CÂU HỎI ÔN TẬP QT MARKETING

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<p>CU HI N TP MARKETING 1. Th no l qun tr Marketing ? Cc trit l ca qun tr Marketing ? Qun tr marketing l qu trnh lp k hoch, v thc hin k hoch , nh gi, khuyn mi v phn phi hng ha, dch v v tng to ra s trao i vi cc nhm mc tiu, tha mn nhng mc tiu khch hng v t chc. nh ngha ny tha nhn qun tr marketing l mt qu trnh bao gm vic phn tch, lp k hoch, thc hin v kim sot. N lin quan n hng ha, dch v v tng, v da trn nim v trao i, mc ch ca n l to ra s tha mn cho cc bn hu quan. C nm quan im nh hng pht trin marketing m cc t chc thng vn dng trong hot ng marketing ca mnh Quan im sn xut: Quan im sn xut l mt trong nhng quan im ch o ngi bn lu i nht. Quan im sn xut khng nh rng ngi tiu dng s a thch nhng sn phm c bn rng ri v gi h. Nhng ngi lnh o cc t chc theo quan im sn xut phi tp trung vo vic nng cao hiu qu sn xut v m rng phm vi phn phi. Gi thit ngi tiu dng ch yu quan tm n mc sn c ca sn phm v gi h t nht cng l ng trong hai tnh hung. Th nht l khi nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton v sn phm vt qu lng cung ng, nh thng thy nhiu nc thuc th gii th ba. ngi tiu dng quan tm nhiu hn n vic kim c sn phm, ch t ch n chi tit ca n. Nhng ngi cung ng s tp trung vo vic tm cch tng sn lng. Th hai l gi thnh sn phm cao cn phi gim xung bng cch nng cao nng sut m rng th trng. Hin nay Cng ty Texas Instruments l mt v d v quan im sn xut. Quan im sn phm Quan im sn phm khng nh rng ngi tiu dng s a thch nhng sn phm c cht lng cao nht, cng dng nhiu hay c nhng tnh nng mi. Nhng ngi lnh o cc t chc theo quan im sn phm thng tp trung sc lc vo vic lm ra nhng sn phm thng hng v thng xuyn ci tin chng. Nhng ngi qun l ny cho rng ngi mua ngng m nhng sn phm p v c th nh gi c cht lng v cng dng ca sn phm. H qu say m vi sn phm ca mnh v khng lng c rng th trng c th kh chp nhn. Ban lnh o marketing tr thnh nn nhn ca o tng v chic by chut tt hn, v tin rng chic by chut tt hn s khin mi ngi x v nh h. Nhng cng ty theo quan im sn phm thng l khng hay t tnh n nhng kin ca khch hng khi thit k sn phm ca mnh. H tin tng rng cc k s ca h bit phi thit k v ci tin sn phm nh th no. Rt hay gp tnh trng l h thm ch khng nghin cu nhng sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh v chng khng c sng ch ra y. Quan im sn phm dn n cn bnh thin cn trong marketing ch ch trng n sn phm m khng tnh n nhu cu ca khch hng Quan im bn hng Quan im bn hng (hay quan im tiu th) l mt quan im chung khc c nhiu cng ty vn dng vo th trng. Quan im bn hng khng nh rng nu c yn, th ngi tiu dng thng s khng mua cc sn phm ca cng tu vi s lng kh ln. V vy t chc cn phi c nhiu n lc tiu th v khuyn mi .