Chap01-Tong Quan Ve Mang May Tinh Va Truyen Thong

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    1

    Mng my tnh

    Ging vin: Bi Trng TngB mn Truyn thng v Mng my tnh

    Vin Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thngi hc Bch khoa H Ni

    2

    V mn hc ny

    Ging vin

    Bi Trng Tng, Vin CNTT&TT - BK HN

    Email : tungbt@soict.hut.edu.vn

    a ch : phng 801 nh B1 - BKHN

    ST : 04 3868 0896

    http://soict.hut.edu.vn/~tungbt/MMT_CNCN.zip

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    Ti liu tham kho

    TCP/IP Illustrated Vol I-The Protocols, Richard Steves, Addison-Wesley

    Internetworking with TCP/IP, Vol 1, Douglas Comer, Prentice Hall Computer

    Networking: a top-down approach featuring the Internet, James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Addison Wesley, 4thed, 2006

    Mng my tnh v cc h thng m, Nguyn Thc Hi, NXB Gio Dc

    TCP/IP tutorial and technical overview, Lydia Parziale, David T.Britt, ibm.com/redbooks

    4

    Chng 1. Tng quan v mng my tnh v truyn thng

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    1. C bn v mng my tnh

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    ARPA: Advanced Research Project AgencyUCLA: University California Los Angeles SRI: Stanford Research InstituteIMP: Interface Message Processor

    Source: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

    1.1. Lch s Internet

    Bt u t mt th nghim ca d n ca ARPA

    Mt lin kt gia hai nt mng (IMP ti UCLA v IMP ti SRI)

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    7

    3 thng sau, 12/1969

    Mt mng hon chnh vi 4 nt, 56kbps

    UTAHSRI

    UCSBUCLA

    UCSB:University of California, Santa Barbara

    UTAH:University of Utah

    source: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

    8

    ARPANET thi k u, 1971

    Mng pht trin vi tc thm mi nt mt thng

    Source:http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

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    Thp nin 70: Kt ni lin mng, kin trc mng mi v cc mng ring

    10

    S m rng ca ARPANET, 1974

    Lu lng mi ngy vt qu 3.000.000 gi tinsource:http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

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    Thp nin 70

    T u 1970 xut hin cc mng ring:

    ALOHAnet ti Hawaii

    DECnet, IBM SNA, XNA

    1974: Cerf & Kahn nguyn l kt ni cc h thng m (Turing Awards)

    1976: Ethernet, Xerox PARC

    Cui 1970: ATM

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    Thp nin 80: Cc giao thc mi, kt ni thm mng mi

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    1981: Xy dng mng NSFNET

    NSF: National Science Foundation

    Phc v cho nghin cu khoa hc, do s qu ti ca ARPANET

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    1986: Ni kt USENET& NSFNET

    Source: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/historical.html

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    Thm nhiu mng v giao thc mi

    Thm nhiu mng mi ni vo: MFENET, HEPNET (Dept. Energy), SPAN (NASA), BITnet, CSnet, NSFnet, Minitel

    TCP/IP c chun ha v ph bin vo1980

    Berkeley tch hp TCP/IP vo BSD Unix

    Dch v: FTP, Mail, DNS

    16

    Thm nhiu mng v giao thc mi

    Thm nhiu mng mi ni vo: MFENET, HEPNET (Dept. Energy), SPAN (NASA), BITnet, CSnet, NSFnet, Minitel

    TCP/IP c chun ha v ph bin vo1980

    Berkeley tch hp TCP/IP vo BSD Unix

    Dch v: FTP, Mail, DNS

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    Thp nin 90: Web v thng mi ha Internet

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    Thp nin 90

    u 90: ARPAnet ch l mt phn ca Internet

    u 90: Web

    HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee

    1994: Mosaic, Netscape

    Cui 90: Thng mi

    ha Internet

    Cui 1990s 2000s:

    Nhiu ng dng mi: chat, chia s file P2P

    E-commerce, Yahoo, Amazon, Google

    > 50 triu my trm, > 100 triu NSD

    Vn an ton an ninh thng tin!

