekSu i|yd my; wdldrfha iQ;% fhdod.; yels nj'

    CF

    FLQ

    CF

    FLQ

    CF

    FLQ

    Q

    n

    Q

    n

    Q

    n

    c

    c

    c

    +=

    +=

    +=

    3

    43

    13

    2

    42

    12

    411

    1

    y fldgq fl igykla weiqka idfmalaI msysf Kq .Kkh l< yels nj'

    CFp

    FLp

    CFp

    FLp

    CFp

    FLP

    CFd

    FLD

    CFd

    FLD

    CFd

    FLD

    c

    c

    c

    c

    c

    c

    n

    n

    n

    n

    n

    n

    +=

    +=

    +=

    +=

    +=

    +=

    90

    10090

    90

    50

    1050

    50

    10

    10010

    8

    108

    8

    5

    105

    1

    10

    1

    1

    110

    1

    15

    11

  • 40

    ksmqK;d ugu 3'4 ( jHdmdr o;a; wmlsrK Kq u.ska Yaf,aIKh lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 16

    bf.kq M,y o;a; iuQyhl wmlsrK Kq k lr W; iQ;% brsm;a lrhs'y ;SrK .ekSu i|yd O wmlsrK Kq .Kkh lrhs'y idfmalaI wmlsrK Kq fhdodf.k o;a; iuQyj, me;srSu ikaikaokh lrhs'y p,Hhka ksjerj weia;fka;= lr fydka ;SrK .kshs'y uOHl Kq jvd;aa w:j;a lsu i|yd wmlsrK Kq Nd; lrhs'

    bf.kq- b.eka ls%hdj,sh (msiquy tlsfklg fjkia Wiska hq;= isiqka 7 fofkl= mka;sh bhg le|jkak'y Wfiys wkqms

  • 41

    Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y o;a; iuQyhl isu ykd .ekSug wmlsrK Kq wjYH jk nj'y mrdih o;a; je,l ueo w.hla ie,ls,a,g fkd.kakd Kqula fnj'y wka; p;=:l mrdih iy wO wka; p;=:l mrdih ^ p;=:l wm.ukh& jHdma;shl

    we;s o;a;j,ska 50] wmlsrKh muKla ksrEmKh lrk nj'

    y o;a; iuQyhl uOHkHfhys isg tla tla o;a;hg we;s ksrfmalaI wm.ukhkaf.a idudkHhuOHkHh wm.ukh jk nj'

    y tla tla w.hfhys isg uOHkHhg we;s wm.uk j.hkaf.a idudkHh " p,;dj" jknj'

    y p,;djfha j.uQ,fhys Ok w.h iu; wm.ukh jk nj'y ksrfmalaI wmlsrKh uOHkHhg idfmalaI j bm;a l< g th idfmalaI wmlsrK

    Kqula