Chuong 3-Cong Nghe Mang MEN

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<ul><li><p>Cng ngh mng MENTrnh by: TS. L Quang Tun</p><p>Cng ty Vin thng Lin Tnh</p></li><li><p>Cng ngh mng MENNi Dung</p><p> Tng quan v cng ngh Cng ngh NG-SDH/NG-SDH Cng ngh WDM Cng ngh RPR Cng ngh thun Ethernet Cng ngh PBB v PBB-TE Cng ngh MPLS Cng ngh T-MPLS Kt lun</p></li><li><p>Nhng ng lc thc y phttrin cng ngh mng MEN</p><p> S bng n v nhu cu v loi hnh trao i thng tin trong tt ccc lnh vc hot ng ca x hi nh kinh t, vn ha, gio dc, khoa hc l thut</p><p> Mng cc b (LAN) ch p ng nhu cu trao i thng tin trongphm vi hp</p><p> Cng ngh mng truyn thng (TDM, PSTN) khng p ng cnhu cu truyn ti bng rng v a dch v</p><p> Xu hng cng ngh hng ti truyn ti gi v truyn ti tch hpa dch v (NGN)</p><p> Xu hng tp trung u t xy dng cc mng ni vng, chuyni cng ngh, cung cp a dch v, a dch v ti gn ngi sdng, t mc ch cung cp dch v mi ni, mi lc, mi giaodin</p><p> Cc loi hnh cng ngh truyn ti NGN (truyn dn, chuyn mch, nh tuyn) cho php kin to cc gii php thc hin mng MEN theo yu cu</p></li><li><p>Mc tiu ca cng nghmng MEN</p><p> Truyn ti a loi hnh dch v, a tc , a giao din</p><p> Gim chi ph u t xy dng mng Rt ngn thi gian p ng dch v cho khch </p><p>hng D phng dung lng i vi s gia tng lu </p><p>lng dng gi Tng li nhun t vic trin khai cc dch v mi Nng cao hiu sut khai thc mng</p></li><li><p>CCuu trtrcc phnphn llpp ccaa mmngng thth ((xxtt trntrn khkhaa ccnhnh ddchch vv))</p></li><li><p>Cu trc phn lp mng MEN (theo m hnh tham chiu OSI)</p></li><li><p>Cc cng ngh ch yuthc hin mang MEN</p><p> SDH/SDH-NG WDM RPR Ethernet/Giagabit Ethernet (GE) PBB/PBB-TE MPLS/GMPLS T-MPLS</p></li><li><p>Nhng c im chnh cacng ngh mng MEN</p><p> Cng ngh mng s dng cho phm vi mng kt ni cc my tnh hoc cc mngcc b, kt ni vi mng din rng WAN</p><p> Cng ngh mng MEN thc cht l tphp cc gii php tch hp ca nhiu cngngh thc hin truyn ti lu lngEthernet</p></li><li><p>Cng ngh NG-SDH/NG-SDH</p><p> Nhng c im chung ca cng ngh SDH Cng ngh truyn ti theo phng thc TDM </p><p>da trn cu trc ghp knh phn cp ng b. Cung cp cc kt ni bng thng c nh c tc t vi Mbit/s ti hng chc Gbit/s</p><p> Truyn ti thng tin trn kt ni c tin cy caodo s dng c ch phc hi bo/v</p><p> c thit k ti u cho truyn ti dch v TDM</p></li><li><p>Cu trc ghp knh SDH</p></li><li><p>u im ca cng nghSDH truyn thng</p><p> u im Cht lng truyn ti thng tin trn kt ni cao, tr</p><p>truyn ti nh tin cy kt ni cao Cng ngh c chun ha Thun tin s dng cho m hnh kt ni im im Thit b c trin khai rng ri trn mng, tng</p><p>thch vi nhiu chng loi thit b mng Qun l d dng</p></li><li><p>Nhc im ca cng nghSDH truyn thng</p><p> Do SDH c thit k ti u cho phng thc truyn ti TDM, do vyc nhng nhc im khi trin khai