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- , , : .12-1 .. : .. 20061. 2. 3 6 9 11 173. 4. . . . . . .. - 217 101900 . 12 -11. 17 7711235 1. 2 (.1) , , . 2. 2, , , 1 2 Y0 / . 2. / 8000U 10co s0,9Xd ..0,147Xd ..0,257Xd ..2,19X2 ..0,176X0 ..0,067R ..0,007K30,8Td0 6,06Td 0,71Td 0,088Ta 0,107Tj 8 / 800U 10cos0,95 ...0,8 ...2,4j c3R ...0,0071 -1, -2 -25000-110/10 S 25 U 115 U 10,5 , 120 U % 10,5 -1, -2 -150/24 25 R / 0,198 / 0,42 . . 3 ( 1) . . . 1. . . 4Uc = const 115 9 10122781 5 Ic 10 1 2 326 10 IIc 4.1 . . 52. : , . (.1) . S = 100 . 110 UI = 110 , I I = S 3 U I = 100 = 0,525 ; 3 110Z I =2 U I 110 2 = = 121 . S 100 :kI = U TI U TI HH = 115 = 10,95; 10,5U II = I IIU I 110 = = 10,05 ; kTI 10,95 S 100 = = = 5,75 ; 3 U II 3 10,052 U II 10,05 2 = = = 1,01 . S 100Z II : P = 8 ,S = P 8 = = 8,89 ; cos 0,9sin = 1 cos 2 = 1 0,9 2 = 0,44 ; Q = S sin = 8,89 0,44 = 3,91 .: X d = X d 2 U S 0,147 =Z II Xd 2 U S 10 2 8,89 ; = 1,64 1,01 X d =Z II10 2 0,257 8,89 ; = = 2,86 1,01 2,19 = 10 2 ; 8,89 = 24,39 1,01X d2 U Xd S = Z II . . 6X2 X 2 =2 U S Z II10 2 0,176 8,89 ; = = 1,96 1,012 U 10 2 R 0,007 S 8,89 . R = = = 0,08 Z II 1,01: U2 Q U2 P U X d + X d S U S U E q = U II2 2 2 2= 10 2 3,91 10 2 8 10 0,147 + 0,147 8,89 10 8,89 10 = = 0,94. 10,05 : P =0,8 ,S = P 0,8 = = 0,89 ; cos 0,9sin = 1 cos 2 = 1 0,9 2 = 0,44 ; Q = S sin = 0,89 0,44 = 0,39 .:1 X = k 2 U S Z II =1 10 2 ; 5 0,89 = = 22,25 1,01 0,0071 10 2 0,89 ; = 0,79 1,01 0,89 1 10 2 10 0,44 . 3 10 5 0,89 = = 0,94 10,05R 2 U R S = Z II:U E = S 3 U 1 k 2 U sin S U II: X T2 U % U T 1 10,5 115 2 100% S ; = = 100 10 = 1,15 Z I 121 . . 72 P U T 1 120 10 3 115 2 S S 10 10 = 0,13 . RT = = Z I 121 : /1, . 12-2, .301 - X 0 X 1 = 4,7 . X = X l Z I = 0,42 25 = 0,09 , 121X 0 = X R X0 = 0,09 4,7 = 0,41 , X1 R l 0,198 25 = = = 0,04 . Z I 121 : , :EC = EC 115 = = 1,05 . U I 110 . . 83. 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 .2 .2 . 2 , . 0. : = *, 1 = 2 = ``q*, 1 = 2 = ``*, 1 = 2 = *, 1 = 2 = ``d*, A1 = A2 = A*. (.3):E1 E2 1 I1 2 I2E I.3 : = 1,05,X 1 = X 2 = X + + E1 = E 2 = + = 1,15 + 0,09 + = 22,25 1,64 = 2,77, 22,25 + 1,64E + + 0,94 1,64 + 0,94 22,25 = 0,94. 22,25 + 1,64 . . 9 : I = I 1 + I 2 , E1 0,94 = = 0,34 , X 1 2,77 E 0,94 I2 = 2 = = 0,34 , X 2 2,77 = ( I 1 + I 2 ) I 1 = (0,34 + 0,34) 0,525 = 0,36 . I1 =I X ( R =0 ) T = , R ( X =0 ) :R1 = R2 = R + R + R R* R + R* = 0,04 + 0,13 + 0,79 0,08 = 0,24. 