Chuong 1-Tong Quan TMDT

  • Published on
    11-Jun-2015

  • View
    838

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

Nguyn Phan Anh B mn: Qun tr tc nghip TMT Khoa Thng Mi in T

NI DUNG1.1 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca TMT 1.2 Mt s khi nim v TMT 1.3 c im ca TMT 1.4 Li ch v hn ch ca TMT 1.5 Xu hng ca thng mi in t 1.6 Cc lnh vc ng dng ca TMT2

1.1 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca TMT

1.1.1 Cc ln sng vn minh nhn loi 1.1.2 Doanh nhn trong cc nn vn minh 1.1.3 Cc cu chuyn thnh cng ca TMT 1.1.4 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca TMT

3

1.1 S hnh thnh & pht trin ca TMT1.1.1 Cc ln sng vn minh nhn loiAlvin Toffler (trong cun The Third Wave, 1981) chia 10.000 nm vn minh nhn loi thnh 3 ln sng pht trin chnh ng d on loi ngi s tin n ln sng vn minh th ba ln sng pht trin K nguyn Mng (internet)K nguyn nng nghip K nguyn cng nghip K nguyn mng

4

1.1.1 Cc ln sng vn minhVn minh nng nghip X hi nng nghipo o o

Lao ng x hi s dng sc ngi l chnh Trng trt trn cnh ng Cng c lao ng th s My mc thay th sc ngi Khai thc ti nguyn thin nhin trong lng t, y bin Xa l, cao , ng st, sn bay, bn cng, khu cng nghip

K nguyn nng nghip

Vn minh cng nghip X hi cng nghipo o o

K nguyn cng nghip

K nguyn mng X hi thng tinTri thc ng vai tr quan trng o Pht trin ngun nhn lc v cc mi quan h ca con ngi trn th gii thng qua cc thit b: my tnh, in thoi di ng, PDA Cc ngun tr tu con ngi c gn kt o Xa l thng tin (Internet), cc mng truyn thng, cc phng tin phn cng v phn mm, cc my tnh PC, modem v cc my in thoi di ngo

K nguyn mng

5

1.1.2 Doanh nhn trong cc nn vn minhX hi nng nghipo o

Cc thng gia, li bun: Con ng t la, Cng c, phng tin lao ng th s

X hi cng nghipo

Doanh nhn th h th nht to CSHT cho XH-CN: Cc trm t bn cng nghip: Vua thp (Andrew Carnegie), vua du m (J. D. Rockefeller), trm t (Henry Ford) Cc doanh nhn th h th hai: s dng CSHT: Cc tp on sn xut - phn phi, cng nghip gii tr (Wal-mart, Mc Donald)6

o

1.1.2 Doanh nhn trong k nguyn CNTTX hi thng tino

Cc doanh nhn th h th ba - to nn h tng thng tin cho x hi: Bill Gates, Micheal Dell V nhng doanh nhn th h th t - ng dng CNTT lm ra bc t: Jeff Bezos (Amazon); Jerry Yang, David Filo (Yahoo!) Trong khong thi gian 20 nm tr li, cc cng ty thnh t ch yu l cc cng ty Yang Yuanqing tham gia vo cc ngnh lin quan n Ch tch ca Internet Lenovo

o

o

c im chung ca cc doanh nhn k nguyn CNTT ?7

1.1.2 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca TMTInternet ang tc ng mnh n cuc sng con ngi. Cuc sng mng s l mt c trng ca i sng tng lai. Mt khi con ngi bt u s dng Internet th s khng c s quay li.Bill Gates - Ch tch kimKin trc s trng phn mm Tp on Microsoft)

CNTT, Internet tc ng mnh m ti lnh vc kinh doanh s dn n s hnh thnh mt phng thc kinh doanh mi Thng mi in t8

1.1.2 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca TMTKhi x hi mng dn tr thnh hin thc, cc hot ng thng mi trn Internet c th theo sau. Vic trin khai cc hot ng thng mi trn Internet l im mu cht ca vic to ra ca ci vt cht trong mt x hi mng. Hot ng cn c gi l thng mi in t.Sayling Wen, Future of E-commerce

