Business Statistics

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Teacher's Instruction ManualGrade 12(Sinhala)

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<ul><li><p>i jHdmdr ixLHdkh .=re udf.damfoaY ix.%yh</p><p> 12 jk fYa%Ksh</p><p>jHdmdr wOHhk fomd;fka;=joHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh</p><p>cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh</p><p>uyr.u</p></li><li><p>ii</p><p>ixLHdkhixLHdkhixLHdkhixLHdkhixLHdkh</p><p>12 </p></li><li><p>iii</p><p>fmrjokfmrjokfmrjokfmrjokfmrjok</p></li><li><p>iv</p><p>ix{dmkhix{dmkhix{dmkhix{dmkhix{dmkh</p><p>$ </p></li><li>v $</li><li><p>vi</p><p> `{` , &amp;$</p></li><li><p>vii</p><p>iii</p><p>fufyhu yd WmfoaYl;ajh ( uydpdh ,d,a fmfrd uhd, wOHCI ckrd,a, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh</p><p>WmfoaYl;ajh yd wCIKh ( wdpdh whs t,a .sksf.a h, iyldr wOHCI ckrd,a, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh</p><p>Ihud,d kdhl;ajh ( ta isjfkairdcd uhd, m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,Od, jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;khIhud,d lgqj (</p><p>f,aLl uKav,h (</p><p>m.Kl joka ieliqu ( hQ ux.,sld fr;ak h, jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j, cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh</p><p>iageka,s is,ajd uhd, fcHIaG lldpdh,iudc ixLHdk wOHhk wxYh,Y%S chjOk mqr Yaj oHd,h</p><p>tia fla wd is,ajd uhd,fcHIaG lldpdh,iudc ixLHdk wOHhk wxYh,Y%S chjOk mqr Yaj oHd,h</p><p>'tia'mS' chiQh uhd"fcHIaG lldpdh,;SrK oHd wOHhk wxYh,Y%S chjOk mqr Yaj oHd,h</p><p>tia' isjrdcisxy uhd"fcHIaG lldpdh"wdl oHd wOHhk wxYh,fmardfoKsh Yaj oHd,h</p><p>rejka w;a l=udr uhd,iyldr jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'</p><p>ixch r;akj uhd,iyldr jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'</p><p>ta isjfkairdcd uhd, m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh</p><p>ta'' fiQh uhd, m%Odk jHdmD;s ks,OdjHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'</p><p>mS l=iqudj;S h, jHdmD;s ks,Odks,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh</p><p>t'ta'whs' m;aKS fmfrd h,jHdmD;s ks,Odks,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'</p><p>tia'fla' m%Ndyrka uhd" jHdmD;s ks,Od,jHdmdr wOHdmk fomd;fka;=j,cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'</p><p>jhs chisxy uhd, kd,kao oHd,h,fld</p></li><li><p>viii</p><p>mgqk</p><p> y bf.kq - b.eka l%shdj,sh 1</p><p>10 jHdmdr ixLHdkh Ihfhys Ih m:h iy tys iajNdjh .fIKh lrhs 2</p><p>20 jHdmdr f;dr;=re ikaksfokh lrhs 9</p><p>30 jHdmdr o;a; Yaf,aIKh lrhs 32</p><p>40 p,Hh w;r mj;sk inkaO;d .fIKh lr mqfrdal:kh lrhs 48</p><p>50 jHdmdl wjodkug uqyqK ug we;s iQodku m%oYkh lrhs 77</p><p> y