CA Indian Religion - Department of Anthropology - UC Santa ... Indian  · California Indian Religion…

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<ul><li><p>California Indian California Indian Religion and Religion and World ViewWorld View</p><p>AnthAnth 131CA131CA</p><p>JohnR.JohnsonJohnR.Johnson</p><p>Ascension of Ascension of ChinigchinichChinigchinich to the starsto the stars(Jean Goodwin (Jean Goodwin AimesAimes, 1933)., 1933).</p><p>Some Common Characteristics of Some Common Characteristics of California Indian World ViewCalifornia Indian World View</p><p> Intimateknowledgeoflocalenvironmentandtribalterritory</p><p> Animism:Life,intelligence,andsupernaturalpowerattributabletoallthings</p><p> Supernaturalnatureofthelandscape Animalslivedonearthbeforepeople creatingtheearthforhumans,givingthemfire,food,etc.,evenbestowingdeath.</p><p> Owlswerespecial,oftenregardedasspeakingfromthesupernaturalworldorbeingharbingersofdeath.</p><p> Tabootomentionpersonalnames,especiallyofrecentlydeceasedrelatives.</p><p>Aspects of California Indian Religious LifeAspects of California Indian Religious Life1. CustomaryObservancesbyIndividuals Death(purification,mourning,cuttinghair,burning</p><p>houseofdeceased) Menstruation(restrictionsonwomen) Food(stringentobservationsregardingdeermeat)</p><p>2. Shamanism CommunicationwithSupernaturalWorld(spirit</p><p>helpers) WomenshamansinNWCalif. BearshamansinCentralCalif. Suckingdiseaseoutofbody</p><p>3. PublicCeremonials Mourning(exceptNWCalif.,Yuki,Pomo) Initiationceremonies(comingofage) PublicandIntertribalGatherings</p><p>4. Mythology NWCalif.:supernaturalhumanrace,notanimal CentralCalif.:Truecreation,eagleaschief So.Calif.:HeavenandEarthwerefirstparents.</p><p>Culturegivers(oneofwhomdiesaftergivingbenificent directions),Migrationlegends(birdsongs)PomoDancer,Lakeport,1931</p><p>CaliforniaIndianReligiousSystems</p><p> NWCalifornia:WorldRenewal</p><p> NorthCentralCalif.:Kuksu Cult</p><p> SouthCentralCalif.:Toloache (Antap)</p><p> SouthernCalifornia:Chinigchinich Religion</p><p>ReligionReligionWorld Renewal (in NW California)World Renewal (in NW California)</p><p> Rituals to ensure Rituals to ensure abundance of food, prevent abundance of food, prevent disease, and avoid disease, and avoid unfavorable natural events.unfavorable natural events.</p><p> Two important ritualsTwo important rituals Jumping DanceJumping Dance White Deerskin DanceWhite Deerskin Dance</p><p> The most important dances The most important dances occurred when a fish weir occurred when a fish weir was rebuilt or a house was was rebuilt or a house was constructed.constructed.</p><p> The wealthy would display The wealthy would display wealth during these wealth during these ceremonies.ceremonies.</p><p>JumpingDance,Hupa,1903</p><p>WhiteDeerSkinDance,Hupa,1893</p><p>NorthwestCalifornia</p><p>CaptainJohn,Hupa Hupa ManwithWhiteDearskin YurokWoman</p></li><li><p>Regalia from NW CoastRegalia from NW Coast</p><p>Jump Dance HeadbandJump Dance Headband Yurok Dress DetailYurok Dress Detail</p><p>Jump Dance BasketJump Dance Basket</p><p>KuksuKuksu Religious ComplexReligious Complex(in North Central California)(in North Central California)</p><p> Dancers become spirits who Dancers become spirits who come to a village to bring wellcome to a village to bring well--being.being.</p><p> Dancers were members of a Dancers were members of a menmens secret society, and their s secret society, and their identity while dancing apparently identity while dancing apparently was unknown to the audience.was unknown to the audience.</p><p> Dances take place in Dances take place in roundhouses.roundhouses.</p><p>DanceheaddressesofcentralCalifornia,paintingbyLouisChoris,1816</p><p>Big HeadBig Head dancers, dancers, WintuWintu or Maidu, 1910or Maidu, 1910</p><p>KuksuKuksu Religious ComplexReligious Complex(in central California)(in central California)</p><p>Pomo Pomo KuksuKuksu Dancers in RoundhouseDancers in RoundhouseWintuWintu RoundhouseRoundhouse</p><p>Rafael Solares 1878</p><p>AntapAntap ReligionReligion(Chumash)(Chumash)</p><p> The antap secretsocietyconsistedofelitegroupofpoliticalandreligiousleaders.</p><p> Memberswereexpectedtocontributemoneyfortheprivilegeofbeingintheassociation.</p><p> Theantap conductedritualsanddancesatmajorceremonies.</p><p> antap ritualswereconductedtomaintaincosmicbalance.</p><p> Chumashrockpaintingsarebelievedtobecreatedbyantap.