    Internet dnh cho tt c mi ngi

    Tt c cc dch v phi quan tm ti vn ny

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    Lc s Internet Vit Nam

    1991: N lc kt ni Internet khng thnh. (V mt l do no )

    1996: Gii quyt cc cn tr, chun b h tng Internet ISP: VNPT

    64kbps, 1 ng kt ni quc t, mt s NSD

    1997: Vit Nam chnh thc kt ni Internet 1 IXP: VNPT

    4 ISP: VNPT, Netnam (IOT), FPT, SPT

    2007: Mi nm Internet Vit Nam 20 ISPs, 4 IXPs

    19 triu NSD, 22.04% dn s

    20

    Thng k gn y

    Source: Vnnic, http://www.thongkeinternet.vn

    20.822.8

    26.8

    30.522.0424.4

    26.55

    31.11

    35.03

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    0.0

    5.0

    10.0

    15.0

    20.0

    25.0

    30.0

    35.0

    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    %

    Users

    (m

    illio

    n)

    Number of Internet users by year s ngi dng (triu ngi)% dn s

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    Bng thng kt ni i quc t (Mbps),

    Tng cng: 132202.0 Mbps

    Bng thng kt ni i quc t (Mbps)

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    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    Series1 12580 50064 53659 96320 132202

    0

    20000

    40000

    60000

    80000

    100000

    120000

    140000

    Bn

    g t

    h

    ng

    Tc tng trng bng thng

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    Internet nhng nm 2000s: Tng lai l ca cc bn

    ng dng v cng ngh mi Youtube, Skype, Bittorrent, Video & VoIP...

    Mng khng dy, mng quang hc, thng tin di ng

    .

    Internet s tip tc ci tin dch v v bin i khng ngng Mang li s thun tin cho mi ngi

    Chng ta c th lm c iu !

    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

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    Thng k Internet 2012

    Lu lng thng tin trao i : 168 triu a DVD

    S email c gi i : 249 t (~90% l th rc)

    Truy cp facebook : 4,7 t pht

    Thi lng video ti ln youtube : 864.000 gi

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    1.2. Cc khi nim c bn

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    1.2.1. Mng my tnh l g?

    Tp hp cc my tnh kt ni vi nhau da trn mt kin trc no c th trao i d liu

    My tnh: my trm, my ch, b nh tuyn

    Kt ni bng mt phng tin truyn

    Theo mt kin trc mng

    Cc dng my tnh?

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    ng truyn vt l

    L cc phng tin vt l c kh nng truyn dn tn hiu

    Phn loi: Hu tuyn: cp xon, cp ng trc, cp quang,

    V tuyn: sng radio, viba, sng hng ngoi,

    Mt s yu t c trng : Bng tn

    tin cy : t l bt li khi truyn

    suy hao

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    Kin trc mng

    Kin trc mng: Hnh trng (topology) v giao thc (protocol)

    Hnh trng mng

    Trc (Bus), Vng (Ring), Sao (Star)

    Thc t l s kt hp ca nhiu hnh trng khc nhau

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    Giao thc l g?

    Giao thc ngi-ngi

    yu cu

    tr li

    request

    response

    Hi

    Hi

    Anh cho himy gi ri ?

    2:00

    Thi gian

    Giao thc my-my

    34

    Giao thc mng

    Protocol: Quy tc truyn thng

    Gi mt thng ip vi yu cu hoc thng tin

    Nhn mt thng ip vi thng tin, s kin hoc hnh ng

    nh ngha khun dng v th t truyn, nhn thng ip gia cc thc th trn mng hoc cc hnh ng tng ng khi nhn c thng ip

    V d v giao thc mng: TCP, UDP, IP, HTTP, Telnet, SSH, Ethernet,

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    1.2.2. Phn loi mng my tnh

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    PAN (

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    Chuyn mch gi vs. Chuyn mch knh

    Chuyn mch knh Trao i d liu s dng mt knh ring .