bf.kq - b.eka - we.hS ie,iq 116</p></li><li><p>1ksmqK;dj 1'0 ( jHdmdr ixLHdkh Ih m:h iy tys iajNdjh .fIKh lrhs'ksmqK;d ugu 1'1 ( jHdmdr ixLHdkh iy tys iSudjka uYkh lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 04</p><p>bf.kq M,y ixLHdkfhys iajNdjh bka bgq lrkq ,nk ldhh wkqj fmkajd fohs'y ixLHdkfhka Wmu M, ,eu i|yd tys jdis" wjdis fjka lr olajhs'y ixLHdkh i|yd O ksjpk f.dvk.d" jvd;a iqiq ksjpkh f;darhs'y uQ,dY% mYS,kh lrka wjYH f;dr;=re ,nd .kshs'y Yla;Ska yd iSud ms</p></li><li><p>2bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia (y my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka Tjqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkak y my; lafjk ud;Dld j,g wkqj isiqka lKavdh j,g fjka fldg ,nd fok ud;Dldj flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrjkak'</p><p> y o;a; /ia lsu y o;a; ixOdkh lsu yd bm;a lsu y o;a; Yaf,aIKh y ks.ukj,g t</p></li><li><p>3 y "Intelligent business decision makers use statistics to plan, control and reduce the uncertainty involved in business decisions."</p><p> ^nqoau;a ;Srlhka iska jHdmdr ;SrK .ekSf ie,iq lsug" md,khg iy</p><p> wjodku wju lsug ixLHdkh Nd; lrhs'&amp;</p><p>y my; i|yka m%Yakj,g ms</p></li><li><p>4ksmqK;d ugu 1 ' 2 (jHdmdr lafIa;%h ;=&lt; ixLHdkfhys odhl;ajh Yaf,aIKh lrhs'</p><p>ld,fo ixLHdj ( 06</p><p>bf.kq M, (y ixLHdkh jHdmdr lafIa;%hg jeo.;a jk wjia:d m%ldY lrhs'y ixLHdkh ;=&lt; fhdod .kq ,nk Ys,amSh l%u k lrhs'y jHdmdr wjia:djkag iqiq ixLHdk Ys,am l%u ksjerj .</p></li><li><p>5y my; i|yka lreKq u;= lrka idlPdjla fufyhjkak'y oYkh jQ mska;+rj,ska m%;sY; w.hka" l%udkql+, j f.dvke.=Kq f.dvke.s,a,la"</p><p>m%ia;drhla" j.=jla oDYHudk jk nj'</p><p>y oDYHudk jQ rEmigyka O Ys,amSh l%u u; bm;a lr we;s nj'y tajdfha l%udkql+, njla fuka u is;a weo .kakd iq njla o mj;sk nj'y jHdmdl lghq;=j, m%.;sh iudf,dapkh lsug fuu igyka Nd; lrk nj'y tjeks igyka iy rEmigyka o" ixLHd;aul kq o f.dvke.Su ;=</p></li><li><p>Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y jHdmdr lafIa;%fha my; wjia:dj, ;SrK .ekSu i|yd ixLHdk Ys,amSh l%u fhdod</p><p>.kshs'</p><p>y wjia:dy wf, mfhaIK ilaIKy kj m%jK;d yd mqfrdal:ky ie,iq lsu yd ;;a;aj md,khy msjehlrKh yd .Kkhy udkj im;a l</p></li><li><p>7wNHdih 1</p><p>1' jHdmdr lghq;=j, ixLHdkh fhdod.; yels wji:d olajka ta tla tla wjia:dj,</p><p> Nd; l&lt; yels ixLHdk Ys,amSh l%u i|yka lrkak'</p><p>2' ixLHdk oHdf Nd; lrk my; i|yka fh flfhka ia;r lrkak'</p><p>i. ia;rd;aul ixLHdkh yd wkq;sl ixLHdkhii. ix.ykh iy kshehiii. ilaIK yd mlaIKiv. ,dlaIKslhv. p,Hh</p><p>3' " iEu oHdjla i|yd u ixLHdkh wksjdh f'" by; m%ldYfha i;H wi;H;djolajd Tf ms</p></li><li><p>8ksm qK;dj 2'0 ( jHdmdr f;dr;=re /ialr ikaksfokh lrhs'ksmqK;d ugu 2 ' 1 ( O uQ,dY% fhdod .kska o;a; /ia lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 15</p><p>bf.kq M,y jHdmdl o;a; O wdldrj,g j. lrhs'y m%d:l yd oa;shsl o;a; uQ,dY% ykajd foka tajdfha jdis iy wjdis u;=lr olajhs'y m%d:l o;a; uQ,dY% u.ska o;a; /ia lsu i|yd O WmlrK ksudKh lrhs'y j.SlrK m%fNao i,ld n,ka fhda.H;u m%fNaoh f;darhs'y wksYa;;dj wju lr .ekSu i|yd ie,iq ilihs'</p><p>bf.kq- b.eka ls%hdj,sh (msiquy f;a ludka;fha kshef,k llrejkaf.a jk hou ms</p></li><li><p>9y flgqm;a l&lt; m%Yakdj,sh$ Wmf,aLkh o;a; /ia lsug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk wh w;=frka lsysmfofkl=g ,nd ksjer m%;spdr ,ef hs mlaId lrkak' ^mQj mlaIdj is</p><p> lrkak'&amp;</p><p>y ,efnk m%;spdr mok lrf.k m%Yakdj,sh$ Wmf,aLkh kej; ixfYdaOkh lrkak'y ixfYda; m%Yakdj,sh bm;a lrkak'y ix.Kkh yd kshe ilaIKh w;r fjki myokak'y Tf wkdjrK ksudKYS,Sj yd iduQysl j iuia; mka;shg bm;a lsug iQodk</p><p>jkak'</p><p>Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y tla/ia lrkq ,nk o;a; m%d:l- oa;shsl" m%udKd;aul- .=Kd;aul" wNHka;r- ndysr</p><p>f,i j. l&lt; yels nj'</p><p>y wruqKg wod&lt; j uq,ajrg ,nd .kakd o;a; m%d:l o;a; nj'y m%d:l o;a; fndfyda g YajdikSh;ajfhka by&lt; h yels w;r" hdj;ald,Sk o jk nj'</p><p>y uqs; fyda oHq;a yd bf,lafg%daksl udOHj,ska o o;a; /ia l&lt; yels w;r tajdieug u oa;shsl o;a; jk nj'</p><p>Wod( wka;cd,h</p><p>y oa;shsl o;a; ,nd .ekSu myiq yd blauka jqjo iuyrg hdj;ald,Sk fkdjk nj'y o;a; /ia lsf O l%uj, jdis yd wjdis .</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>ksmqK;d ugu 2'2 ( jHdmdr o;a; ixOdkh lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 15</p><p>bf.kq M, (y o;a; je,a yd jDka; m;% igyka ms</p></li><li><p>11</p><p>bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia (y my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka Tjqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkaky o;a; ixOdkh l&lt; yels my; i|yka l%uj,ska Tf lKavdhug ,efnk l%uh flfrys</p><p>wjOdkh fhduq lrkak'</p><p>y iuqys; ixLHd; jHdma;shy idfmalaI ixLHd; jHdma;shy .=rejrhd$ .=rejh iska imhkq ,nk ly,l fiajlhska 100la miq.sh udih ;=q Nd;fhka .Kkh ir, lr.; yels nj'</p><p>=</p><p>=n</p><p>jjLogn</p><p>G1</p><p>1log</p><p>y rdYSka foll wkqmd; uska lafjk wiudk yrhka iys; p,Hhkays idudkHksrEmKh lsug yrd;aul uOHkH iqiq jk nj'</p><p>y ta i|yd my; iQ;%h fhdod.; yels nj'</p><p>==</p><p>n</p><p>iix</p><p>nH</p><p>1</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>38</p><p>ksmqK;d ugu 3'3 ( idfmalaI msysf Kq Nd;fhka o;a;j, msysu .%y lrhs'</p><p>ld,fo ixLHdj ( 12</p><p>bf.kq M,y ifmalaI msysf Kq k lrhs'y o;a; msysu idfmalaI Kq weiqka ia;r lrhs'y jHdma;shl iajrEmh ykd .ekSug p;=:l" oYul iy m%;sY;l Nd; lrhs'y mlaIKhl ,l=Kq wdYs%; j ;udg ysjk ia:dkh uekka jgyd .kshs'y iudcfha ;udg ysjk ;ek wka wh iu .