SDH cho mng truyn ti d liugi: Kt ni cng, lng ph ti nguyn bng thng khi kt ni truyn ti lu</p><p>lng gi Khng ti u v lng ph ti nguyn bng thng khi truyn ti lu lng</p><p>gi trn cu trc t-p ring Ti nguyn mng dnh cho phc hi v bo v mng ln Khng ti u trong vic trin khai cc dch v qung b (multicast) Hiu qu s dng bng thng thp khi ghp d liu gi vo ti tin SDH Cu trc ghp knh qua nhiu cp, s lng thit b mng ln khi phi</p><p>phn chia nhiu loi giao din khch hng Cc giao din mng khng tng thch vi cc giao din ca thit b</p><p>Ethernet Chi ph nng cp m rng tn km Thi gian cung ng dch v cho khch hng lu</p></li><li><p>Hiu sut s dng bng thngkhi truyn dch v Ethernet qua </p><p>mng SDH</p><p>42%2,4GbpsVC-4-16c1Gbps</p><p>67%150MbpsVC-4100Mbps</p><p>21%48,4MbpsVC-310Mbps</p><p>Hiu sut sdng bng</p><p>thng</p><p>Tc truynSDHEthenet</p><p>Kt ni Hub cc thit bEthernet trong cu trc ring </p><p>SDH</p></li><li><p>Cng ngh SDH th h mi(NG-SDH)</p><p> Cng ngh NG-SDH c ci tin t cng ngh SDH nhm khc phc mt s nhc im ca cng nghSDH Cho php h tr truyn ti cc dch v truyn ti TDM v dch v</p><p>truyn ti gi To cc giao thc ci thin hiu qu s dng bng thng khi</p><p>truyn ti dch v d liu Cung cp cc giao din ghp ni chun vi thit b mng</p><p>Ethernet Ci thin hiu nng thit b tng hiu qu truyn ti d liu vi</p><p>kin trc t p ring Ci thin c ch kin to kt ni, gim thiu thi gian cung ng</p><p>dch v ti khch hng</p></li><li><p>M hnh giao thc trongNG-SDH</p></li><li><p>Cu trc ghp cc loi hnhtn hiu trong NG-SDH</p></li><li><p>Cc giao thc chnh cb sung trong NG-SDH</p><p> Th tc nh dng khung chung (GFP): Th tc spxp gi s liu ca bt k dch v tuyn s liu (data link) no nh Ethernet, qung b video s (DVB), lu tr ccb (SAN). So vi cc th tc nh dng khung khc nhPacket over SDH hay X.86, GFP c t l mo u thpnn khng i hi nhiu qu trnh phn tch x l</p><p> Lin kt o (VCAT): Th tc to ra mt ng o vikch thc ph hp cho lu lng, linh hot v khnng tng thch cao vi cc k thut SDH hin c.</p><p> Giao thc iu chnh dung lng tuyn (LCAS): thtc bo hiu thc hin phn nh hay hu b cc n vbng thng ph hp vi yu cu truyn ti s liu</p></li><li><p>Giao thc ghp khung tngqut GFP</p><p> c chun ha trong ITU-T G.7041 L giao thc ng gi cn thit thch ng vi tnh bng</p><p>pht ca lu lng dng gi Hin ti c hai th tc ghp khung thch ng vi tn hiu</p><p>khch hng l:- Ghp GFP theo khung (GFP-F)</p><p>+ Thch hp cho ghp lu lng khung MAC Ethernet, cc giPPP/IP v cc PDU c ng khung HDLC </p><p>- Ghp GFP trong sut (GFP-T)+ GFP ghp theo k t c dng truyn tc bit lin tc, d liui tng s dng m ho khi 8B/10B v thng tin iu khin cchuyn ti trong mng knh quang (Fiber Channel), ESCON, FICON v Ethernet Gigabit, tt vi cc dch v nhy cm v tr</p></li><li><p>Cu trc ghp khung tng qut GFP</p></li><li><p>Qu