Chuong 1 - Tong Quan Ve Revit Va Bim

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  • Chng 1 Tng quan v Revit v BIM

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 1

    Chng 1 Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    A. M u

    I. Gii thiu Revit Architecture l mt phn mm dng cho ngnh thit k kin trc ca hng AutoDesk c sn xut theo khuynh hng BIM. Ni dung ca chng ny l trnh by nhng kin thc c bn ngi s dng bit c Revit Architecture lm c g v lm nh th no cho minh khi s dng n,

    II. Mc ch Sau khi hon tt nghin cu v thc hnh chung ny, ngi s dng s Hiu c thit k kin trc vi s h tr ca my tnh theo khuynh hng BIM. Bc u quen thuc vi giao din v c im hot ng ca Revit Architecture Mt s thao tc c bn trong vic thit k mt cng trnh kin trc Ban u hnh thnh mt phong cch t duy thit k vi my tnh l cng c h tr tht s

    ch my tnh ch thay bt thc trong qu trnh lm vic.

    B. Ni dung

    I. Lch s ca Revit Building i vi nhng ngi lm thit k kin trc ca Vit Nam , cc phn mm ca Hng AutoDesk l kh quen thuc. Ho khng xa l g vi cc phn mm nh ACAD, 3D Studio, 3D Max, 3D Viz . . . Sau hn mt thp nin s dng , ho quen thuc n xem nh y l nhng phn mm c bn cho ngnh thit k xy dng . Hin nay, phn ln cc c s o to ngnh thit k kin trc vn con tip tc dy phn mm ACAD nh l phn mm chuyn ngnh. Phn mm ACAD cho cng vic thit k kin trc trong th ky 21 c hiu qu hay khng? C l chng ta nghe ni n nhng phn mm khc nh Architectural Desktop, Micro Station, ArchiCad . . . ca nhiu hng khc nhau. Vy th ta nn chon phn mm no cho cng vic thit k hin nay. Tht ra, mi phn mm u c u khuyt im ring ca mnh. Vn t ra khng phi l phn mm no hay hay d, m mi c nhn u phi t mnh tm ra phn mm thch hp cho cng vic hng ngy. tng chnh xc cho vic chon la ny, chng ta s xem li lich s pht trin cc phn mm ca hng AutoDesk pht hnh cho ngnh thit k xy dng.

    1. Cac phn mm ca hang AutoDesk cho ngnh thit k kin truc a. Khai nim v CAD CAD l vit tt ca cm t Computer Aided Design (my tnh tr gip thit k ) ng thi cung l c mun ca con ngi trong thi i tin hoc. Ni chung, thit k l mt cng vic ca nhiu ngnh ngh khc nhau . Tuy nhin, i vi ngnh thit k xy dng th iu

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 2

    ban u c hiu nh l s xut hin ca hnh nh trn mn hnh theo y mun ca ngi s dng. to lp mt hnh nh trn mn hnh, my tnh da vo 2 nguyn ly ca ngnh ton hnh hoc :

    Nguyn ly cua hinh hoc c in : hnh nh l tp hp cc im . Da vo nguyn ly ny s c hnh nh dng raster. y l dng hnh nh cui cng c to thnh bi cc phn mm nh 3D Max, 3D Viz . . .

    Mt im ca hnh nh c biu thi trn mn hnh bng mt pixel . Mt pixel c qun ly bi cc thuc tnh nh vi tr, mu sc . . . V vy, mt hnh nh c kch thc hnh hoc cng ln th s pixel cng nhiu , keo theo yu c u nhiu ti nguyn ca phn cng qun ly thng tin. H qu l dung lng file cng ln , phn mm s x ly chm Hnh raster thng c nhng u im c bn l : mu sc v to hnh phong ph gn vi thc t.

    Nguyn ly cua hinh hoc giai tich : hnh nh l thi ca mt hm s y = f(x). Da vo nguyn ly ny s c hnh nh dng vector . y l dng hnh nh c to ra bi phn mm nh ACAD

    Mt hnh nh vector c qun ly bng mt hm s v mt vi thng s . Do , d kch thc hnh nh ln hay nho cung khng nh hng nhiu n dung lung file. Hnh vector thng c nhng c im : n sc, to hnh kem phong ph so vi hnh raster. C th to hnh phong ph hn , nhng v cn nhiu hm s hoc hm s bc cao nn dn n l dung lng file tng theo , nhng vn khng ln bng hnh raster cng mt ni dung.