9

1.1.2 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca TMTTrong nm nm ti, tt c cc doanh nghip s l cc doanh nghip trc tuynAndy Grove, CEO ca Intel

Mt nm trn mng tng ng vi by nm trn mt tJohn Chambers, CEO ca Cisco Systems

Ging nh ng st, thng mi in t em ti s tc ng mi, nhanh chng lm thay i nn kinh t, x hi v chnh trPeter Drucker, Ngi ng u cng ng Hin-u10

1.1.3 Mt s cu chuyn thnh cng trong lnh vc TMT

Cu chuyn ca Dell Qantas Airway Cu chuyn TMT Vit Nam

11

Cu chuyn kinh doanh ca DELLwww.dell.com

p trai, phong trn v lng mn l nhng iu m ng o khch hng cng nh i tc nhn xt v Micheal Dell12

Dell Computer

1.1.3.1 Cu chuyn kinh doanh ca DELLCng ty Dell Computer c thnh lp ngy 3 thng 5 nm 1984; Vn khi u: 1000 $. Thng 1 nm 1993, DELL ot doanh s 2 t $. Vn ca Dell Nm 1994, Dell ri vo khng hong khi m tht tr tru, y li l mt vn do pht trin qu nhanh - trong nm 1993 doanh thu ca cng ty tng thm 890 triu USD, t 2,1 t USD. iu ny l ra phi l mt tin tc tt lnh nhng s tht th ngc li. "Tim lc ca chng ti khng cho php cng ty m rng hot ng vi mt tc cao nh vy."14

1.1.3.1 Cu chuyn kinh doanh ca DELL Gii php ca DellMarketing trc tuyn, trc tip H thng bn hng trc tuyn B2C Trin khai h thng B2B H thng hp tc in t Dch v khch hng in t Intrabusiness EC15

1.1.3.1 Cu chuyn kinh doanh ca DELL Kt quBng vic DELL bn my tnh lp rp theo n t hng qua mng Internet nhanh chng tr thnh mt cuc cch mng qua trang www.dell.com 1999, DELL tr thnh cng ty kinh doanh PC s 1 M. Doanh s trc tuyn ca Dell nm 2004: 3,25 t USD DELL lin kt web u tin ti khch hng (lin kt c tn Premier Pages) cho php khch hng vo trc tip c s d liu v dch v v h tr cng ty. Michael Dell - mt trong s 100 nhn vt c nh hng nht trn th gii (Tp ch Time bnh chn 4/2004).16

1.1.3.2 Qantas Airways ng dng TMT cnh tranhVn Gi nhin liu tng Qantas phi i mt vi 2 vn ln: s cnh tranh gay gt ca cc i th v vic tng ph dch v ca sn bay quc t Sydney Sau v 11/9, nhu cu vn ti hng khng gim Qantas cn thay th mt s my bay ln cnh tranh Kinh t Australia gim st17

Gii php ca QantasK cc hp ng vi cc nh cung cp nhin liu nhm ch ng v vn nhin liu, trnh nhng bin ng ln v gi c th trng Tp trung trin khai cc h thng TMT lin quan ti cc hot ng mua, bn, trao i hng ho, dch v, thng tin, trin khai h thng thanh ton in t Cc gii php khc18

19

Qantas Airway

Gii php ca QantasCc hot ng B2BTham gia th trng in t B2B Lin kt vi cc nh cung ng v cc hng hng khng ln nhm hp tc gii quyt cc vn : nguyn liu, dch v nguyn liu, cc dch v bo tr, sa cha nh, cc dch v hu cn Lin kt vi Corporcure.com.au cng 13 tp on Australia ln hnh thnh tp khch hng chin lc Thc hin cc hot ng mua sm in t nhm cung cp thit b vn phng, cc dch v h tr

21

Gii php ca QantasCc hot ng B2Co o

t ch, bn v trc tuyn Mng khng dy o to trc tuyn Ngn hng trc tuyn

Cc hot ng B2E (business-to-employee)o o

22

Cu chuyn kinh doanh ca QantasKt quQantas ct gim ch ph c tnh khong 85 triu USD (AU) mi nm (2003) Qantas tng doanh thu t cc dch v (khng k dch v du lch) hng nm khong 700 triu USD (AU) Tr thnh mt i th cnh tranh ln nht trong lnh vc vn ti hng khng.