</p></li><li><p>39</p><p>y Tf wkdjrK ksudKYS,Sj o" iduQyslj o fldgq fl igykla weiqka o iuia;mka;shg bm;a lsug iQodk jkak'</p><p>Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y o;a; je,la iudk fldgia y;rlg fnfok ia:dk ;=fka w.h p;=:l f,i ykajk</p><p>nj'</p><p>y tajd 321 ,, QQQ jYfhka wxlkh lrk nj'y o;a; je,la iudk fldgia oyhlg fnfok w.hka" kjh oYul f,i ykajk nj'y tajd 9321 ..........,, DDDD jYfhka wxlkh lrk nj'y o;a;je,la iudk fldgia ishhlg fnfok w.hka wkQkjh m%;sY;l f,i ykajk</p><p>nj'</p><p>y tajd 99321 ..........,, pppp jYfhka wxlkh lrk nj'y idfmalaI msysf Kq ,nd .ekSu i|yd my; wdldrfha iQ;% fhdod.; yels nj'</p><p>CF</p><p>FLQ</p><p>CF</p><p>FLQ</p><p>CF</p><p>FLQ</p><p>Q</p><p>n</p><p>Q</p><p>n</p><p>Q</p><p>n</p><p>c</p><p>c</p><p>c</p><p> +=</p><p> +=</p><p> +=</p><p>3</p><p>43</p><p>13</p><p>2</p><p>42</p><p>12</p><p>411</p><p>1</p><p>y fldgq fl igykla weiqka idfmalaI msysf Kq .Kkh l&lt; yels nj'</p><p>CFp</p><p>FLp</p><p>CFp</p><p>FLp</p><p>CFp</p><p>FLP</p><p>CFd</p><p>FLD</p><p>CFd</p><p>FLD</p><p>CFd</p><p>FLD</p><p>c</p><p>c</p><p>c</p><p>c</p><p>c</p><p>c</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p> +=</p><p> +=</p><p> +=</p><p> +=</p><p> +=</p><p> +=</p><p>90</p><p>10090</p><p>90</p><p>50</p><p>1050</p><p>50</p><p>10</p><p>10010</p><p>8</p><p>108</p><p>8</p><p>5</p><p>105</p><p>1</p><p>10</p><p>1</p><p>1</p><p>110</p><p>1</p><p>15</p><p>11</p></li><li><p>40</p><p>ksmqK;d ugu 3'4 ( jHdmdr o;a; wmlsrK Kq u.ska Yaf,aIKh lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 16</p><p>bf.kq M,y o;a; iuQyhl wmlsrK Kq k lr W; iQ;% brsm;a lrhs'y ;SrK .ekSu i|yd O wmlsrK Kq .Kkh lrhs'y idfmalaI wmlsrK Kq fhdodf.k o;a; iuQyj, me;srSu ikaikaokh lrhs'y p,Hhka ksjerj weia;fka;= lr fydka ;SrK .kshs'y uOHl Kq jvd;aa w:j;a lsu i|yd wmlsrK Kq Nd; lrhs'</p><p>bf.kq- b.eka ls%hdj,sh (msiquy tlsfklg fjkia Wiska hq;= isiqka 7 fofkl= mka;sh bhg le|jkak'y Wfiys wkqms</p></li><li><p>41</p><p>Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la (y o;a; iuQyhl isu ykd .ekSug wmlsrK Kq wjYH jk nj'y mrdih o;a; je,l ueo w.hla ie,ls,a,g fkd.kakd Kqula fnj'y wka; p;=:l mrdih iy wO wka; p;=:l mrdih ^ p;=:l wm.ukh&amp; jHdma;shl</p><p>we;s o;a;j,ska 50] wmlsrKh muKla ksrEmKh lrk nj'</p><p>y o;a; iuQyhl uOHkHfhys isg tla tla o;a;hg we;s ksrfmalaI wm.ukhkaf.a idudkHhuOHkHh wm.ukh jk nj'</p><p>y tla tla w.hfhys isg uOHkHhg we;s wm.uk j.hkaf.a idudkHh " p,;dj" jknj'</p><p>y p,;djfha j.uQ,fhys Ok w.h iu; wm.ukh jk nj'y ksrfmalaI wmlsrKh uOHkHhg idfmalaI j bm;a l&lt; g th idfmalaI wmlsrK</p><p>Kqula jk nj'</p><p>y jHdma;Skays wmlsrKhla ieiug fhdod.; hq;af;a idfmalaI wmlsrK Kq nj ydth iu; wm.uk ix.