Characterizing and instructing design knowledge in the context of educational technology design

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Characterizing and instructing design knowledge in the context of educational technology design. Tamar Ronen Fuhrmann, Yael Kali (Technion - Israel Institute of Technology) . ? . , - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Characterizing and instructing design knowledge in the context of educational technology designTamar Ronen Fuhrmann, Yael Kali (Technion - Israel Institute of Technology) </p></li><li><p> ? </p><p> , , - </p></li><li><p>: , (Schon 1983 )</p><p> , , (Design-Based Research Collective, 2003; Edelson, 2002; Goodyear, 2005) </p><p> : (Kali, 2006, 2008; Linn, Bell, &amp; Davis, 2004; van den Akker, 1999) (Goodyear, 2005; Linn &amp; Eylon, 2006; Mor &amp; Winters, 2007). </p><p> , (Kali 2006; Ronen-Fuhrmann et al., 2007) </p></li><li><p> , . </p><p> ? ? , - ? </p></li><li><p> : " " . . : </p><p> , , . </p></li><li><p> : </p></li><li><p>: 33 14 : </p></li><li><p>: " , " (Papert &amp; Resnick, 1995; Resnick, Rusk, &amp; Cooke, 1999)</p><p>" "- </p><p> . </p></li><li><p>: . </p></li><li><p>: 3 . .</p></li><li><p>: 5 . . . . .</p></li><li><p>: , , . </p></li><li><p>: </p></li><li><p>: : II: ' -' III: ' -' IV: ' -'</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>: II: ' -'</p><p> ' , </p><p> ... "" ! </p><p>2' . . ' . .</p></li><li><p>: II: ' -' :' ' </p><p> :': " ..."': ". ...."': " ( )..."': " ..."</p><p>!?</p></li><li><p>: : II: ' -' III: ' -' IV: ' -'</p></li><li><p>: III: ' -'</p><p> -" : " : ? - , </p><p> ' , .' . . </p></li><li><p>: III: ' -' " " "" -, , , </p><p>".... . . -, . !"</p></li><li><p>: : II: ' -' III: ' -' IV: ' -'</p></li><li><p>: IV: ' -'</p><p> , </p><p> . .. </p></li><li><p>: IV: ' -' , :</p><p>" " ( ) ..."( ADDIE)" , , ".... , " ()</p><p> !</p></li><li><p>: III: ' -' IV: ' -' II: ' -'</p><p>Chart2</p><p>00</p><p>10</p><p>11</p><p>22</p><p>33</p><p>44</p><p>55</p><p>Design 2005</p><p> 14.312.418.420.41.51.620.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3112333</p><p>Collboration3221113</p><p>Accessibility3112222</p><p>Epistemology avrage31.33333333331.33333333331.6666666667222.6666666667</p><p>Epistemology-total9445668</p><p>Design Knowledge0112234 </p><p>0</p><p> 16.310.418.428.411.515.51</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal2</p><p>Activity31133333</p><p>Collboration32233334</p><p>Accessibility3112123 5</p><p>Epistemology avrage31.33333333331.33333333332.66666666672.33333333332.66666666673</p><p>Design Knowledge0012345</p><p> 9.418.420.427.43.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0111122</p><p> 20.426.426.430.41.5</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333112</p><p>Collaboration3123112</p><p>Accessibility3311222</p><p>Epistemology avrage32.333333333322.33333333331.33333333331.33333333332</p><p>Design Knowledge0011222</p><p>Design 2005</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Design 2006</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Design 2007</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collaboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Low&amp;High</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Slope</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>DK-all</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>DK-in 3 Iteration</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Quarters</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Learning environment</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Heb</p><p> 21.416.523.530.57.621.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3132223</p><p>Accessibility3133223</p><p>Epistemology avrage31.666666666732.66666666672.33333333332.33333333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0011345</p><p> 15.325.42.512.524.54.621.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333323</p><p>Collboration3333223</p><p>Accessibility3333223</p><p>Design Knowledge0012234</p><p> 15.327.427.48.523.529.521.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0011124</p><p>25.410.517.523.57.621.