</p> <p>Quan im ny cho rng ngi tiu dng thng t ra c sc hay thi ngn ngi trong vic mua hng v cn c thuyt phc nh nhng th mi mua hng, nn cng ty cn c y cc cng c bn hng v khuyn mi kch thch mua hng nhiu hn. Quan im bn hng c vn dng c bit thch hp vi nhng th hng c nhu cu th ng tc l nhng th hng m ngi mua thng khng ngh n chuyn mua sm n, nh bo him, t in bch khoa ton th. Nhng ngnh ny thng hay p dng nhng bin php bn hng khc nhau pht hin nhng khch hng tim n ri bt u ni p bn hng cho h bng cch thuyt phc v nhng li ch ca sn phm. Quan im nh hng marketing Quan im marketing l mt trit l kinh doanh ang thch thc nhng quan im trc y. Nhng nguyn l trung tm ca n c hnh thnh vo gia nhng nm 1950. Quan im marketing khng nh rng, cha kho t c nhng nc tiu ca t chc l xc nh c nhng nhu cu cng mong mun ca cc th trng mc tiu v m bo mc tho mn mong mun bng nhng phng thc hu hiu v hiu qu so vi cc i th cnh tranh. Quan im bn hng tp trung vo nhng nhu cu ca ngi bn; Quan im marketing th ch trng n nhng nhu cu ca ngi mua. Quan im bn hng tm n nhu cu ca ngi bn l lm th no bin sn phm ca mnh thnh tin mt, cn quan im marketing th quan tm n tng tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng bng chnh sn phm v tt c nhng g lin quan n vic to ra, cng ng v cui cng l tiu dung sn phm . Quan im marketing da trn bn tr ct chnh l th trng mc tiu, nhu cu ca khch hng, marketing phi hp v kh nng sinh li. Quan im bn hng nhn trin vng t trong ra ngoi. N xut pht t nh my, tp trung vo nhng sn phm hin c ca cng ty v i hi phi c nhng bin php tiu th cng thng v khuyn mi m bo bn hng c li. Quan im marketing th nhn trin vng t ngoi vo trong. N xut pht t th trng c xc nh r rang, tp trung vo nhng nhu cu ca khch hng, phi hp tt c nhng hot ng no c tc ng n khch hng v to ra li nhun thng qua vic to ra s tho mn cho khch hng. Quan im marketing o c-x hi Quan im ny khng nh rng, doanh nghip khng nhng phi tho mn nhu cu v i hi ca khch hng m cn phi gi nguyn hay cng c mc sung tc cho ngi tiu dng v cho ton x hi. Quan im ny i hi mt sn phm phi tho mn c 3 yu t: 1. Li ch ca Cty 2. Li ch ca khch hng 3. Li ch ca x hi 2. Cc mc tiu ca h thng qun tr Marketing ? a. Ti a ha mc tiu dng (Maximize Consumption) Vic xc lp mc tiu ny ca marketing da trn mt gi nh l khi con ngi cng mua sm v tiu dng nhiu hn th h cng cm thy hnh phc hn.Nhng ngi lm marketing cho rng marketing to iu kin d dng v kch thch tiu dng ti a, nh s thc y sn xut, to ra nhiu cng n vic lm v em li s thnh vng ti a. Theo quan im ny th cng nhiu cng tt (more is better ). Tuy nhin nhiu ngi t ra nghi ng lun im tiu dng cng tng c ngha l con ngi cng hnh phc hn. b. Ti a ha s tha mn ca ngi tiu dng (Maximize Consumer Satisfaction)</p> <p>Theo quan im marketing, doanh nghip ch c th thnh t cc mc tiu kinh doanh ca mnh da trn nhng n lc nhm gia tng s tha mn ca khch hng. Nhng trn thc t,vic gia tng s tha mn ca khc hng lun gp phi nhng tr ngi kh vt qua do b chi phi bi nhiu yu t tc ng tri chiu nhau. Vi ngun lc gii hn, mi doanh nghip trong qu trnh kinh doanh phi c gng s dng hp l p ng yu cu ca cc nhm li ch khc nhau v vic gia tng s tha mn ca nhm ngi ny c th lm phng hi n li ch ca nhm ngi khc. Ngoi ra, vic gia tng li ch ca ngi tiu dng i hi doanh nghip phi b thm chi ph trn c s nng cao hiu qu s dng cc ngun lc, iu m khng phi bao gi cng c th thc hin c. c. Ti a ha s la chn ca ngi tiu dng (Maximize Choice) Mc tiu ny c a ra nhm gia tng s a dng ca sn phm v kh nng la chn ca ngi mua vi hm rng ngi tiu dng c nhiu kh nng hn la chn, do h c th tm mua ng loi hng no tha mn c c mun ca