=Klh yd p,kh ix.=Klh jk nj'</p><p>y iu; wm.uk ix.=Klfha m%;sY; w.h p,k ix.=Klh jk nj'y iu; wm.uk ix.=Klh yd p,kh ix.=Klh tall j,ska iajdh;a; neka o;a; ldKAv lsysmhl p,kh ieiu myiqjk nj</p><p>y by; i|yka wmlsrK Kq ish,a, iuqys; jHdma;s i|yd o .Kkh l&lt; yels nj'y wmlsrK Kq .Kkh lsu i|yd my; iQ;% fhdod.; yels nj'</p><p>mrdih } ixLHd iuQyfha jeu w.h - ixLHd iuQyfha wvqu w.h</p><p> R = H - L</p><p>wO wka; p;=:l mrdih</p><p>^p;=:l wm.ukh&amp;</p><p>uOHkH wm.ukh</p><p>wiuqys; o;a; i|yd</p><p>iuQys; o;a; i|yd</p><p>213 QQ =</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>k</p><p>ii</p><p>k</p><p>ii</p><p>n</p><p>ii</p><p>f</p><p>XXfiMD</p><p>n</p><p>XXMD</p><p>1</p><p>1</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>42</p><p>p,;djh - ^S2&amp;</p><p>iu; wm.ukh - ^S&amp;p,;djfha j.uQ,h iu; wm.ukh f'</p><p>ksmqK;d ugu 3'5 (jHdmdr o;a; l=l;dj iy jlS%u Kq u.ska Yaf,aIKh lrhs'</p><p>wiuqys; o;a; i|yd</p><p>iuqys; o;a; i|yd</p><p> kslaIs; o;a; ta weiqka u</p><p>Wml,ams; uOHkH weiqka</p><p>fla;k l%uh Nd;fhka</p><p>Cdu</p><p>Cfi</p><p>fiufi</p><p>fiuS</p><p>AXd</p><p>fifidi</p><p>fifidi</p><p>S</p><p>fiXXfi</p><p>S</p><p>nXX</p><p>S</p><p>ii</p><p>ii</p><p>ii</p><p>i</p><p>i</p><p>/</p><p>)(</p><p>)(</p><p>222</p><p>2</p><p>222</p><p>22</p><p>22</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p></li><li><p>43</p><p>ld,fo ixLHdj ( 06</p><p>bf.kq M, (((((y l=l;dj iy jlS%uh Kq k lr meye,s lrhs'y jHdma;sj, iajrEmh wkqj l=l;dj yd jlS%uh fhdod .kakd wdldrh ia;r lrhs'y l=l;dj yd jlS%uh Kq .Kkh lrhs'y m%dfhda.sl p,Hhkays iu;sl" wiu;sl iajrEmhka ms</p></li><li><p>44</p><p>y A wdh;kfha je fofkl= wvq jegqma ,nk njy tjeks iajrEmhla ykajkq ,nkafka Ok l=l;djla f,i nj'y B wdh;kfha je fofkl= je jegqma ,nk nj'y tjeks iajrEmhla y+kajkq ,nkafka iDK l=l;djla f,i hy C, D yd E wdh;k" jegqma jHdma;sj, fYaI keUqrejla olakg fkdue;s nj'y tu iajNdjh " iu;sl iajrEmh" jk nj'y iu;sl iajrEmhkays o O;d we;s nj'y jHdma;shl uqka jf m%udKh jlS%uh f,i yekafjk nj'</p><p>bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia (y my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka isiqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkaky my; i|yka jHdmdr wdh;k ;=fka ffoksl l=Kqj,ska Tf lKavdhug ,efnk</p><p>jHdmdr wdh;kh ffoksl l=Kq flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lrkak'</p><p> l=Kq jkdlu l=Kq jkdlu l=Kq jkdlu l=Kq jkdlu l=Kq jkdlu k .Kk k .Kk k .Kk k .Kk k .Kk</p><p>^remsh,a^remsh,a^remsh,a^remsh,a^remsh,a oyia&amp;oyia&amp;oyia&amp;oyia&amp;oyia&amp; A B C10 - 20 5 26 4</p><p>20 - 30 10 30 5</p><p>30 - 40 20 20 8</p><p>40 - 50 30 10 10</p><p>50 - 60 20 8 23</p><p>60 - 70 10 4 32</p><p>70 - 80 5 2 18</p><p> 100 100 100</p><p>y jHdmdrfha ffoksl l=Kq ms</p></li><li><p>45</p><p>;=kajk p;=:lh )( 3Q 55 39'5 67'81</p><p>10 jk m%;sY;lh )( 10P 25 13'84 31'25</p><p>90 jk m%;sY;lh )( 90P 65 55 74'44iu; wm.ukh )(S 14'5 15'2 15'9</p><p>l=l;d ix.