</p><p>Joe Talaugon at Painted Cave (CA-SBA-506) </p><p>Importance of the Winter Solstice to Chumash Peoples and Their Neighbors</p><p>Sun Pole (drawing by </p><p>Malcolm Farmer)</p><p> Candelaria Valenzuela spoke of an elder named Tomas Cora who observed the sun rise over the eastern horizon to determine the time to observe the winter solstice ceremony.</p><p> Mara Solares noted that the new year began at the winter solstice: For us the new year was at night.</p><p> Fernando Librado described the solstice ceremony as the most important conducted throughout the year. It was when the suns brilliance begins.</p><p> The Kitanemuk referred to both the winter and summer solstices as when the sun retraces its path.</p></li><li><p>Winter Solstice Ceremony</p><p>The Ventureo Chumash called this stick oqshposhinash, or miwalaqsh, meaning to divide or separate in the middle. The north star was also called this. At midday the sun is opposite the north star.</p><p>Two views of sun staff found at Bowers Cave (Peabody Museum Collection)</p><p>Most Sacred Chumash Ritual Observance(conceptualized as the time when the Sun was reborn)</p><p>Pleito Creek(CA-KER-77)</p><p>Previous Interpretations:</p><p>Circular motif = schematic representation of the Universe(Hudson &amp; Underhay 1978).</p><p>Exploding human, depicting the shamans transformation (Whitley 2000).</p><p>Proposal:</p><p>Zoomorphic figure is a hierophony, representing ilhy, the guardian of the North Star, because of its significance in Chumash cosmology.</p><p>House of the Sun (CA-SBA-526) (Rick Bury photo)</p><p>Tule River Painted Cave(CA-TUL-19)</p><p>RockArtSiteswithMotifsSimilartoPleitoCreek</p><p>LuiseLuiseo ceremonial dancers consciously imitated the movement of the o ceremonial dancers consciously imitated the movement of the constellations around the North Star as they danced around the fconstellations around the North Star as they danced around the fire in their ire in their sacred enclosure (sacred enclosure (DuBoisDuBois 1908:163).1908:163).</p><p>ChinigchinichChinigchinich ReligionReligion(in Southern California)(in Southern California)</p><p>Arrived in Monterey on June Arrived in Monterey on June 6, 18066, 1806</p><p>Missionary at La PurMissionary at La Pursima, sima, 18071807--18111811</p><p>Served at San Luis Rey, Served at San Luis Rey, 18111811--18141814</p><p>Missionary at San Juan Missionary at San Juan Capistrano, 1814Capistrano, 1814--18261826</p><p> Described the Described the ChinigchinichChinigchinichReligion in the only fullReligion in the only full--length length ethnography written during the ethnography written during the Mission PeriodMission Period</p><p>Died at San Gabriel in early Died at San Gabriel in early July, 1831July, 1831</p><p>Father Father GerGernimonimo BoscanaBoscana(Franciscan Ethnographer(Franciscan Ethnographer))</p><p>Title page and illustration from Title page and illustration from ChinigchinichChinigchinich, published in , published in English Translation as an English Translation as an appendix to Alfred Robinsonappendix to Alfred Robinsons s Life in California, Life in California, 18461846</p></li><li><p>Chinigchinich ReligiousBeliefs(LuiseoandJuaneo)</p><p> EarthMother(Tomaiyowit)gavelifetoprototypesofalllivingthings.</p><p> Wiyt (culturehero)waslastofthebirthsandgreatestinpowerandknowledge.Helivedatthetimewhenanimalswerepeople.</p><p> Wiyt waspoisonedbyFrogbecauseofjealousy,andhisdeathbroughtdeathtotheworld.</p><p> ThebodyofWiyt wascremated,whichiswhytheLuiseopracticecremation.</p><p> HeroseintheskyastheMoon,andthesoulsofgreatchiefsbecamethestars.</p><p> Chinigchinich (cameafterWiyt) wasthe creatoroflawsandceremonials.</p><p> Chinigchinich createdanewclassofspiritstoenforcemoralorder.Theavengingspiritsincluderattlesnakes,spiders,bears,ravens,andstingrays.</p><p>Some Observations Pertaining to Some Observations Pertaining to California Indian Religious LifeCalifornia Indian Religious Life</p><p> Publicceremonialsandritualpracticeswereoftenlinkedtosubsistencepursuits: Scheduledbeforeorafterseasonalharvests, ConductedtopropitiateNaturetoguaranteefoodsupplies, Providedopportunitiesforsocialandeconomicexchange.</p><p> SecretSocietieswerelinkedtoelitemembersofsociety(politicalleadersandwealthyfamilies),whosemembershadaccesstospecialesotericknowledgeandmaintainedritualparaphernalia.</p><p> Mythologicalnarrativesreflectedsocialstructureandprovidedmorallessonsregardingacceptableculturalbehavior.</p></li></ul>