h, lm cho h cm thy hi lng nht. Tuy nhin, y vn c vn l gi thnh ca mn hng c th tng ln, phi mt nhiu thi gian hn kho st, nh gi cc loi sn phm cnh tranh trc khi i n mt quyt nh mua. V c nht thit s loi sn phm nhiu hn s lm tng kh nng la chn thc t khng? Mt s ngi cho rng hin nay trn th trng, mi loi hng ha c qu nhiu nhn hiu, song gia chng li c qu t s khc bit. Thm vo khi ngi ta c qu nhiu th la chn th vic la chn s tr nn kh khn hn. V th, cng vic ca ngi lm marketing l bit xc nh cc loi sn phm (product lines) c cu trc hp l v kho lo kt hp chng trong mt danh mc sn phm (product mix) nhm to c hi cho khch hng c th chn mua ng nhng g h mong mun tha mn nhu cu. d. Ti a ha cht lng cuc sng (Maximize Life Quality) Nhiu ngi cho rng, cc vn marketing s c gii quyt mt cch ton din v trit hn nu ngi lm marketing ng trn quan im marketing x hi v h thng marketing ly vic nng cao cht lng cuc sng lm mc tiu c bn cho hot ng ca mnh. Tuy nhin, cht lng cuc sng l mt tiu chun kh o lng, b chi phi bi s lng, cht lng, s sn c v gi c sn phm cng nh cht lng ca khung cnh vn ha v mi trng t nhin trong ngi ta tiu dng sn phm. Khi hoch nh chin lc marketing, cc mc tiu ny s c th hin thnh cc mc tiu c th hn : tng doanh s bn, a dng ha sn phm, dn u cht lng sn phm, tng th phn vv... 3. Th no l ngi lm Marketing ? Cng vic ca ngi qun tr ? Marketing theo chc nng hoch nh ? a.Ngi lm Mar: b.cng vic ca ngi qtri: c.Trong chc nng hoch nh: - Lp k hoch nghin cu marketing. - Quyt nh la chn th trng mc tiu cho doanh nghi - Hoch nh chin lc marketing. - Quyt nh danh mc sn phm. - Lp cc chng trnh pht trin sn phm. - Xy dng cc chnh sch nh gi. - Lp cc chng trnh qung co v khuyn mi. - Quyt nh v t chc knh phn phi.</p> <p>- K hoch hun luyn v o to nhn vin marketing. 4. Cng vic ca ngi lm Marketing theo chc nng t chc , lnh o v kim tra? a. Trong chc nng t chc: - T chc thc hin cc chng trnh nghin cu marketing. - Quyt nh v c cu t chc ca b phn marketing (t chc theo chc nng hay sn phm, theo khu vc a l hay cu trc ma trn ). - Phn cng trch nhim cho mi b phn hot ng. - T chc mng li cc trung gian bn hng v quyt nh v cc a im bn. - Thit lp cc quan h vi chnh quyn , cc c quan truyn thng v cng chng. -Tuyn dng, hun luyn v o to nhn vin marketing. - T chc mng li kho v h thng vn chuyn. - T chc cc hi ngh khch hng, iu hnh vic tham gia hi ch, trin lm. - Quyt nh v thay i gi, ci tin sn phm, t chc hot ng khuyn mi. b. Trong chc nng lnh o: - Thng lng m phn vi cc lc lng lin quan (cng chn quan truyn thng). - Kch thch v ng vin nhn vin bn hng. - Kch thch v ng vin cc trung gian bn hng. c. Trong chc nng kim tra: - Kim tra ngn sch marketing. - So snh chi ph vi ngn sch. - nh gi hiu qu qung co, khuyn mi. - Kim tra s thay i gi v iu chnh gi . - Kim sot h thng phn phi, bn hng. 5. Ni dung tng qut ca tin trnh qun tr Marketing ? Theo J. Mc Cathy, qun tr marketing c ba ni dung ch yu l: - Hoch nh chin lc marketing. - Thc hin chin lc marketing - Kim tra chin lc v cc hot ng marketing. 