    Mi lin kt s dng mt knh. Ti nguyn cho knh khng c s dng bi ngi khc tr khi ng lin kt

    Chuyn mch gi D liu c chia thnh cc gi nh (packets), v c

    chuyn qua mng

    Nhiu lin kt c th chia s mt knh

    Internet (vi giao thc IP Internet Protocol) s dng chuyn mch gi

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    Chuyn mch knh

    Ti nguyn c gn ring cho mi knhK c khi ti nguyn ca knh angg ri, ngi khc cng khng c dng

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    Chuyn mch gi

    Ton b bng thng c chia s cho tt c mi ngi, Nu cn bng thng, ai cng c th s dng

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    Chuyn mch gi vs. Chuyn mch knh

    Chuyn mch knh Mi knh ch dng cho duy nht 1 lin kt

    Bo m bng thng (cn cho cc ng dng audio/video)

    Lng ph nu lin kt khng s dng ht kh nng ca knh

    Chuyn mch gi Tng hiu qu s dng bng thng

    Tt cho cc dng d liu n ngu nhin, khng nh trc

    Hn ch: Tc nghn lm tr v mt gi tin, khng bo m bng thng

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    Truyn thng hng lin kt vs. khng lin kt

    Truyn thng hng lin kt : D liu c truyn qua mt lin kt c

    thit lp

    Ba giai on: Thit lp lin kt, truyn d liu, Hy b lin kt

    Tin cy

    Truyn thng khng lin kt Khng thit lp lin kt, ch c giai on truyn d

    liu

    Khng tin cy - Best effort

    im-im v im-a im

    im im (point-to-point)

    Cc cp nt mng c kt ni ring bit

    Mi nt ng vai tr lu tr v chuyn tip d liu

    im a im (point-to-multipoint)

    Cc nt mng s dng chung mt kt ni

    D liu gi t 1 nt no s c nhn bi tt c cc nt cn li

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    2. Mt s tham s trong mng

    Cc thng s c bn

    Bng thng

    Thng lng

    tr

    Tr trn thit b u cui

    Tr trn thit b trung gian

    Tr truyn tin

    Tr lan truyn

    mt gi tin

    44

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    tr

    dproc : tr u cui (vi s)

    dqueue : tr trn thit b trung gian (ph thuc vo hiu nng thit b v tc nghn trn ng truyn)

    dtrans :tr truyn tin (ph thuc bng thng)

    dprop :tr lan truyn (vi s ti hng trm ms)

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    Tr v mt mt gi tin

    S gi tin n vt qu kh nng chuyn tip ca thit b

    Cc gi tin phi xp hng

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    3. Kin trc phn tng

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    Phn chia cc chc nng trong vic trao i thng tin

    Bn gi Bn nhnThng tin mun

    trao i

    Ngn ng

    Chuyn t suy ngh sang li ni

    Ngn ng

    Thng tin nhn c

    Cc phng tin truyn thng

    Japanese?English?

    Th?in thoi?E-mail?

    Vic trao i thng tin s din ra sun s nu ti mi tng, cng mtphng tin c s dng

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    V d phn tng (1)

    B dn m thanh

    Cassette

    PlayerSpeakerAmplifier

    Tt c chc nng u t c trong mt khi Khi mun thay i: Nng cp ton b

    Phn tng Khng phn tng

    50

    ticket (purchase)

    baggage (check)

    gates (load)

    runway (takeoff)

    airplane routing

    Sn bay i Sn bay nSn bay trung chuyn

    airplane routing airplane routing

    ticket (complain)

    baggage (claim)

    gates (unload)

    runway (land)

    airplane routing

    ticket

    baggage

    gate

    takeoff/landing

    airplane routing

    Phn tng cc chc nng hng khng

    Tng: Mi tng c nhim v cung cp 1 dch v

    Da trn cc chc nng ca chnh tng

    Da trn cc dch v cung cp bi tng di

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    V sao phi phn tng?

    i vi cc h thng phc tp: nguyn l chia tr

    Cho php xc nh r nhim v ca mi b phn v quan h gia chng

    Cho php d dng bo tr v nng cp h thng

    Thay i bn trong mt b phn khng nh hng n cc b phn khc

    e.g., Nng cp t CD ln DVD player m khng phi thay loa.

