CAR “BLACK BOXES” - Crash Data ?· CAR “BLACK BOXES ” MYTHS, REALITIES ... insight into the…

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  • BlackBoxMyths Haight/BakerIASIU2016

    2016CollisionSafetyinstitute 1

    CAR BLACK BOXESMYTHS, REALITIES &

    FRAUD FIGHTING

    W. R. RUSTY HAIGHTSCOTT BAKER

    W. R. RUSTY HAIGHT

    Collision Safety Institute (2002-) TEEX, Texas A&M, staff

    1990-2001 NUCPS, instructor/contractor

    Recent chapter on CDR

    1285+ crash tests 1025 in the car (5/16) 170 air bag deployments Top speed: 53.8mph (86.5km/h) Top delta-V: -26mph (-42km/h)

    Guinness World Record Most Human Subject Crash Tests

    1999-present

    San Diego Police Dept. Accident Investigation Bureau to 1984 RustyHaight@collisionsafety.net

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    BLACK BOX?WHAT ARE WE REALLY TALKING ABOUT HERE?

    Flight Data Recorder vs Event Data Recorder Is there really a difference?

    Flight Data Recorder (FDR) Always recording aircraft flight data

    Event Data Recorder (EDR) Not a stand alone device May record data in passenger cars, light trucks

    and SUVs

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    IRONICALLY In the recent tragic fatal crash involving a private plane and a

    Nissan Sentra Guess which one of the involved vehicles had crash data?

    And neither had a black box but the Nissan had an EDR

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    WORDS MEAN THINGS The Airbag Control Module (ACM) is a safety

    systems control module first, and then may, if the conditions are right, have the potential to record data to an Event Data Recorder (EDR) subcomponent An ACM may also be called an Electronic

    Control Unit (ECU)

    The Event Data Recorder (EDR) is a subcomponent, a part, of an Airbag Control Module (ACM) which may record information after a crash or other physical occurrence if the conditions are right

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    WHERE DOES THE NAME EDR COME FROM? Title 49, CFR Part 563 CFR: Code of Federal Regulations NHTSA: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Event data recorder (EDR) means a device or function in a vehicle that records the vehicle's dynamic time-series data during the time period just prior to a crash event (e.g., vehicle speed vs. time) or during a crash event (e.g., delta-V vs. time), intended for retrieval after the crash event. For the purposes of this definition, the event data do not include

    audio and video data. - Emphasis added

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    SO, WHAT IS CDR? CDR is the acronym for the Bosch Crash Data Retrieval

    (CDR) Tool It does NOT stand for crash data recorder

    The Crash Data Retrieval Tool is a system of componentswhich retrieves event/crash data which may be recorded in the EDR subcomponent of certain passenger cars, light trucks and SUVs

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    Not all steps are applicable to all situations or module types

    Crash occurs & dataMAY be recorded

    to the EDR function

    Does the vehiclehave an airbag

    system?

    Y N

    There is nodata to retrieve

    Does the veh/modulehave an EDR capability??

    Y N

    Was the physical eventthe type reqd for recording?

    Y N

    Was there power at themodule to record some data?

    Using the CDR Tool, oneshould be able

    to retrieve useful data

    Y N.

    MAY BE RECORDED?

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    THE REAL POTENTIAL Despite some potential for there not being data in a given

    vehicle, there are currently more than 150 million registered vehicles on the road in North America with available data Covering more than 17 vehicle manufacturers over model years

    from 1994-2017!!