trnh ghp v chuyn ti cckhung GFP vo VC container trong</p><p>cc khung STM </p><p>STM-n</p><p>314</p><p>Cng 1</p><p>Cng 2</p><p>Cng n</p><p>Cng 1</p><p>Cng 2Cng n</p><p>Hng i</p><p>Rx</p><p>Hng i</p><p>Tx</p><p>H thng</p><p>ghp ph</p><p>Khung STM</p><p>Knh nh danh</p><p>Sp xp</p><p>GFP</p><p>Gii sp xp</p><p>GFP</p><p>ng gi</p><p>Sp xp</p><p>Ghp knh</p><p>TRUYNPhn knh</p><p>Gii sp xp</p><p>Gii ng gi</p><p>Ethernet MSPP SDH EthernetMSPP</p></li><li><p>Lin kt o VCAT c chun ha trong ITU-T G.7042 L gii php tng hiu sut truyn ti ca bng thng c</p><p>trong cc cp VC ca cu trc ghp SDH VCAT to ra ti lin tc tng ng vi X ln cc khi</p><p>VC-n Tp hp container c goi l nhm container o(VCG), mi VC o l mt thnh vin ca VCG </p><p> S dng 2 phng thc ghp knh o:+ Lin kt o bc cao (HO-VCAT) s dng container VC-3 </p><p>hoc VC-4 (VC-3/4-Xv, X=1...256), to ra dung lng ti l bica 48384 hay 149760 kbit/s.</p><p>+ Lin Kt o bc thp (LO-VCAT) VCAT s dng container VC-11, VC12, VC2 (VC-11/12/2-Xv, X=1..64), to ra dung lng lbi ca 1600, 2176 hay 6784 kbit/s. </p></li><li><p>Lin kt chui lin kt o</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>II</p><p>III</p><p>IV</p><p>1</p><p>Bng thng cn thitLin kt chuiMt ti tin chui</p><p>Lin kt oMt ti tin chui</p><p>SDH</p><p>Mt tuyn622 Mb/s</p><p>3x155 </p><p>Mb/s</p><p>VC4-4c</p><p>STS-12c SPE</p><p>VC4-3v </p><p>hoc STS-9v</p><p>1 VCG</p><p>3 thnh phn VC</p><p>Mt s tuyn</p><p>(3 trong SDH</p><p>9 trong SONET)</p><p>Chia bng thng</p><p>(430Mb/s)</p></li><li><p>Hiu qu s dng bngthng bng lin kt o</p></li><li><p>Dung lng lin kt o SDH VC-n-Xv </p><p>149,760 n 38,338,560 Kbps1 n 256 149,760 Kb/sVC-4</p><p>48,384 n 12,386 Kbps1 n 256 48,384 Kb/s VC-3</p><p>6,784 n 434,176 Kbps1 n 646,784 Kb/s VC-2</p><p>2,176 n 139,264 Kbps1 n 64 2,176 Kb/s VC-12</p><p>1,600 n 102,400 Kbps1 n 64 1,600 Kb/s VC-11</p><p>Dung lng oThnh phn (x)Dung lngringSDH</p></li><li><p>So snh hiu sut s dngbng thng ghp mt s</p><p>loi hnh dch v</p><p>VC-4-7v (95%)VC-16c (42%)1000 Mb/sFibre Channel</p><p>VC-3-4v (100%)VC-3-4v (100%)200 Mb/sFibre Channel</p><p>VC-4-7v (95%)VC-16c (42%)1000 Mb/sGigabit Ethernet</p><p>VC-3-2v (100%)VC-4 (67%)100 Mb/sEthernet</p><p>Hiu sut bngthng c VCAT</p><p>Hiu sut bngthng khng</p><p>VCATTc Dch v</p></li><li><p>Cng ngh WDM Nhng nguyn l c bn</p><p> Ghp knh theo bc sng (WDM) l cng ngh c bn to</p><p>nn mng quang. K thut ny tn dng bng tn ca si quang</p><p>bng cch truyn nhiu knh bc sng quang c lp v ring</p><p>r trn cng mt si quang. Mi bc sng biu th cho mt</p><p>knh quang trong si</p><p> Mt cch nhn khc i vi nguyn l ghp bc sng l xem</p><p>mi knh bc sng c mt mu sc khc nhau. V nh vy tn</p><p>hiu truyn trn h thng WDM s ging