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3222123</p><p>Collboration3122222</p><p>Accessibility2122112</p><p>Epistemology avrage2.66666666671.3333333333221.33333333331.66666666672.3333333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0111224</p><p>tamarrf:. , . , . : , " </p><p>tamarrf: ( ) ... , ....</p><p>tamarrf: , . , . . - "" / + . Tutor</p><p>tamarrf: !!! , </p><p>tamarrf: </p><p>tamarrf: ... , </p><p>tamarrf: ... , .... . -3 , ... - , .</p><p>tamarrf: "" . .... - -. , , " 3- ).</p><p>tamarrf: : -</p><p>tamarrf: !!!, , </p><p>tamarrf: -2 . () .</p><p>Heb</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p> 21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3123323</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0012245</p><p> 21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3222223</p><p>Accessibility3112223</p><p>Design Knowledge0112234</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333323</p><p>Accessibility3332223</p><p>Design Knowledge0222235</p><p> -</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.62</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3331123</p><p>Collboration3322222</p><p>Accessibility3312222</p><p>Epistemology avrage3321.66666666671.666666666722.3333333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0012333</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0112345</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0012245</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stage</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stage</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>2005</p><p>low555.5555555556</p><p>high444.4444444444</p><p>9</p><p>2006</p><p>low450</p><p>high450</p><p>8</p><p>2007</p><p>low222.2222222222</p><p>high777.7777777778</p><p>9</p><p>lowaccepted</p><p>200555.544.4</p><p>20065050</p><p>20072278</p><p> + . (2005-2007) (4 2004).</p><p> -0.75 .</p><p>tamarrf: ....</p><p>low</p><p>accepted</p><p> 2005Theory-0Analysis-0Brainstorm-1Flow-2Features-3Features-4Final-5slope/paceA ver L 2005</p><p>01122240.79a a0.66</p><p>00123451al</p><p>01111220.54ll</p><p>00012220.4l l5 low, 4 accepted</p><p>00.50.751.522.53.250.66 a</p><p>2006TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal 2006</p><p>00113450.9aa</p><p>00122340.84a+a4 Low, 4 accepted</p><p>00111240.63ll</p><p>01111240.63ll</p><p>00.2511.251.752.754.250.71</p><p>2007TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal 2007</p><p>00122450.93a+l</p><p> 01122340.84aa2 Low, 7 accepted</p><p>02222350.98a+a</p><p>00123330.75l</p><p>01123451.2a</p><p>00122450.93a</p><p>00.66666666671.166666666722.33333333333.54.50.94</p><p>: " . -5.</p><p>: 2 2= 1 ,</p><p> 0.75 .</p><p>2005TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>0112224</p><p>0012345</p><p>0111122</p><p>0001222</p><p>00.50.751.522.53.25</p><p>2006TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>0011345</p><p>0012234</p><p>0011124</p><p>0111124</p><p>00.2511.251.752.754.25</p><p>2007TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>0012245</p><p> 0112234</p><p>0222235</p><p>0012333</p><p>0112345</p><p>0012245</p><p>00.66666666671.166666666722.33333333333.54.5</p><p>2005</p><p>2006</p><p>2007</p><p>Course Milestone</p><p>Design Knowledge Rubric</p><p>Iteration-2</p><p>4</p><p>525</p><p>250</p><p>2</p><p>3.25</p><p>Iteration-3Levels of concretization of design artifactsIteration IIIteration IIIIteration IV</p><p>51000000</p><p>41000</p><p>42200</p><p>43001</p><p>4.254131</p><p>5114</p><p>Iteration-4</p><p>5</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>3</p><p>5</p><p>5</p><p>4.5</p><p> " !</p><p>tamarrf: </p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>1</p><p>2005</p><p>2006</p><p>YearQuarter 1Quarter 2Quarter 3Quarter 4</p><p>220051012</p><p>200720061012</p><p>200720070213</p><p>3</p><p>2005</p><p>2006</p><p>2007Year200520062007</p><p>Quarter 1110</p><p>4Quarter 2002</p><p>2005Quarter 3111</p><p>2005Quarter 4223</p><p>2006</p><p>2006</p><p>2007</p><p>2007</p><p>2007</p><p>Module Field of intrest% (67 - !)