    Vy ngi lm thit k kin trc s dng loai phn mm no, kt qu l hnh raster hay vector, cho cng vic hng ngy ca mnh ? Cu tra li l ca hai. C vector ln raster, ty thuc vo giai oan no trong qu trnh thit k : qu trnh thit k cc khng gian chc nng, vector hiu qu hn; qu trnh nghin cu vt liu v mu, raster hiu qu hn. Bn cnh , ngoai nhng hnh nh thy c trn mn hnh l thng tin hnh hoc (graphic information), ngi lm thit k kin trc con cn n nhng thng tin khng phi l hnh nh goi l thng tin phi hnh hoc (non-graphic information ) nh din tch , th t ch, khi lng . . . ca cng vic m ho ang lm. Xem hnh 1.B.I.1a Da trn nhng thng tin phi hnh hoc, khng ch ngnh thit k cng trnh m cc b mn lin quan n mt d n nh ti chnh, qun ly d n . . . s khai thc thc c th cho cng vic ca mnh phc v d n.

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 3

    V d : hin nay, Vit Nam chng ta, kh c mt d n no c th a ra tng vn u t mt cch chnh xc. C nhiu nguyn nhn, nhng nguyn nhn ch yu l khu thit k khng c mt cng c tnh ton khi lng thit k mt cc nhanh chng v ng tin cy m hu nh da hon ton vo con ngi. Nu ngi thit k s dng cc phn mm theo khuynh hng BIM thit k th khi lng s c tnh ton mt cch t ng v hon toan chnh xc theo nhng g xut hin trn mn hnh.

    Hnh 1.B.I.1 Trn c s hai phng thc hnh thnh nh trn, cc phn mm CAD to lp cc hnh thc xut hin gm :

    Surface Model : Ruled Surfaces Solid Modeling NURB Surface Modeling Parametric Modeling

    Xem hnh 1.B.I.2

    Surface Models

    Ruled Surface

    Solid Modeling

    NURB Surface Modeling

    Parametric Modeling

    Hnh 1.B.I.2

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 4

    Trong 5 thnh phn c bn trn th Solid Modeling v Parametric Modeling c ngnh thit k kin trc s dng nhiu hn c. Modelling c m hnh ho thnh cc m hnh di y :

    Box : khi hp Cylinder : khi tr Cone : khi nn Torus : khi vong xuyn Wedge : khi hnh nm Sphere : khi cu

    Box

    Cylinder

    Cone

    Wedge

    Torus

    Sphere

    Hnh 1.B.I.3

    T cc m hnh c bn v da trn nguyn ly ca bin hnh Morphology, mt s lnh c dng to hnh theo tr tng tng ngi s dng. Da vo nhng yu t va cp trn y , hng AutoDesk ln lt xut bn nhng phn mm khc nhau cho ngnh thit k xy dng. b. Cac phn mm cho ngnh thit k xy dng ca hang AutoDesk

    Trong nhng nm 90, ACAD l phn mm c ngi thit k kin trc s dng ph bin nht khi thit k hnh hoc vector (m nh im l ACAD R.14 hin nay l phin bn 2008), v 3D Max (nh im l phin bn 5.0, hin nay l phin bn 9.0)

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 5

    khi thit k hnh hoc raster. y c xem nh l nhng phn mm ng dng cng ngh th nht l CAD. Nhn vo hin trng s dng ti Vit Nam, ACAD c s dng nh l mt cng c v k thut. CAD ch c y ngha nh l Computer Aided Drawing. Mt s ngi c kh nng lp trnh bng AutoLisp pht trin thm mt s lnh chuyn ngnh kn trc. Tuy nhin, s pht trin ny cung khng th hn na v thiu nhng c s php ly mang tnh v m. iu ny c th hin c th qua s vic l n nay Vit Nam vn cha c mt quy chun v t tn Layer (Hip Hi Kin Trc S Hoa K ban hnh tiu chun ny t nm 1994). Trc khi xut bn ACAD 2000, AutoDesk c th nghim mt phin bn 14.1 goi tn l Architectural Desktop. Phn mm ny l s kt hp gia phn mm Acad v AEC (truc y ca hng SoftDesk). y l phin bn dnh ring cho ngi tht k kin trc. Ngi s dng n nhn phin bn ny mt cc nng nhit v ho thy rng y ng l mt phn mm CAD ng ngha (Computer Aided Design). Tuy nhin, cng s dng ho cng thy thiu nhng cng c cn thit. AutoDesk tip tc pht trin cho n phin bn Architectural Desktop 2006 c xem nh l phin bn c s dng ph bin nht.