nh mt chic cu</p><p>vng</p></li><li><p>Nguyn l c bn ca hthng thng tin quang WDM</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>E/O</p><p>E/O</p><p>E/O</p><p>E/O</p><p>MUX</p><p>RM1S1</p><p>RM4S4</p><p>RM3S3</p><p>RM2S2</p><p>DEMUX</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>SD1</p><p>SD4</p><p>SD3</p><p>SD2</p><p>O/E</p><p>O/E</p><p>O/E</p><p>O/E</p><p>R1</p><p>R4</p><p>R3</p><p>R2</p><p>OFA OFA</p><p>1 2 3 4</p></li><li><p>Phn loi h thng WDM</p><p> Phn loi v phng thc truyn H thng ghp bc sng mt hng s dng mi</p><p>si quang cho tng hng truyn dn H thng ghp bc sng hai hng s dng mt</p><p>si quang chung cho c hai hng truyn dn Phn loi phn b bc sng v khong cch</p><p>gia cc bc sng WDM/DDWD CWDM</p><p> Phn loi v cng ngh - chc nng H thng s dng ghp/tch bc sng (OADM) H thng chuyn mch bc sng (OXC/ROADM)</p></li><li><p>Nguyn l c bn ca hthng thng tin quang WDM</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>E/O</p><p>E/O</p><p>E/O</p><p>E/O</p><p>MUX</p><p>RM1S1</p><p>RM4S4</p><p>RM3S3</p><p>RM2S2</p><p>DEMUX</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>SD1</p><p>SD4</p><p>SD3</p><p>SD2</p><p>O/E</p><p>O/E</p><p>O/E</p><p>O/E</p><p>R1</p><p>R4</p><p>R3</p><p>R2</p><p>OFA OFA</p><p>1 2 3 4</p></li><li><p>H thng ghp bc sng mthng s dng mi si quang</p><p>cho tng hng truyn dn1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>E/O</p><p>O/E</p><p>E/O</p><p>O/E</p><p>MUX/DEMUX</p><p>RM1S1</p><p>SD4R4</p><p>RM3S3</p><p>SD2R2MUX/DEMUX</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>SD1</p><p>RM4</p><p>SD3</p><p>RM2</p><p>O/E</p><p>E/O</p><p>O/E</p><p>E/O</p><p>R1</p><p>S4</p><p>R3</p><p>S2</p><p>2, 4</p><p>1, 3</p></li><li><p>H thng ghp bc sng haihng s dng mt si quangchung cho c hai hng truyn</p><p>dn1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>E/O</p><p>O/E</p><p>O/E</p><p>E/O</p><p>MUX</p><p>RM1S1</p><p>SD4R4</p><p>SD3R3</p><p>RM2S2</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>SD1</p><p>RM4</p><p>RM3</p><p>SD2</p><p>O/E</p><p>E/O</p><p>E/O</p><p>O/E</p><p>R1</p><p>S4</p><p>S3</p><p>R2</p><p>3, 4</p><p>DEMUX</p><p>DEMUX</p><p>MUX</p><p>1, 2</p></li><li><p>c im ca h thngWDM/DWDM</p><p> S dng min bc sng 1500-1600 nm (bng C v L)</p><p> Khong cch bc sng t 0,4 nm n1,6nm (200-50GHZ) </p><p> Cng ngh hin ti cho php ghp n100 bc sng trn mt si quang</p><p> WDM/DWDM ch yu c s dng lmtruyn dn li hoc metro hoc mngtruyn dn ng trc</p></li><li><p>c im ca h thngCWDM</p><p> Mt trong nhng phng php truyn hiu qu khc lCWDM.</p><p> Hin ti, cc nh sn xut, nhng c quan v chun ho a ra phn b vng bc sng cho CWDM. Hinnay khong cch bc sng ph bin l t 20-40 nm.