23

Cu chuyn TMT ca Vit Nam

Qunh Lng l mt x u tin ca Ngh An mnh dn lp 1 trang web qung b v bn rau qua mng. Ch cn mt ci nhp chut khch hng xa c th yn tm vi ngun cung cp rau sch t ngi dn Qunh Lng. T khi trang web ra i c rt nhiu h gia nh chuyn sang trng rau mu. Hng nm thu nhp t rau mu chim 79% tng thu nhp ca ton x.

24

1.1.4 S hnh thnh v pht trin ca TMTLch s pht trin ca TMT gn lin vi s pht trin InternetS lng my ch1995: Hng Dell, Cisco v Amazon bt u xc tin mnh m s dng Internet cho cc giao dch thng mi

61994: Netscape bn trnh duyt Navigator 1991: NSF cho php thc hin hot ng thng mi trn Internet 1989: Ngn ng HTML c pht minh

5 4 31993: Trnh duyt Web Mosaic c pht minh ti H Illinois v c bn rng ri

2

1

1969: Internet/ARPAnet bt u c xy dng

Cc mc pht trin ch yu ca thng mi in t v s lng my ch Internet tng ng

Ngun: OECD, 1998

26

Cng ty Pets khai trng trang web ca mnh vo thng 2 nm 1999. Trn th trng c hn 10.000 ca hng bn dng cho th cng. Bao gm: Ca hng bn l Ca hng tp phm H thng bn l c chit khu (Wal-Mart, Costco) v cc siu th th cng th h mi.28

Sau khi a ra trang Web Pets.com, Pets c c 110 triu USD t cc nh u t t nhn trong nm 1999 v thm 80 triu USD t vic bn c phn cng khai vo u nm 2000.Pets chi hn 100 triu USD cho hot ng qung co Cng ty cng chi tiu ng k cho vic to ra ca hng trn Web v cung cp hn 12000 sn phm khc nhau. Thng 11 nm 2000, cha y 2 nm sau khi a ra trang Web ca mnh, Pets ph sn!!!

S ngi s dng v s thm nhp ca Internet

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin TMT

Tnh hnh pht trin CNTT & TMT Vit Nam

Ngun: Bo co Ton cnh CNTT Vit Nam 2007 Hi tin hc TP. H Ch Minh

Bo co Ton cnh CNTT Vit Nam 2007 Hi tin hc TP. H Ch Minh

1.2 Khi nim thng mi in tC nhiu tn gi gn gi hoc tng t nhau v TMT E-commerce: TM in t Online trade: TM trc tuyn Cyber trade: TM iu khin hc Paperless trade: TM khng giy t Digital commerce: TM s ho Internet commerce: TM internet Thut ng c dng ph bin nht hin nay l thng mi in t (electronic commerce hay e-commerce)

42

1.2 Khi nim thng mi in tTheo GS. R. Kalakota v A. Winston, TMT c nhn nhn t nhiu gc khc nhau:Gc CNTT M t

TMT l vic cung cp, phn phi thng tin, cc sn phm/dch v, cc phng tin thanh ton qua ng dy in thoi, cc mng truyn thng hoc qua cc phng tin in t khc TMT l vic ng dng cng ngh (ch yu l cng ngh thng tin) t ng ho cc giao dch kinh doanh v cc knh thng tin kinh doanh TMT l cng c cc doanh nghip, ngi tiu dng, cc nh qun l ct gim cc chi ph dch v, ng thi nng cao cht lng hng ho, dch v v tng tc cung cp dch v cho khch hng TMT cung cp kh nng tin hnh cc hot ng mua, bn hng ho, trao i thng tin trc tip trn Internet cng nhiu dch v trc tuyn khc 43

Kinh doanh

Dch v

Trc tuyn

1.2 Khi nim thng mi in tKhi nim Thng mi in t:

Thng mi in t l vic tin hnh cc giao dch thng mi thng qua mng Internet, cc mng truyn thng v cc phng tin in t khc

44

1.3 c im ca TMT1.3.1 c im ca TMT 1.3.2 TMT v kinh doanh in t 1.3.3 Cc mc ng dng TMT 1.3.4 Phn loi TMT theo mc s ha (o ha) 1.3.5 H tng c s cho TMT