    n nhng nm u th ky 21, ngi thit k kin trc trn th gii s dng

    Architectural Desktop cho thit k Vector v Viz Render cho thit k raster hoc dng trc tip v 3D Viz nu ch mun to c kt qu thit k kin trc bng hnh raster. Hin nay, Architectural Desktop s dng phin bn 2008. y l nhng ng dng ca cng ngh th 2 goi l cng ngh CAD Objects. Architectural Desktop l mt phn mm c pht trin da trn nn ca phn ACAD nhng theo hng BIM (Building Information Modelling xem phn gii thch bn di). Vi phn mm ny, ngi thit k kin trc thay i hn cch lm vic ca mnh. Ho khng con phi lm vic nh khi dng phn mm ACAD (phng php lm vic nh vi bt thc). Ho khng phi nghin cu i tng bng mt bng, mt ng, mt ct . . . m ch nghin cu hoan toan trn hnh 3D. Tt c nhng thng tin hnh hoc nh mt bng, mt ng, mt ct . . . hay thng tin phi hnh hoc nh khi lng thit k, s lng vt t . . . u c trch xut t ng t m hnh 3D. CAD ca ngnh thit k kin trc tr thnh mt b mn mi ca ngnh tin hoc v mang tn CAADD (Computer Aided Architectural Design and Database). Tuy nhin, do da trn phn mm ACAD nn Architectual Desktop c nhng hn ch nh : mt s chi tit kin trc (nh mi vom) khng th c phn mm thit k t ng theo hng BIM c; mun s dng phn mm phi s dng c ACAD; nm bt c chng trnh phc v cho cng vic thit k khng phi l mt vic d dng. Ngoai ra, s hiu bit su sc v y mt s lnh nh Pedit, Line, Poyline, Xef . . . ca Acad l rt cn thit s dng c Architectural Desktop.

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 6

    C l rng, y chnh l nguyn nhn nhng ngi thit k kin trc ca Vit Nam tuy thy c nhng li ch qu thit thc ca Architectuarl Desktop cho cng vic ca mnh, nhng s dng kh hn ch.

    n u nm 2006, vi phin bn 9 ca Revit Building, ngi thit k kin trc trn th gii c mt cng c kh ly tng cho cng vic hng ngy ca mnh. Tuy l mt sn phm ca mt hng phn mm quen thuc l AutoDesk, nhng ngi thit k kin trc Vit Nam rt t bit n. C nhiu nguyn nhn, nhng c l nguyn nhn quan trong nht l khng y n mt trong nhng c s ly lun quan trong Revit Architecture xut hin v nhn c s n nhn nng nhit ca th gii l khuynh hng BIM trong ngnh cng nghip xy dng.

    Vi Revit Building, ngi s dng khng cn phi hoc Acad, 3D Max . . . m ch cn bit nhng kin thc c bn tin hoc l p ng c yu cu hoc.

    2. Revit Building v cac phn mm thit k xy dng a. Khuynh hng BIM trong ngnh cng nghip xy dng

    BIM (Building Information Modeling m hnh thng tin xy dng) l mt khuynh hng ng i ca ngnh cng nghip xy dng ca mt s quc gia m c th l M. y l mt hng i c tnh bt buc theo nghi ca BOMA (Building Operater Manager Association Hip hi nhng nh vn hnh v qun ly cng trnh xy dng). Trong thi i tin hoc, nhng ngi ca BOMA khng coi h s thit k ch c gi tri trong giai oan xy dng cng trnh m con phi l mt vn kin c s qun ly v vn hnh cng trnh khi cng trnh c a vo hoat ng. i vi ho vic oc mt h s thit k l qu phc tp v phi cn n nhng kin thc chuyn mn ca ngnh xy dng. V vy, ho yu cu phi c mt m hnh 3D (ho s d oc v d hiu hn) gn nhng thng tin cn thit vo , khi cn ho s truy xut nhng thng tin hoc t c nhng thng tin mi.

    b. Cng ngh PBM Cng ngh PBM (Parametric Building Model M hnh cng trnh xy dng c cha thng s) c AutoDesk a ra v goi l cng ngh th 3 phn bit vi cng ngh CAD (th 1) v CAD Objects (cng ngh th 2). Vi cng ngh ny th mt gi gii php c Autidesk a Revit Architecture phc v ngnnh thit k xy dng : Revit Building l mt phn mm dng cho chuyn ngnh thit k kin trc, Revit Structure l phn mm thit k kt cu t cc d liu do cc phn mm phn

    tch kt cu Robot, Etabs, Risa. . . a Revit Architecture theo chun IFC. Revit MEP l phn mm thit k MEP (Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing) Cc phn mm theo cng ngh th 1 v 2 nu mun lm vic c theo gi gii php ny cn thng qua Revit.