</p><p> CWDM c s dng ch yu cc mng LAN, WAN. Trong mt s trng hp CWDM bao gm c WDM </p><p>bng thng rng Wide-passband WDM v WDM bngrng WWDM (1300 nm/1500nm WDM).</p></li><li><p>Cng ngh RPR</p><p> Qu trnh pht trin cng ngh tng tm kim gii php truyn ti lu lng gi</p><p>cho cu trc ring quang Cisco gii thiu cng ngh truyn ti gi ng DPT </p><p>nm 1998 Gii php cng ngh c IETF tho lun v</p><p>thnh lp nhm nghin cu nm 2001 (Linl layer WG) c t chc IEEE 802 LAN/MAN nghin cu </p><p>xut tiu chun (IEEE 802.17) Sn phm c cc hng thng mi ha v trin</p><p>khai rng ri</p></li><li><p>ng lc thc y pht trincng ngh</p><p> Khi trin khai mng Metro vi cc cng nghch yu l SDH v Ethernet, tn ti mt s vn: Phn ln h thng cp ti cc th c t chc</p><p>theo cu trc t p ring S dng SDH l tin ch truyn ti lu lng s lng</p><p>ph bng thng Trin khai cu trc HUB cho mng Ethernet lng ph</p><p>dung lng h thng C ch hot ng ca Ethernet khng c c ch h</p><p>tr truyn ti cu trc ring Cn tm ra gii php cng ngh ph hp gii</p><p>quyt vn trn</p></li><li><p>Nhng u im ca RPR</p><p> RPR tn dng kh nng phc hi nhanh s c tuyn vs c nt ca cng ngh SDH (</p></li><li><p>Khun dng khung RPR</p></li><li><p>Khun dng mo u RPR</p><p>TIME TO LIVE (TTL)</p><p>TYPE RI PRI IOP</p><p>02 134567MSB LSB</p><p>Gi tr Loi giao thc</p><p>0x2007 RPR Control</p><p>0x0800 IP version</p><p>40x080 ARP</p><p>0x8100 VLAN Tagged Frame</p><p>TBD Payload with customer separation ID</p><p>Gi tr M t</p><p>000 D tr</p><p>001 D tr</p><p>010 D tr</p><p>011 iu khin d liu</p><p>100 Gi iu khin bo v</p><p>101 Gi iu khin</p><p>110 Fairness packet</p><p>111 Gi d liu</p></li><li><p>Chc nng ti s dng bngthng (spatial reuse)</p><p> Trong trng hp nt mng RPR thu mtkhung d liu, n g b khung d liu trnring xung nt mng thay v copy khungd liu.</p><p> Khung d liu trng quay tr li ni githeo chiu vng ring</p><p> Bng thng trng khung d liu li chocc nt khc s dng</p></li><li><p>V d v chc nng ti sdng bng thng</p></li><li><p>Chc nng chia s bngthng cng bng</p><p> Khi xut hin tc nghn ti nt mng no , ns truyn mt cnh bo vi mt gi tr bngthng xut no theo hng ring ngc li</p><p> Nt mng hng truyn ln s iu chnh tc truyn sao cho khng vt qu gi tr bngthng xut. </p><p> Cc nt mng chuyn tip cnh bo ti cc ntmng k tip trn hng ln</p><p> Nu nt mng nhn cnh bo vn b tc nghnn truyn d liu mc ti thiu v tip tc gicnh bo v gi tr bng thng s dng ca nti cc nt mng k tip</p></li><li><p>M t c cu chia s bngthng cng bng</p><p>Gi tr tc bng thng xut ti hng xung khng c tc nghn(advertisedRate == FULL_RATE)Gi tr tc bng thng xut ti hng xung c tc nghn (advertisedRate &lt; FULL_RATE)</p><p>khung d liu truyn</p><p>S0 S1 S5</p><p>S254 S6</p><p>Tc nghnti domain </p><p>A</p><p>Hng d liu truyn</p><p>Hng gi cnh bo</p><p>S2 S3 S4</p><p>S9 