0,79 + 0,08 ( = 314 /):T1 = T 2 = X1 2,77 = = 0,037 . R1 314 0,24 i 1 = i 20 , 01 0 , 01 E1 2 1 + e T1 I = 0,94 2 1 + e 0, 037 0,525 = 0,44 . = I X1 2,77 0, 01 0 , 01 I = I 1 ( I 1 + I 2 ) + 2 I 1 e T1 + 2 I 2 e T 2 = 2 0 , 01 0, 01 2 0,34 e 0,037 + 2 0,34 e 0,037 = 0,525 . = 0,525 ( 0,34 + 0,34 ) + 2 2 24. . . 11 10 11 11 21 21 11 11 12 12 12 12 U1 11 11 .4 : C = C*, 11 = 12 = ``q*, 11 = 12 = ``*, 11 = 12 = *, 11 = 12 = *, 11 = 12 = ``d*, A11 = A12 = A*. .4 (.5) :E 11= E 12=E 11 11 + 11 11 11 + 11=0,94 1,64 + 0,94 22,25 = 0,94 , 22,25 + 1,64 11= 12= 11 + 11 + 12 + 11 11 11 + 1112= 1,15 + 0,09 +22,25 1,64 = 2,77 , 22,25 + 1,64E1 =E 11 112211 + 12 11 1 = 11 + 1=0,94 2,77 + 0,94 2,77 = 0,94 , 2,77 + 2,77 = 2,77 2,77 = 1,39 . 2,77 + 2,77221 U1 . . 12.5 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 U2 21.6 : 21 = 22 = *, 21 = 22 = *, 21 = 22 = 2*, A21 = A22 = A*. .6 (.7) :2 U2.7 21 + 21 + 21 21 22 + 22 + 22 22 21 + 21 22 + 22 = 2 = 21 + 21 + 21 21 + 22 + 22 + 22 22 21 + 21 22 + 22 22,25 1,96 22,25 1,96 1,15 + 0,09 + 1,15 + 0,09 + 22,25 + 1,96 22,25 + 1,96 = = 1,52. 22,25 1,96 22,25 1,96 1,15 + 0,09 + + 1,15 + 0,09 + 22,25 + 1,96 22,25 + 1,96 01 02 01 02 UK0.8 : 01 = 01 = 0*, 02 = 02 = *, .8 (.9) :0 =( 01 + 01 ) ( 02 + 02 ) = (1,15 + 0,41) (1,15 + 0,41) = 0,78 . ( 01 + 01 ) + ( 02 + 02 ) (1,15 + 0,41) + (1,15 + 0,41)0UK0.9 : . . 14 13I KA1 + I KA 2 + I K 0 = 0 , 1 U KA1 = U KA 2 = U KA 0 = U KA , 3I KA1 = E1 X X j X 1 + 2 0 X 2 + X 0 I KA1 = I KA1 I I = j 0,49 0,525 = j 0,26 , X 2 1,52 I K 0 = I KA1* = ( j 0,49) = j 0,66 , X 2 + X 0 1,52 + 0,78 I K 0 = I K 0 I I = j 0,66 0,525 = j 0,21 , X 0 0,78 I KA 2 = I KA1* = ( j 0,26) = j 0,09 , X 2 + X 0 1,52 + 0,78 I KA 2 = I KA 2 I I = j 0,09 0,525 = j 0,05 , X X 1,52 0,78 U KA1* = I KA1* j 2 0 = j 0,49 j = 0,25 , X 2 + X 0 1,52 + 0,78 U KA1 = U KA1* U I = 0,25 110 = 27,5 . I = 3 I K 0 = 3 j 0,35 = j1,05 . = 0,94 = j 0,49 1,52 0,78 , j 1,39 + 1,52 + 0,78 : I KA = I KA1 + I KA 2 + I K 0 = j 0,26 + j 0,05 + j 0,21 = 0 , I KB = I KA1 a 2 + I KA 2 a + I K 0 = j 0,26 e j120 + j 0,05 e j120 + j 0,21 = 0,41e j 40, 4 , I KC = I KA1 a + I KA 2 a 2 + I K 0 = j 0,26 e j120 + j 0,05 e j120 + j 0,21 = 0,41e j 40, 4 , U KA = 3 U KA1 = 3 27,5 = 82,5 ,U KB = U KA1 a 2 + U KA 2 a + U K 0 = 27,5 e j120 + 27,5 e j120 + 27,5 = 0 , U KC = U KA1 a + U KA 2 a 2 + U K 0 = 27,5 e j120 + 27,5 e j120 + 27,5 = 0 .0 0 0 0000000 . . 15.10 . . 16.11 . . 171. .. . . .: , 1970. 2. .. . . , 1994. 3. / . .. . .: , 1981. 4. .., .. : : . . .: , 1989.