=Klh</p><p>( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )109021 501090</p><p>21</p><p>213</p><p>2</p><p>21</p><p>2</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>43</p><p>PPPPPSK</p><p>QQQQQSK</p><p>SMdxSK</p><p>SMxSK</p><p>p</p><p>Q</p><p>+=</p><p>+=</p><p>=</p><p>=</p><p>jlS%u Kqu1090</p><p>1321 )(</p><p>PPQQK </p><p>=</p><p>y Tng wod&lt; jHdma;sfha cd, fLh ksudKh lrkak'y tys iajrEmh ms&gt; nj'y iDK l=l jHDdma;shl 0MMX d </p></li><li><p>46</p><p>y iDK l=l jHdma;shl 2312 QQQQ &gt; jk nj'y iu;sl jHdma;shl iajrEmh ixLHd;aul j m%ldY lsug jlS%u ix.=Klh fhdod.;</p><p>yels nj'</p><p>y jlS%u ix.=Klh 0263 k th iu jls%uhla (Mesokurtic) jk nj'y jlS%u ix.=Klh 0'263g je jk l+g jlS%uhla (Leptokurtic) f,i yekafjk nj'y jlS%u ix.=Klh 0'263g wvq jk g "msg" jls%uhla (Platykurtic) f,i yekafjk</p><p>nj'</p></li><li><p>47</p><p>ksm qK;dj 4'0 ( p,H w;r mj;sk inkaO;d .fIKh lrka mqfrdal:kh lrhs'</p><p>ksmqK;d ugu 4'1 ( p,H wdldr ksYaph lrhs'ld,fo ixLHdj ( 02</p><p>bf.kq M, iajdh;a;" mrdh;a; jYfhka p,Hhka w;r fjkial u;= lrhs'</p><p> kEu p,Hhla wjia:dj wkqj iajdh;a; fyda mrdh;a; h yels nj WodrK u.ska</p><p>meye,s lrhs'</p><p> is ;s;a igyk wOHhkh lrka p,H i|yd iqiq wlaI f;darhs'</p><p> w:l:kh myiq lr .ekSug kslaIK fhdod .kshs'</p><p> wjia:dfjda;j ksjerosj f;a lrhs'</p><p>bf.kq- b.eka ls%hdj,sh (msiqu l=Kq , hk moh mqjref f,dl= wl=rska ,shkak'</p><p> l=Kq , ;SrKh ug n,mdk p,H iy l=Kq , u; ;SrKh jk p,H</p><p>ykdf.k l=Kq ,g wE|Sug isiqkag wjia:dj fokak</p><p> my; wdldrfha igykla f.dvk.d f.k bka Tfnys we;s lreKq u;= lrka</p><p>idlPdjla fufyhjkak'</p><p>wuq jH , iemhq m%udKh</p><p>l=Kq , b,a m%udKh</p><p>jegqma l=Kq m%udKh</p><p> jmi oelafjk p,Hh fjkia jk g l=Kq , fjkia jk nj'</p><p> l=Kq , fjkia jk g ol=Kq mi p,Hh fjkia jk nj'</p><p> tla p,Hhla u; ;j;a p,Hhla fjkiau O wdldrfhka ish yels w;r" fjd</p><p>m%ia;dlj o ksrEmKh l&lt; yels nj'</p></li><li><p>48</p><p>bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia ( my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka isiqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkak</p><p> my; i|yka isrs ;s;a igyka ;=fkka Tf lKavdhug ,efnk igyk fj; wjOdkh</p><p>fhduq lrkak'</p><p> tu igykg w,j my; i|yka ldhhka ys ksr; jkak'</p><p> m%ia;drfha iajNdjh uYkh lrkak'</p><p> x wCIhg yd y wCIhg .e</p></li><li><p>49</p><p>(1) (2)(3)</p><p>(4) (5)</p><p>ksm qK;d uguksm qK;d uguksm qK;d uguksm qK;d uguksm qK;d ugu 4 ' 24 ' 24 ' 24 ' 24 ' 2 ((((( isrs ;s;a igyka ksrSCIKh lsrSfuka inkaO;d