45

1.3 c im thng mi in t 1.3.1 c im TMTTMT l mt phng thc thng mi s dng cc phng tin in t lm thng mi. Ni chnh xc hn, TMT l vic trao i thng tin thng mi thng qua cc phng tin cng ngh in t, m ni chung l khng cn phi in ra giy trong bt k cng on no ca ton b qu trnh giao dch. Hot ng TMT c thc hin trn c s cc ngun thng tin di dng s ho ca cc mng in t. N cho php hnh thnh nhng dng thc kinh doanh mi v nhng cch thc mi tin hnh hot ng kinh doanh.46

1.3.1 c im TMTCc bn tin hnh giao dch trong TMT khng nht thit phi gp g nhau trc tip v khng phi bit nhau trc. Vic s dng cc PTT, cc thng tin thng mi c s ha cho php giao dch Ngi My My Ngi gia cc bn c tin hnh TMT l mt h thng bao gm nhiu giao dch thng mi. Cc giao dch ny khng ch tp trung vo vic mua - bn hng ho v dch v trc tip to ra thu nhp cho doanh nghip, m bao gm nhiu giao dch h tr to ra li nhun (v d: h thng h tr vic cho bn, cung cp cc dch v khch hng hoc to iu kin thun li cho qu trnh thng tin, lin lc gia cc i tc kinh doanh...)

47

Qui trnh thng mi in t

48

Minh ho qui trnh mua hng t website ca AmazonNgn hng Ngn hngthanh ton thanh ton

3b tr / clearance Th tn dng / Credit card

4Phn phi Phn philu kho lu kho

Gi n hng

Amazon.com Amazon.com

Giao hng

5

sales sales Information systems Information systems coordination coordination contents contents

Vn chuyn Vn chuyndeliverTrtransport transport tracking tracking

li hn g

6

cung cp

t hng bn hng Bnh lun

i tc i tcbn hng bn hng

2 Tc gi Tc gimarketing marketing

Khch hng Khch hngmua sm mua sm

1

Qui trnh kinh doanh ca DELLTng hp cc n hng thng tin cho nh cung cp 2

Lp rp v Phn phi 3 1 2 4 Giao hng cho khch hng

KH t hng qua Internet, Phone, thng qua trang web ca DN

4

Mt s sn phm giao trc tip speakers, external zip drivers

1.3.2 TMT v kinh doanh in tHai khi nim thng mi in t v kinh doanh in t c s khc nhau nht nho

TMT bao gm cc trao i thng mi gia khch hng - cc i tc - doanh nghip. Th d: gia nh cung ng - nh sn xut; gia khch hng - i din bn hng, gia nh cung ng DV vn ti - nh phn phi

o

KDT c hiu theo gc qun tr kinh doanh l vic ng dng cng ngh thng tin v Internet vo cc quy trnh, hot ng ca doanh nghip KDT bao hm tt c cc hot ng TMT, ngoi ra, cn lin quan n cc hot ng xy ra bn trong doanh nghip, nh sn xut, nghin cu pht trin, qun tr sn phm, qun tr ngun nhn lc v c s h tng51

1.3.2 TMT v kinh doanh in t

Qun tr chui cung ng (SCM)

Qun tr mi quan h khch hng (CRM) TMT eCommerce Qun tr tri thc (KM)

52

1.3.3 Cc mc ng dng TMT5 4

3 2 1

1.3.4 Phn loi TMT theo mc s ho (o ho)Trnh ng dng TMTca t chc c phn loi qua mc o ho (s ho) ba yu t kinh doanh c bn (3Ps):o o o

Products: sn phm (dch v) c kinh doanh Process: qu trnh giao dch Players: ch th, i tc tham gia giao dch

54

Phn loi cc t chc TMT

55

1.3.4 Phn loi TMT theo mc s ho (o ho)S kt hp ba yu t ny c m t trong khng gian ba chiu (3Ds) hnh thnh ba loi hnh t chc tng ng vi ba mc ng dng TMT khc nhau (3Os):o

T chc kinh doanh truyn thng: 3 yu t u mang tnh vt th.