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    2.1. M hnh OSI v TCP/IP

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    OSI - Open System Interconnection: Bao gm 7 tng

    Physical layer

    Data link layer

    Network layer

    Transport layer

    Session layer

    Application layer

    Tng mng

    Presentation layer

    H thng cui H thng cuiNt mng trung gian

    Tng ng dng

    Tng trnh din

    Tng phin

    Tng giao vn

    Tng mng

    Tng lin kt d liu

    Tng vt l

    54

    Chc nng chung ca cc tng

    Vt l: Truyn bits trn ng truyn

    Lin kt d liu: Truyn d liu gia cc thnh phn ni kt trong mt mng

    Mng: Chn ng, chuyn tip gi tin t ngun n ch

    Giao vn: X l vic truyn-nhn d liu cho cc ng dng

    Phin: ng b ha, check-point, khi phc qu trnh trao i

    Trnh din: cho php cc ng dng biu din d liu, e.g., m ha, nn, chuyn i

    ng dng: H tr cc ng dng trn mng.

    application

    presentation

    session

    transport

    network

    data link

    physical

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    M hnh OSI

    Tng ng dng

    Cung cp cc phng tin ngi s dng khai thc ti nguyn mng

    Mt s giao thc : HTTP, DHCP, DNS, Telnet, FTP, SMTP, POP, ICMP, SMNP, NAT

    Tng trnh din

    Quyt nh dng thc trao i d liu gia cc my tnh mng

    Bin dch d liu

    M ha/ gii m

    Giao thc: ASCII,Unicode, MPEG, SSL

    Tng phin

    Thit lp, qun l, kt thc phin truyn thng

    iu khin hi thoi, ng b ha, qun l th bi

    Mt s giao thc : RPC (Remote Control Call), NetBIOS

    55

    M hnh OSI Tng giao vn

    Chia d liu thnh cc gi pha gi, hp cc gi pha nhn

    m bo truyn d liu chnh xc gia cc im u cui (end-to-end) : m bo th t cc gi tin, kim sot li

    Cc giao thc : UDP, TCP

    Tng mng Truyn d liu theo cc gi tin

    m bo d liu truyn n ng a ch

    Cung cp cc c ch m bo cht lng dch v (QoS)

    Chuyn i a ch

    Giao thc : IP, IPX, ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), RIP, OSPF, BGP

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    M hnh OSI

    Tng lin kt d liu Cung cp phng tin truyn thng tin qua lin kt vt l m

    bo tin cy: gi cc d liu theo cc khung tin (frame )vi c ch ng b ho, kim sot li v kim sot lung d liu.

    Giao thc : HDLC, PPP, TokenRing, ARP, RARP

    Tng vt l : a d liu ln ng truyn vt l Biu din d liu s 0 hoc 1

    Chiu truyn tin (1 hay 2 chiu), cch thc thit lp, hy b kt ni

    Cc giao thc tng vt l : RS232, V35

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    Session layer

    Transport layer

    Application layer

    Presentation layer

    Network layer

    Datalink layer

    Physical layer

    M hnh OSI v TCP/IPTrong m hnh TCP/IP (Internet), chc nng3 tng trn c phn nh vo mt tng duy nht

    Transport layer

    Application

    HTTP, FTP, SMTP

    IP

    Network Interface

    Physical

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    M hnh phn tng ca Internet

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    CAT5

    10M

    IP

    CAT5

    100M/Ethernet

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ngun chNt trung gian

    100M

    CAT5

    V d v qu trnh gi d liu t ngun, qua nt

    trung gian (b nh tuyn) ri n ch

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    2.2. Truyn thng trong kin trc phn tng

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    ng gi d liu (Encapsulation)

    a ch

    Trang tr

    Dn a ch

    Gi qu

    a ch

    62

    PDU: Protocol Data Unit n v d liu giao thc

    (N+1) PDU

    (N) PDU

    (N-1) PDU

    HN

    HN HN-1

    Layer (N+1)

    Layer (N-1)

    Layer (N)

    Service interface

    Service interface

    Protocol N+1

    Protocol N

    Protocol N-1

    addr.

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    Data Data

    ExHTTP header

    H giao thc TCP/IP v qu trnh ng gi

    TCP header

    IP header

    Ethernet Frame

    Signal

    Network Interface

    TCP

    Application

    Physical

    IP

    Sender Receiver

    Bn gi Mi tng thm vo cc thng tin iu khin vo phn

    u gi tin (header) v truyn xung tng di

    Bn nhn Mi tng x l gi tin da trn thng tin trong phn u,

    sau b phn u, ly phn d liu chuyn ln tng trn.