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    MAY NOT OR WILL NOT RECORD? EDR Rule #1: the systems may not record data for a number

    of reasons BUT they never record data when the cars been parked with the key off

    When the key is turned from the run position, one of the cars

    main computers tells all the others to shut down that includes the airbag control

    module. When its shut down, it cant see an event and wont

    record data

    ACM

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    MYTH VS REALITY

    CAR BLACK BOXES- MYTHS, REALITIES & FRAUD FIGHTING

    MYTH VS REALITYMYTH

    Im going to download the CDR

    Heard as a vendors proposal for retrieving data from an insureds or claimants vehicle

    From a claimants attorney wanting access to a car

    REALITY

    False

    EDR Rule #2: There is no CDR to download

    CDR is an acronym for the proper name of a tool/system

    The statement gives us good insight into the vendor or lawyers actual knowledge or understanding of the technology

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    MYTH VS REALITYMYTH

    Ive heard about that CDR (EDR, black box) stuff, its something required by Federal law, right?

    Every car has this thing, right?

    REALITY

    False

    49CFR563 is a regulation not a law and it does not require a manufacturer to have an EDR capable device

    Not every car (not even every car with an airbag) has an EDR function and not all systems work the same across all manufacturers

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    49CFR563.2 - PURPOSE 563.2 - Purpose The purpose of this part is to help ensure that EDRs record, in a

    readily usable manner, data valuable for effective crash investigations and for analysis of safety equipment performance(e.g., advanced restraint systems). These data will help provide a better understanding of the circumstances in which crashes and injuries occur and will lead to safer vehicle designs.

    - Emphasis added

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    49CFR563 DATA ELEMENTS 563.6 Requirements for vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with an EDR must meet the requirements

    specified in 563.7 for data elements, 563.8 for data format, 563.9 for data capture, 563.10 for crash test performance and survivability, and 563.11 for information in owner's manual.

    563.7 Data elements. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle

    equipped with an EDR must record all of the data elements listed in Table I, during the interval/time and at the sample rate specified in that table.

    - Emphasis added

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    49CFR563.7 TABLE I:REQUIRED DATA ELEMENTS Crash severity

    Longitudinal delta-V Maximum longitudinal delta-V Time to the maximum longitudinal

    delta-V

    Pre-crash data for up to about 5 seconds before the event

    Vehicle speed Engine throttle percentage of full

    (or accelerator pedal percentage of full)

    Service brake on or off Driver seat belt buckled or

    unbuckled

    Event relativity Whether or not there was a single

    or two connected events The time between events if there

    were 2 Ignition cycle count at the time of

    the crash and at the download

    Airbag system operation Air bag warning lamp on or off How long it took to deploy the

    drivers and right front passengers airbags

    An indication of whether or not the event record was completely recorded in the EDR after the crash

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    THERE MAY ALSO BE CONDITIONAL ELEMENTS Crash severity Lateral delta-V

    Pre-crash data for up to about 5 seconds before the event Engine RPM Roll angle ABS activity Steering input Right front passenger seat belt buckled or unbuckled Some indication of the presence or approximate size of the right

    front passenger Sometimes even information about the driver

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    DELTA-V? Many are familiar with the term from low speed crashes LIST and MIST claims often focus on estimates or sometimes

    outright guesses related to delta-V and that to injury potential

    Delta-V is a measure of the crash severity Severity is not based on impact speed EDR data objectively reports delta-V It tells us how bad the crash was for the occupants and how in

    what direction - the impact acted on the car and occupants

    Delta-V isnt about how fast youre going, its about the sudden stop at the end

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    DELTA-V? From a crash test, what would you estimate the crash severity

    to be? Remember, crash severity is not impact speed, its delta-V

    Data from the car on the left which was stopped at impact

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    DELTA-V? From a crash test, what would you estimate the crash severity

    to be? Remember, crash severity is not impact speed, its delta-V

    Data from this car which was stopped at impact

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    ACTIVE HEAD RESTRAINTS AND HOW MUCH DAMAGE?

    Data from this car, which was stopped at impact, indicates it

    received a 5mph delta-V

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    WITNESS EXPERT?OR BOTH?

    Compare the damage profiles of the two cars Can you estimate the delta-V for each? Can you estimate the impact/closing speed?