</p><p>Biology15.460.153846153815.4Biology - 39</p><p>Chemistry5.120.05128205135.1Chemistry</p><p>Earth Science10.240.102564102610.3Earth Science</p><p>Mathematics12.850.128205128212.8Mathematics</p><p>Computer Science15.460.153846153815.4Computer Science</p><p>Astronomy7.730.07692307697.6Astronomy</p><p>Physics12.850.128205128212.8Physics</p><p>TPD10.240.102564102610.3TPD</p><p>Others10.240.102564102610.3Others</p><p>39 "100</p><p>Computer ScienceBiologyMathematicsPhysicTPDEarth ScienceOthersAstronomyChemistrySciencesOthers</p><p>6655444329010</p><p>%15.415.412.812.810.310.310.37.65.1</p><p> 15.327.427.48.523.529.521.6</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p> 0011124</p><p>0012345</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p> 0112345</p><p>0012345</p><p>Chart1</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>11</p><p>12</p><p>23</p><p>24</p><p>25</p><p>Design 2005</p><p> 14.312.418.420.41.51.620.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3112333</p><p>Collboration3221113</p><p>Accessibility3112222</p><p>Epistemology avrage31.33333333331.33333333331.6666666667222.6666666667</p><p>Epistemology-total9445668</p><p>Design Knowledge0112234 </p><p>0</p><p> 16.310.418.428.411.515.51</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal2</p><p>Activity31133333</p><p>Collboration32233334</p><p>Accessibility3112123 5</p><p>Epistemology avrage31.33333333331.33333333332.66666666672.33333333332.66666666673</p><p>Design Knowledge0012345</p><p> 9.418.420.427.43.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0111122</p><p> 20.426.426.430.41.5</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333112</p><p>Collaboration3123112</p><p>Accessibility3311222</p><p>Epistemology avrage32.333333333322.33333333331.33333333331.33333333332</p><p>Design Knowledge0011222</p><p>Design 2005</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Design 2006</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Design 2007</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collaboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Low&amp;High</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Slope</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>DK-all</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>DK-in 3 Iteration</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Quarters</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Learning environment</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Heb</p><p> 21.416.523.530.57.621.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3132223</p><p>Accessibility3133223</p><p>Epistemology avrage31.666666666732.66666666672.33333333332.33333333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0011345</p><p> 15.325.42.512.524.54.621.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333323</p><p>Collboration3333223</p><p>Accessibility3333223</p><p>Design Knowledge0012234</p><p> 15.327.427.48.523.529.521.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0011124</p><p>25.410.517.523.57.621.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3222123</p><p>Collboration3122222</p><p>Accessibility2122112</p><p>Epistemology avrage2.66666666671.3333333333221.33333333331.66666666672.3333333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0111224</p><p>tamarrf:. , . , . : , " </p><p>tamarrf: ( ) ... , ....</p><p>tamarrf: , . , . . - "" / + . Tutor</p><p>tamarrf: !!! , </p><p>tamarrf: </p><p>tamarrf: ... , </p><p>tamarrf: ... , .... . -3 , ... - , .</p><p>tamarrf: "" . .... - -. , , " 3- ).</p><p>tamarrf: : -</p><p>tamarrf: !!!, , </p><p>tamarrf: -2 . () .</p><p>Heb</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stages</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p> 21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3123323</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0012245</p><p> 21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3222223</p><p>Accessibility3112223</p><p>Design Knowledge0112234</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333323</p><p>Accessibility3332223</p><p>Design Knowledge0222235</p><p> -</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.62</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3331123</p><p>Collboration3322222</p><p>Accessibility3312222</p><p>Epistemology avrage3321.66666666671.666666666722.3333333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0012333</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0112345</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3333333</p><p>Collboration3333333</p><p>Accessibility3333333</p><p>Design Knowledge0012245</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stage</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Design Knowledge</p><p>Design course stage</p><p>Acquiring design knowledge</p><p>Activity</p><p>Collboration</p><p>Accessibility</p><p>Epistemology avrage</p><p>2005</p><p>low555.5555555556</p><p>high444.4444444444</p><p>9</p><p>2006</p><p>low450</p><p>high450</p><p>8</p><p>2007</p><p>low222.2222222222</p><p>high777.7777777778</p><p>9</p><p>lowaccepted</p><p>200555.544.4</p><p>20065050</p><p>20072278</p><p> + . (2005-2007) (4 2004).