S8</p><p>headtail</p><p>tail</p><p>S7</p><p>head</p><p>Tc nghnti domain </p><p>B</p><p>Phn mngkhng tcnghn</p><p>Cc chng b tc nghn</p><p>Phn mngkhng tcnghn</p></li><li><p>V d v thut gii chia s bngthng cng bng khi tc nghn</p></li><li><p>C ch u tin phn nhtheo loi hnh lu lng</p><p> Chun IEEE 802.17 RPR xut 3 mcu tin theo loi hnh lu lng Class A (u tin cao nht), Class B (u tin trung bnh) Class C (u tin thp nht)</p></li><li><p>Bng thng ch nh chocc loi hnh lu lng</p><p> Class A traffic c phn chia thnh 2 lp con: class A0 v A1 Class A0 c ch nh trc gi tr bng thng cnh</p><p> Class A1 c ch nh trc gi tr bng thngnhng c th iu chnh gi tr thp hn</p><p> Class B ch nh cho loi hnh lu lng CIR (committed information rate) v EIR (excess information rate)</p><p> Class C ch nh cho loi hnh lu lng MIR (minimum Information rate)</p></li><li><p>Chc nng bo v phc hi Wrapping:</p><p> nu s c hng c pht hin lu lng sc loop vng li u ra nt mng gn nhtvi ni c s c hng. Theo lu lng sc truyn theo chiu ngc li ca ring </p><p> Steering: Nu s c hng c pht hin, cc nt</p><p>mng k cn ni c s c hng thc hinchuyn mch chn tn hiu chuyn lulng sang ring d phng</p></li><li><p>Wrapping</p></li><li><p>Steering</p></li><li><p>S khi chc nng thchin ca nt RPR </p></li><li><p>Cng ngh Ethernet Ethernet l cng ngh c s dng ph bin cho cc mng cc</p><p>b LAN trong vi thp k gn y. Cng ngh c khi u bi cng ty Bob Metcalfe, David Boggs</p><p>v cc ng nghip ti cng ty Xerox PARC vo nm 1973 H thng u tin c tc 3 Mbit/s Cc cng ty Digital, Intel v Xerox (DIX) nghin cu chun ha cng</p><p>ngh Chun Ethernet 10 Mbit/s (Blue book) cng b nm 1980 Cng ngh ny c nhm nghin cu IEEE.802.3 xem xt cc</p><p>kha cnh xy dng tiu chun k thut vo nm 1980 Tiu chun u tin c IEEE ban hnh vo nm 1985 (IEEE </p><p>802.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications)</p><p> Thc cht cc tiu chun trong h tiu chun IEEE 802.3 l b tiuchun ca cng ngh Ethernet</p></li><li><p>M hnh tham chiu cacng ngh Ethernet</p><p>Lp ng dng</p><p>Lp ng d liu</p><p>Bo hiu vt l (physical signalling)Lp mng</p><p>iu khin truy nhp tin tch truyn ti(media access control)Lp truyn ti</p><p>iu khin ng logic(logical link control)Lp phin</p><p>M hnh OSI</p><p>Lp trnh by</p><p>M hnh IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD</p><p>Lp vt l</p><p>Giao din khi gn kt</p><p>(attachment unit interface)</p><p>Ti phn lp cao hn</p><p>Tin ch vt l(media)</p></li><li><p>Khun dng khung d liuIEEE 802.3</p><p>IG</p><p>UL</p><p>. . . .