wdldr ksYaph lrhs</p><p>ld,fo ixLHdj ( 02</p><p>bf.kq M,y we;s kslaIK iuQy fhdod .kska is ;s;a igyka ksudKh lrhs'y wk ,o is ;s;a igyk wOHhkh lr p,H fol w;r mj;sk fh inkaO;d</p><p>jrKh lrhs'</p><p>y tu fh inkaO;djh fyda thg wdikak fjkia fh inkaO;d mj;sk p,Hbm;a lrhs'</p><p>y kslaIK ;=</p></li><li><p>50</p><p>bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia ( my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka isiqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkak</p><p> Tf lKavdhug ,efnk jHdmdl o;a; we;=</p></li><li><p>51</p><p>Ih lreKq meye,s lr .ekSug w;aje,la ( O inkaO;d j. ykd .ekSug is ;s;a igyka fhod .; yels nj'</p><p> is ;s;a igyka u.ska ykd .kakd fh inkaO;d" Ok inkaO;d fyda iDK</p><p>inkaO;d h yels nj'</p><p> mQK fh fjkqjg fndfyda g ykd .; yelafla m%n, fyda n, fh inkaO;d</p><p>nj'</p><p> iyinkaO;d fkdmj;sk wjia:d o fujeks is ;s;a igyk u.ska ykd .; yels</p><p>w;r" tajd Yaf,aIK i\yd fhdod .; fkdyels nj'</p></li><li><p>52</p><p>ksmqK;d ugu 4'3( p,H folla Yaf,aIKhg iyinkaO;d ixl,amh Nd;lrhs'</p><p>ld,fo ixLHdj ( 02</p><p>bf.kq M,y fokq ,nk p,Hhka m%udKd;aul yd .=Kd;aul f,i j. lrhs'y p,H folla w;r iyinkaO;df Ydj yd tys m%n,;ajh kslaIKfhka fyda is;s;a</p><p>igyka Nd;fhka m%ldY lrhs'</p><p>y p,H folla w;r mj;sk iyinkaO;dfjys m%n, nj fyda n, nj o&lt; jYfhkaixLHd;aul j m%ldY lrhs'</p><p>y o;a; hq., kslaIKh lsfuka ;SrK .kshs'y ldhhka myiq lr .ekSug iyinka; p,Hhka Nd; lrhs'</p><p>bf.kq- b.eka ls%hdj,sh (msiquy my; i|yka mqj;am;a isia;, mka;sh bfha m%oYkh lrkak'</p><p>mqj;am;a isria ;,</p><p>y i,a , by</p></li><li><p>53</p><p>y p,H folla w;r O wdldrfha iyinkaO;d ;sfnk nj'bf.kqu i|yd fhda; Wmfoia (y my; i|yka j.= lKavdh j,g fnod ta ms</p></li><li><p>54</p><p>j.= wxl 5j.= wxl 5j.= wxl 5j.= wxl 5j.= wxl 5</p><p>wdh;khl ldh uKav,fha fiajd</p><p>ld,h iy ,nk udisl jegqm</p><p>fiajd ld,h ^wjq&amp; udisl jegqm^re oyia&amp;</p><p> 10 12</p><p>8 20</p><p>7 7</p><p>8 6</p><p> 12 8</p><p> 15 18</p><p>j.= wxl 6j.= wxl 6j.= wxl 6j.= wxl 6j.= wxl 6</p><p>cE ksIamdok wdh;k myl cE l=Kq , yd udisl l=Kq m%udK</p><p>wdh;k , ^re&amp; udisl l=Kq ^oyia&amp;</p><p>A 90 60B 85 80C 92 60D 95 50E 88 48</p><p>j.= wxl 4j.= wxl 4j.= wxl 4j.= wxl 4j.= wxl 4</p><p>wdh;khla hka;% w;ajehdjg fhojQ</p><p>fiajl ixLHdj iy thg .;jQ ld,h</p><p> fiajl ixLHdj .;jQ ld,h</p><p>12 3</p><p> 6 6</p><p> 9 4</p></li><li><p>55</p><p>j.= wxl 7j.= wxl 7j.= wxl 7j.= wxl 7j.= wxl 7</p><p>wdh;klhl hka;% kv;a;= msjeh iy hdka;s %l fodaI we;s jQ jdr .Kk</p><p> kv;a;= msjeh hdka;s%l fodaI</p><p> ^re' oyia&amp; we;s jQ jdr .Kk</p><p>25 2</p><p>12 3</p><p>20 1</p><p>18 2</p><p>23 2</p><p>28 1</p><p>y my; i|yka Wmfoia isiqkag ,nd foka isiqka bf.kqfuys fhdojkaky...</p></li></ul>