Cc t chc gch va Brick and mortar organizationo

T chc kinh doanh in t thun tu (TMT ton phn): 3 yu t u s ho

Cc t chc o dot com (pure online/virtual organization)o

T chc ng dng TMT tng phn: 1 hoc 2 yu t o ho

Cc t chc c nhp v va h click and brick organization56

1.4 Li ch v hn ch ca TMT1.4.1 Li ch ca TMT 1.4.1.1 Li ch i vi t chc 1.4.1.2 Li ch i vi ngi tiu dng 1.4.1.3 Li ch i vi x hi 1.4.2 Hn ch ca TMT 1.4.2.1 Hn ch v k thut 1.4.2.2 Hn ch v thng mi57

1.4.1 Li ch ca TMT1.4.1.1 LI CH I VI CC T CHCo

M rng th trngM rng th trng vi chi phi thp, D dng tm kim, tip cn ngi cung cp, khch hng v i tc trn khp th gii M rng mng li nh cung cp, khch hng cng cho php cc t chc c th mua vi gi thp hn v bn c nhiu sn phm hn.

o

Gim chi ph sn xutGim chi ph giy t Gim chi ph chia x thng tin, Chi ph in n, gi vn bn truyn thng.

1.4.1 Li ch ca thng mi in t1.4.1.1 LI CH I VI CC T CHC (tip)o

Ci thin h thng phn phiGim lng hng lu kho v tr trong phn phi hng H thng ca hng gii thiu sn phm c thay th hoc h tr bi cc showroom trn mng, v d ngnh sn xut t (V d nh Ford Motor) tit kim c chi ph hng t USD t gim chi ph lu kho

o

Vt gii hn v thi gianVic t ng ha cc giao dch thng qua Web v Internet gip hot ng kinh doanh c thc hin 24/7/365 m khng mt thm nhiu chi ph bin i.

1.4.1 Li ch ca thng mi in t1.4.1.1 LI CH I VI CC T CHC (tip)o

Sn xut hng theo yu cuCn c bit n di tn gi Chin lc ko, li ko khch hng n vi doanh nghip bng kh nng p ng mi nhu cu ca khch hng. V d: Dell Computer Corp, Trn Anh

1.4.1 Li ch ca thng mi in t1.4.1.1 LI CH I VI CC T CHC (tip)o

M hnh kinh doanh miCc m hnh kinh doanh mi vi nhng li th v gi tr mi cho khch hng M hnh ca Amazon.com, mua hng theo nhm hay u gi nng sn qua mng n cc sn giao dch B2B l in hnh ca nhng thnh cng ny.

1.4.1 Li ch ca thng mi in t1.4.1.1 LI CH I VI CC T CHCo

Tng tc tung sn phm ra th trngLi th v thng tin Kh nng phi hp gia cc doanh nghiptng hiu qu sn xut v gim thi gian tung sn phm ra th trng

o o

Gim chi ph thng tin lin lc Gim chi ph mua sm: Thng qua gim cc chi ph qun l hnhchnh (80%); gim gi mua hng (5-15%); gim chu trnh thi gian mua hng (50%)

o

Cng c quan h khch hng:Giao tip thun tin qua mng Quan h vi trung gian v khch hng d dng hn Vic c bit ha sn phm v dch v cng gp phn tht cht quan h vi khch hng v cng c lng trung thnh

1.4.1.1 Li ch ca i vi t chc (tip)o

Thng tin cp nhtMi thng tin trn web nh sn phm, dch v, gi c... u c th c cp nht nhanh chng v kp thi

o

Chi ph ng k kinh doanhMt s nc v khu vc khuyn khch bng cch gim hoc khng thu ph ng k kinh doanh qua mng. Thc t, vic thu nu trin khai cng gp rt nhiu kh khn do c th ca Internet

o

Cc li ch khcNng cao uy tn, hnh nh doanh nghip Ci thin cht lng dch v khch hng i tc kinh doanh mi n gin ha v chun ha cc quy trnh giao dch Tng nng sut, gim chi ph giy t Tng kh nng tip cn thng tin v gim chi ph vn chuyn Tng s linh hot trong giao dch v hot ng kinh doanh.

1.4.1.2 Li ch ca i vi ng...