1. Phn tch c hi th trng Cc doanh nghip u phi c gng tm ra c nhng c hi th trng mi. Khng mt doanh nghip no c th ch trng da vo nhng sn phm v th trng hin c ca mnh mi c. Phn tch cc c hi th trng c tin hnh thng qua phn tch cc yu t trong mi marketing, s thay i ca cc yu t mi trng c th to ra nhng c hi thun li cho doanh nghip hoc cng c th gy ra nhng nguy c i vi hot ng marketing ca doanh nghip. iu c bn l phi phn tch v nhn bit c nhng bin i no c th tr thnh c hi m doanh nghip c th khai thc, hoc nhng tc ng no ca mi trng c th to thnh nhng nguy c v nu tc ng ca cc nguy c ny i vi doanh nghip nh th no ? 2. La chn cc th trng mc tiu Cc doanh nghip cn xc nh r khch hng ca mnh l ai ? H c nhng nhu cu v mong mun g cn c tha mn ? Chin lc marketing cn c xy dng khc bit cho tng nhm khch hng hay l chung cho tt c cc khch hng ca doanh nghip ? iu ny ch c th tr li c trn c s phn on th trng v la chn th trng mc tiu. a. o lng v d bo nhu cu</p> <p>Vic o lng v d bo nhu cu th trng c tin hnh nhm m bo tnh kh thi ca cc n lc marketing. c th xy dng cc phng n chin lc marketing thch hp, cn phi tin hnh d bo mt cch kh ton din cc vn lin quan n th trng, xu hng tiu dng, tnh hnh cnh tranh... Doanh nghip cn c lng nhu cu hin ti v nhu cu tng lai ca sn phm, cng nh xem xt cc yu t nh hng n nhu cu . Vn ny c ngha c bit quan trng i vi quyt nh v quy m v cch thc thm nhp th trng ca doanh nghip. b. Phn on th trng ( Market Segmentation ) Ngi tiu dng trong th trng lun c c tnh khng ng nht v c th phn thnh nhm theo nhiu cch khc nhau. Tin trnh phn chia khch hng theo cc nhm lm r s khc bit v nhu cu, hnh vi tiu dng c gi l phn on (hay phn khc) th trng. Mi mt th trng u c to ra t nhng phn on th trng. c. La chn th trng mc tiu xc nh th trng mc tiu, doanh nghip cn nh gi quy m ca tng phn on cng nh cc c tnh ph hp ca tng phn on th trng i vi kh nng marketing ca doanh nghip. Doanh nghip c th chn la tham gia vo mt hay nhiu phn on ca th trng nht nh no . Thng thng, cc doanh nghip thm nhp vo mt th trng mi bng cch phc v mt phn on duy nht v nu vic lm ny cho thy thnh cng, h s thm nhp thm vo cc phn on khc, ri bao tri ra theo hng dc hoc hng ngang. S thm nhp ni tip vo cc phn on th trng khng mang tnh cht ngu nhin, m phi thc hin theo mt k hoch ch ng c hoch nh t trc. Vic lc chn mt phn on thm nhp trc phi m bo tnh hp dn v quy m, c cu v ph hp vi kh nng marketing ca doanh nghip. d. nh v th trng ( Market Positioning ) Doanh nghip cng cn phi tin hnh nh v th trng xc nh cc li th cnh tranh v sn phm so vi i th nhm xy dng chin lc marketing c kh nng to ra nhiu li th hn cho doanh nghip trong vic tha mn cc nhu cu v mong mun ca khch hng, cng nh gp phn thnh t cc mc tiu chin lc ca doanh nghip mt cch hiu qu hn. 3. Hoch nh chin lc marketing Da vo nhng phn tch cc bc trn, cn c vo chin lc kinh doanh c chp nhn, doanh nghip cn xy dng v la chn mt chin lc marketing thch hp nht nh hng cho ton b hot ng marketing ca mnh. Chin lc marketing c xy dng phi bao hm cc ni dung : - Mc tiu chin lc marketing. - nh dng marketing -mix (marketing phi hp). - Cc chin lc marketing cnh tranh ca doanh nghip. -Ngn sch marketing v phn b ngn sch cho cc hot ng marketing. 