    Network Interface

    TCP

    Application

    Physical

    IP

    64

    SAP: Service Access Point im truy nhp dch v

    TCP/UDP TCP/UDP

    Internet

    Client 1

    Client 2

    Server 3

    Server 1

    Server 2

    Client 3

    Network

    Application

    Protocol 1

    Protocol 1

    Protocol 1

    TCP/UDP

    protocol

    SAP SAP

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    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

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    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    TCP header D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

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    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    IP header TCP header D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

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    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    IP header TCP header D liu - payloadEthernet header

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

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    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    IP header TCP header D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

    70

    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    IP header TCP header D liu - payloadWDM header

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

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    71

    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    IP header TCP header D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

    72

    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    IP header TCP header D liu - payloadEthernet header

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

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    73

    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    IP header TCP header D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

    74

    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    TCP header D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

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    75

    CAT5WDM

    End node End nodeIntermediate node

    CAT5

    Ethernet/10M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    Ethernet/100M

    IP

    TCP

    FTP

    WDM

    10M

    IP

    10G

    CAT5

    10G

    IP

    CAT5

    D liu - payload

    Protocol stack v qu trnh ng gi

    76

    Tm tt: u im ca kin trc phn tng Chia nh cho php xc nh d dng chc nng

    mi tng

    Cc tng hot ng c lp Tng trn ch quan tm n vic s dng tng di m

    khng quan tm n cc tng xa hn

    Cho php nh ngha giao din chung gia cc tng

    Kh nng m rng

    Mm do, linh hot vi cc cng ngh mi Trao i gia cc tng ng mc

    C th ci tin h thng bng cch thay th mt cng ngh mi ca tng tng ng : ISDNADSLFTTHIPv4IPv6

    Nu khng phn tng Khi mun thay i, phi lm ton b

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    77

    3. Cc nh danh trong mng

    a ch MAC

    a ch IP

    S hiu cng

    78

    nh danh

    Cc nh danh cho php xc nh mt ngi hay mt i tng

    Tn Nguyen Thuc Hai

    a ch 1 Dai Co Viet, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi

    S in thoi 8680896

    Email hai--xxx@it.hut.edu.vn

  • 24/10/2013

    40

    79

    nh danh v cy phn cp

    Cc nh danh xc nh a ch c tnh phn cp Cho php qun l mt cc logic v hiu qu mt khng

    gian a ch khng l

    Tnh m rng

    V d v tnh phn cp a ch

    1 Dai Co Viet, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi

    S in thoi

    +84-(4) 868-08-96

    Hanoi

    Dai Co Viet

    Hai Ba Trung

    So 1

    80

    nh danh trn Internet v quan h vi cc tng

    application

    TCP/UDP

    IP

    data link

    physical

    Physical address / MAC addresse.g. 00:11:24:79:8e:82

    IP address, e.g. 203.12.15.165

    Domain name (tn min)

  • 24/10/2013

    41

    81

    a ch dng trong tng lin kt d liu

    a ch vt l / a ch MAC S dng trong tng lin kt d liu

    C nh trn card mng NIC ( Network Interface Card)

    S dng a ch ha my tnh trong cc mng qung b

    00:11:24:79:8e:8200000000 00010001 00100100 01111001 10001110 10000010

    HEX

    OUI Gn bi nh sn xut

    OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier): M nh sn xutMi nh sn xut c cc gi tr OUI ringMi nh sn xut c th c nhiu OUI

    BIN

    82

    a ch dng trn Internet

    a ch IP

    Dng trong giao thc IP - Internet Protocol (tng mng)

    Gi tr ph thuc tng mng, mi card mng c gn mt a ch IP

    S dng inh danh mt my tnh trong mt mng IP, v d:

    133.113.215.10 (ipv4)

    2001:200:0:8803::53 (ipv6)

  • 24/10/2013

    42

    83

    a ch s dng trong tng giao vn

    S hiu cng

    Mt ch s ph, dng km theo a ch IP

    Cc ng dng c dnh danh bi mt a ch IP v mt s hiu cng

    Tng t nh s phng trong mt ta nh a ch nh : Nh C1, 1 Dai Co Viet, Ha Noi => a

    ch IP

    Phng s 325 => S hiu cng

    E.g. HTTP cng 80, FTP cng 20, 21