</p><p>Byte 0</p><p>UL U</p><p>. . . . </p><p>Byte 1 Byte 5</p><p>Byte 0 Byte 1 Byte 5</p><p>7 bytes 1 byte 6 bytes 6 bytes 2 bytes 1 byte 1 byte 1 or 2 bytes &lt; 1496 bytes 4 bytes</p><p>Source Address</p><p>Bit 0</p><p>Bit 0</p><p>Bit 7</p><p>Destination Address</p><p>Transmitted first</p><p>Bit 7</p><p>Transmitted first</p><p>*</p><p>Preamble Data FCS</p><p>Optional IEEE 802.2 fields</p><p>PadStart ofFrame</p><p>DelimiterDestination</p><p>addressSource address</p><p>Lengthfield</p><p>DestinationService AccessPoint</p><p>(DSAP)</p><p>SourceServiceAccessPoint</p><p>(SSAP)</p><p>Controlfields</p></li><li><p>Tin ch truyn dn v giao dinkt ni c chun ha trong</p><p>IEEE 802.3 10BROAD36: Dng Broadband, tc 10Mb/s, cp ng trc 75 </p><p>Ohm, phm vi cp 1800 m (ln ti 3600m trong cu hnh cp i), s dng topo dng BUS. </p><p> 10BASE -F: Dng cp quang, tc 10 Mb/s, phm vi cp 4km Chun ny c phn thnh 3 dng con: 10BASE-FL, 10BASE-FB v 10BASE-FP. </p><p> 10BASE-T: S dng nt di tn rng h tr cho cc tc tn hiu10Mb/s. Dng cp UTP, tr khng 75 Ohm, vi mng hnh sao. </p><p> 100 BASE-X: Gi l Fast Ethernet, mng hnh sao tng t10BASE-, tc 100Mb/s. Chun ny gm 100 BASE-TX dng chocp UTP hoc STP 2 I, 100 BASE-FX dng cho cp quang, 100 BASE-T4 dng cho cp UTP 4 i (Four Twisted Pairs). </p><p> 1000 Base TX/FX s dng giao din kt ni cp UTP hoc cpquang</p></li><li><p>Thit b mng Ethernet in hnh</p><p> Thit b lp (Repeater) Thit b HUB Thit b chuyn mch Ethernet (Ethernet </p><p>Switch)</p></li><li><p>Thit b lp (repeater)</p><p> Thit b lp khuch i tn hiu thu c (bite) v c khnng sa li tn hiu. Tuy nhin vi cc lung d liu tc cao n c th gy tr</p></li><li><p>Thit b lp (1)</p><p> u im ca thit b lp C th kt ni cc phn mnh mng LAN vi nhau, </p><p>thm ch khc nhau v tin tch truyn ti vt l (cpng trc, cp UTP)</p><p> Gi thnh r, thi gian lp t nhanh, d dng ttrongs dng v vn hnh bo dng</p><p> Nhc im Khng tng thch khi ghp ni cc phn mng mng</p><p>s dng cc phng thc truy nhp khc nhau Hn ch v s lng thit b s dng trong mt mng Ch d dng cho phn mnh mng LAN nh</p></li><li><p>Thit b truyn khung theoLAN BUS (cp ng trc)</p></li><li><p>Thit b HUB</p><p> Thc cht hit b HUB cng chnh l thit btruyn khung theo LAN BUS</p><p> Thit b HUB thc hin lp tnh hiu, do vy nc chc nng ca thit b lp</p><p> Kt ni vi my tnh thng qua cp UTP Hin ti, thit b cho php kt ni vi my tnh</p><p>vi c ly nh hn 200 m (UTP cat5/6)</p></li><li><p>Thit b HUB (1)</p><p> C ch lm vic ca HUB</p></li><li><p>Thit b HUB (2)</p><p> u im Thit b c gi thnh r, d trin khai C th m rng hoc ni cc hub vi nhau tng s</p><p>lng ngi s dng Kt ni d dng cc phn mnh mng dng HUB vi</p><p>cc thit b chuyn mch Nhc im</p><p> Tnh an ton khng cao nu nt mng HUB b hnghoc mt ngun</p><p> S lng hn ch khi trin khai trong mt mng</p></li><li><p>Thit b chuyn mchEthernet (Ethernet Switch)</p><p> L thit b bao gm nhiu cng Ethernet tc cao, cho phpkt ni vi nhiu phn mnh mng LAN</p><p> C nhiu phng thc...</p></li></ul>