</p><p> -0.75 .</p><p>tamarrf: ....</p><p>low</p><p>accepted</p><p> 2005Theory-0Analysis-0Brainstorm-1Flow-2Features-3Features-4Final-5slope/paceA ver L 2005</p><p>01122240.79a a0.66</p><p>00123451al</p><p>01111220.54ll</p><p>00012220.4l l5 low, 4 accepted</p><p>00.50.751.522.53.250.66 a</p><p>2006TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal 2006</p><p>00113450.9aa</p><p>00122340.84a+a4 Low, 4 accepted</p><p>00111240.63ll</p><p>01111240.63ll</p><p>00.2511.251.752.754.250.71</p><p>2007TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal 2007</p><p>00122450.93a+l</p><p> 01122340.84aa2 Low, 7 accepted</p><p>02222350.98a+a</p><p>00123330.75l</p><p>01123451.2a</p><p>00122450.93a</p><p>00.66666666671.166666666722.33333333333.54.50.94</p><p>: " . -5.</p><p>: 2 2= 1 ,</p><p> 0.75 .</p><p>2005TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>0112224</p><p>0012345</p><p>0111122</p><p>0001222</p><p>00.50.751.522.53.25</p><p>2006TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>0011345</p><p>0012234</p><p>0011124</p><p>0111124</p><p>00.2511.251.752.754.25</p><p>2007TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>0012245</p><p> 0112234</p><p>0222235</p><p>0012333</p><p>0112345</p><p>0012245</p><p>00.66666666671.166666666722.33333333333.54.5</p><p>2005</p><p>2006</p><p>2007</p><p>Course Milestone</p><p>Design Knowledge Rubric</p><p>Iteration-2</p><p>4</p><p>525</p><p>250</p><p>2</p><p>3.25</p><p>Iteration-3Levels of concretization of design artifactsIteration IIIteration IIIIteration IV</p><p>51000000</p><p>41000</p><p>42200</p><p>43001</p><p>4.254131</p><p>5114</p><p>Iteration-4</p><p>5</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>3</p><p>5</p><p>5</p><p>4.5</p><p> " !</p><p>tamarrf: </p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>1</p><p>2005</p><p>2006</p><p>YearQuarter 1Quarter 2Quarter 3Quarter 4</p><p>220051012</p><p>200720061012</p><p>200720070213</p><p>3</p><p>2005</p><p>2006</p><p>2007Year200520062007</p><p>Quarter 1110</p><p>4Quarter 2002</p><p>2005Quarter 3111</p><p>2005Quarter 4223</p><p>2006</p><p>2006</p><p>2007</p><p>2007</p><p>2007</p><p>Module Field of intrest% (67 - !)</p><p>Biology15.460.153846153815.4Biology - 39</p><p>Chemistry5.120.05128205135.1Chemistry</p><p>Earth Science10.240.102564102610.3Earth Science</p><p>Mathematics12.850.128205128212.8Mathematics</p><p>Computer Science15.460.153846153815.4Computer Science</p><p>Astronomy7.730.07692307697.6Astronomy</p><p>Physics12.850.128205128212.8Physics</p><p>TPD10.240.102564102610.3TPD</p><p>Others10.240.102564102610.3Others</p><p>39 "100</p><p>Computer ScienceBiologyMathematicsPhysicTPDEarth ScienceOthersAstronomyChemistrySciencesOthers</p><p>6655444329010</p><p>%15.415.412.812.810.310.310.37.65.1</p><p> 15.327.427.48.523.529.521.6</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p> 0011124</p><p>0012345</p><p>21.328.311.418.42.516.520.6</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p>3333333</p><p> 0112345</p><p>0012345</p><p> 20.426.426.430.41.5</p><p>3333112</p><p>3123112</p><p>3311222</p><p> 32.333333333322.33333333331.33333333331.33333333332</p><p> 0011222</p><p> 0012345</p><p>Chart1</p><p>00</p><p>00</p><p>11</p><p>12</p><p>13</p><p>24</p><p>45</p><p>Design 2005</p><p> 14.312.418.420.41.51.620.6</p><p>TheoryAnalysisBrainstormFlowFeaturesDemoFinal</p><p>Activity3112333</p><p>Collboration3221113</p><p>Accessibility3112222</p><p>Epistemology avrage31.33333333331.33333333331.6666666667222.6666666667</p><p>Epistemology-total9445668</p><p>Design Knowledge0112234 </p><p>0</p><

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