6. H thng Marketing Mix v mi quan h gia m hnh 4P v 4C ? Marketing - mix l s tp hp cc phng thc marketing c th kim sot c m doanh nghip phi hp s dng to nn s p ng cn thit trong th trng mc tiu nhm t c mc tiu marketing ca mnh. C nhiu cng c khc nhau c s dng trong marketing - mix, nhng theo J. Mc Carthy, c th nhm gp thnh 4 yu t gi l 4P : sn phm (product), gi c (price), phn phi (place) v c ng (promotion). Cc doanh nghip thc hin marketing - mix bng cch</p> <p>phi hp 4 yu t ch yu tc ng lm thay i sc cu th trng v sn phm ca mnh theo hng c li cho kinh doanh. - Sn phm: L s kt hp "vt phm v dch v" m doanh nghip cng hin cho th trng mc tiu gm c: phm cht, c im, phong cch, nhn hiu, bao b, quy cch (kch c), dch v, bo hnh, ... - Gi c: L s tin m khch hng phi b ra c c sn phm. Gi c phi tng xng vi gi tr c cm nhn vt phm cng hin, bng khng ngi mua s tm mua ca nh sn xut khc. Gi c bao gm : gi qui nh, gi chit khu, gi b l, gi theo thi hn thanh ton, gi km theo iu kin tn dng... - Phn phi:Bao gm nhng hot ng khc nhau ca doanh nghip nhm sn phm n tay ngi tiu dng m doanh nghip mun hng n, nh xc nh knh phn phi, la chn cc trung gian, mc bao ph th trng, b tr lc lng bn theo cc khu vc th trng, kim k, vn chuyn, d tr . - C ng: L nhng hot ng thng t nhng gi tr ca sn phm v thuyt phc c khch hng mc tiu mua sn phm y. C ng bao gm cc hot ng qung co, bn trc tip, khuyn mi, quan h cng chng. Cn lu rng 4P th hin quan im ca ngi bn v cc yu t marketing c th s dng tc ng n ngi mua. Cn theo quan im ngi mua th mi yu t marketing u c chc nng cung ng mt li ch cho khch hng. Robert Lauterborn cho rng 4P tng ng vi 4C (Customer needs and wants, Cost to the customer, Convenience, Communication) ca khch hng. 4P 4C Sn phm Nhu cu v mong mun ca khch hng Gi c Chi ph i vi khch hng Phn phi S thun tin C ng Thng tin Do , nhng doanh nghip thnh cng l nhng doanh nghip c th p ng c cc nhu cu ca khch hng mt cch kinh t, thun tin v c thng tin hu hiu. 7. H thng thng tin Marketing ? Cc yu t cu thnh h thng thng tin trong doanh nghip ? H thng thng tin marketing (MIS) bao gm con ngi, phng tin thit b v qui trnh thu thp, x l, phn loi, phn tch, nh gi v phn phi nhng thng tin cn thit, kp thi, chnh xc v ng tin cy cho nhng ngi c thm quyn ra cc quyt nh marketing. tin hnh phn tch, lp k hoch, thc hin v kim tra, nhng ngi qun tr marketing cn nhng thng tin din bin ca mi trng marketing. Vai tr ca MIS l xc nh nhu cu thng tin ca ngi qun tr, pht trin nhng thng tin cn thit v cung cp thng tin kp thi cho nhng ngi qun tr marketing. Thng tin cn thit c pht trin thng qua h thng ghi chp ni b trong doanh nghip, hot ng tnh bo marketing, nghin cu marketing v phn tch h tr quyt nh marketing Cc yu t cu thnh h thng thng tin trong doanh nghip: 8. Tin trnh nghin cu Marketing ? Tin trnh nghin cu marketing bao gm cc giai on ch yu: Xc nh vn cn nghin cu v mc tiu nghin cu, lp k hoch nghin cu (xc nh loi d liu cn thu thp, xc nh ngun gc d liu, quyt nh phng php thu thp d liu), t chc thu</p> <p>thp v x l d liu, phn tch v din gii cc d liu x l, trnh by v bo co kt qu cho ngi ra quyt nh (hnh 4.2). a. Xc nh vn v mc tiu nghin cu Vic xc nh mc tiu nghin cu phi r rng, xut pht t nhng yu cu gii quyt vn marketing...</p>