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    CROWN VIC 8WITH THE GREEN ROOF

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    CROWN VIC 9THE ALL WHITE CAR

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    MYTH VS REALITYMYTH

    There is only data for a short time before and/or after an event

    Either It doesnt remain in the

    vehicle for long

    Theres not enough recorded data to be useful or

    REALITY

    Maybe

    The data isnt simply erased after a certain number of days

    On older GM systems it can be erased by the module after a certain number of ignition cycles

    Usually about 5 seconds of various data elements captured before a crash

    And up to 0.3 seconds of the crash severity

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    MYTH VS REALITYMYTH

    I cant connect the data to my crash/event

    That ignition cycle thing is really vague

    Theres no date or time stamp

    REALITY

    Maybe

    Using ignition cycles requires a certain amount of skill and sometimes some additional investigation or analysis

    But there are other resources for some vehicles

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    CONNECTING THE DATA TO THE EVENT Most recent model vehicles report ignition cycles GM systems have been reporting ignition cycles since the 90s

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    CONNECTING THE DATA TO THE EVENT Most recent model vehicles report ignition cycles Some vehicles also report the odometer reading at the event Some vehicles may report a lifetime operation time

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    CONNECTING THE DATA TO THE EVENT Most recent model vehicles report ignition cycles Some vehicles may report an outside air temperature at event

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    HIT WHILE PARKED, UNATTENDEDOVERNIGHT? Imagine the claimants surprise after you show them the data

    and the days (and nights) weather report

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    CONNECTING THE DATA TO THE EVENT Most recent model vehicles report ignition cycles Some vehicles may report the odometer reading at the event Some vehicles might even report the date of an event From the vehicles clockso it might not be set right Or a parameter listed may not be available on that vehicle

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    CONNECTING THE DATA TO THE EVENT Most recent model vehicles report ignition cycles Some vehicles may report the odometer reading at the event Some vehicles might even report the date and time of an event From the vehicles clockso it might not be set right

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    MYTH VS REALITYMYTH

    The EDR always records data, 24/7

    Constantly monitoring where I go, where Ive been, and who is in the car with me

    REALITY

    False

    May or may not record data after an event

    Does not identify a driver or occupants

    Does not track car by GPS or some other locator system

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    WHO IS IN THE CAR WITH THE DRIVER? Some systems are relatively clearer, reporting the

    approximate minimum weight of the right front occupant

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    percentile 50th percentile adult male

    crash dummy is about 170lbs

    or greater(FMVSS208)

    WHO IS IN THE CAR WITH THE DRIVER? Some systems are relatively clear in terms of reporting

    the approximate size of the right front occupant

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    WHOS IN THE CAR? Some systems are pretty detailed

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    5th percentile adult female crash dummy

    generally110-170lbs(FMVSS208)

    STANDARDIZATION? EDR Rule #3 Although there is a NHTSA regulation in place, that doesnt mean

    theres a lot of actual standardization; data elements vary by manufacturer

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    MYTH VS REALITYMYTH

    We cant get the data because

    The vehicle is not supported for retrieval by the CDR Tool

    REALITY

    Maybe

    Not every car is going to have data

    Not every manufacturer has an easily accessible tool to retrieve the data

    However

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    49CFR563.3 - APPLICATION 563.3 Application. This part applies to the following vehicles manufactured on or

    after September 1, 2012, if they are equipped with an event data recorder: passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 3,855 kg (8,500 pounds) or less and an un-loaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg (5,500 pounds) or less

    More than 150 million registered

    vehicles with available data from 1994-2017 models!!

    - Emphasis added

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    49CFR563.12 - DATA RETRIEVAL TOOLS Each manufacturer of a motor vehicle equipped with an EDR

    shall ensure by licensing agreement or other means that a tool(s) is commercially available that is capable of accessing and retrieving the data stored in the EDR that are required by this part.

    The tool(s) shall be commercially available not later than 90 days after the first sale of the motor vehicle for purposes other than resale

    - Emphasis added

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    CDR TOOL ACCESSIBLE VEHICLES

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