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 7

    Revit Building c kh nng to hnh khi dng cung nh cc chi tit phong ph v linh ng hn nhiu so vi cc phn mm CAD. Ngoi ra, khi s dng phn mm thuc cng ngh PBM, nhng vic nh thng k khi lng (gch, xi mng, thep, vn khun . . . ni chung l nhng vt liu c mt trong cng trnh xy dng) s c phn mm t ng sn sinh. H s thit k k thut c phn mm qun ly mt cch chc ch v chnh xc. V khng ch c vy, ngi s dng c c tt c nhng thng tin hnh hoc v phi hnh hoc ca cng trnh ti bt thi im k ca qu trnh xy dng. V nhng c im ny, mt s nh chuyn mn v xy dng goi y l phn mm 4D (3D + chiu thi gian). Bn cnh , Revit Building l mt trong nhng phn mm him hoi ca ngnh thit k kin trc lm vic theo c hai inh dng nh vector v raster, tc x ly nhanh, chim dung lng a cng thp, ch cn c trnh tin hoc cn bn (nh Microsoft Word, chi nhng game n gin) ch khng cn bit s dng ACAD (mt yu cu quan trong khi hoc Architectural Desktop). Ch S dng Revit Building, ngi thit k kin trc khng ch c mt h s thit k k thut m con c h s trnh din nh cc phi cnh ni ngoai tht cng trnh bt k gc no, ti bt k vi tr ia ly no, vo bt k thi im vo trong nm, cc oan phim chuyn ng.

    Hnh 1.B.I.4

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 8

    Cc phn mm ca hng AutoDesk c mt c im goi l Mid-Price Software (phn mm gi trung bnh. C nhng phn mm c vi tnh nng vt tri ca cc hng khc, nhng i vi hiu qu kinh t trong thit k th AutoDesk vn c coi l s la chon hang u. n nay, ACAD c 17 phin bn c pht hnh (mi nht l ACAD 2008), 7 phin bn c 7 phin bn c pht hnh (mi nht l ADT 2008) trong sut qu trnh tn ti ca mnh trong hn 20 nm. Revit Building ch mi hnh thnh v xut hin trong 4 nm gn y, nhng cung c n 4 phin bn v phin bn mi nht tn l Revit Architecture 2008. Qua y chng ta cung thy r gi tri ca Revit Architecture trong ngnh cng nghip ngy nay trn th gii. Vic s dng Revit Architecture Vit nam trong giai oan hin nay v sp n cn c khuyn khch. c c cng mt kt qu, vic hoc tp s dng Revit Architecture ch chim thi gian hoc cc phn mm khc. Ngoai Revit Architecture, nng sut lm vic s tng t nht 400% i vi nhng ngi ang lm vic vi nhng phn mm hin dung. Nh vy vic s dng Revit Architecture khng ch l mt yu cu ca ring bn thn ngnh thit k kin trc m con l yu cu ca ngnh thit k xy dng c th lm vic theo hnh thc TeamWork.

    II. Cu truc v c im ca Revit Architecture Sau khi khi ng chng trnh, giao din nh hnh v 1.B.II.1.B. Chng ta nhn xet rng giao din tng t nh giao din ca phn mm Microsoft Word. C 9 thnh phn cu to nn giao din ca Revit Building gm : Menu, Tool Bar, Option Bar, Type Selector, Design bar, Project Browser, Status Bar, View Control Bar v Drawing Area. Di y s kho st bit chc nng tng qut ca tng thnh phn

    Hnh 1.B.II.1

  • Chng 1 : Tng quan v Revit v BIM

    Thit k kin trc vi Revit Architecture Nguyn Phc Thin 9

    1. Giao din ca Revit Architecture a. Menu :

    Hnh 1.B.II.2 : Menu Gm c 10 ct lnh, bn trong cc ct lnh cha cc lnh c ghi bng ch. Cu trc ny tng t nh chng trnh Micropsoft Window hay Excel (v d cc ct lnh File, Edit, Window, Help). T cc ct lnh ny, ngi s dng c th truy nhp gn nh toan b cc lnh

    b. Tool Bar :

    Hnh 1.B.II.3 : Tool Bar y l ni cha cc nhm lnh nh l nhng cng c thi cng trong cng trng xy dng. Nu bit qua ACAD hay ADT th ngi s dng s cm thy quen thuc. Tuy nhin, so vi 2 phn mm trn th nhm Tool Bar ny c ni dung hoat ng phong ph hn rt nhiu.

    c. Option bar :

    Hnh 1.B.II.4 : Option Bar Sau khi chon c lnh th y l ni chon cc c tnh ca cc chi tit kin trc m ta m...