Chuong I_ Tong Quan Mang May Tinh

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MNG V TRUYN THNGB mn CNTT Khoa Tin hc Thng mi

MNG V TRUYN THNG Phn phi tit hc L thuyt: 30 tit Thc hnh/Tho lun: 6 tit SV t chun b TH/Tho lun: 9 tit nh gi kt qu - D lp/Thc hnh/Tho lun/Bi tp: 10% - Kim tra gia k: 30% - Thi cui k: 60%

MC TIUHc phn trang b cho sinh vin hiu bit v mng v vic truyn thng trn mng my tnhSinh vin c trang b nhng kin thc c bn v mng my tnh: Cc thnh phn cu thnh mng my tnh, kin trc mng my tnh, truyn thng tin trn mng my tnh. Sinh vin c hiu bit su hn v mng ni b trong mt t chc, doanh nghip. Sinh vin c cp nht cc ng dng truyn thng mng v truyn thng lin mng Internet.

NI DUNGChng 1. GII THIU CHUNG Chng 2. M HNH OSI Chng 3. M HNH V NG DNG CA TCP/IP Chng 4. MNG LAN Chng 5. NG DNG MNG MY TNH V TRUYN THNG

TI LIU THAM KHO1. Gio trnh Mng v truyn thng H Thng Mi 2. Mng my tnh Ngc Vn An, NXB Gio dc, 2006 3. Mng my tnh v cc h thng m - Nguyn Thc Hi, NXB Gio dc, 1999 4. Gio trnh h thng mng my tnh CCNA Sememster 1 Nguyn Hng Sn, NXB Lao ng X hi, 2004 5. Computer Network, 4th Edition, A.S.Tanenbaum, Prentice Hall, 2003 6. v.v..

Bn c th lm g khi kt ni vi Internet ? t v xemNgi nh hon thnh cc cng vic c giao v bo co kt qu Tham d cuc hp cng ton th cng ty m khng cn n tr s b mi nht rp ch cn g bn phm i siu th ngm hng ho m ch cn nhng ci Click chut Ni chuyn vi ngi bn cch c nghn cy s ch cn mt ci headphone

Internet = lin mng = mng ca cc mng

Mng ???

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung1.1. M u 1.1.1. Lch s pht trin 1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mng 1.2. Khi nim c bn 1.2.1. Mng my tnh 1.2.2. Thit b mng 1.2.3. ng truyn vt l 1.2.4. Topo 1.2.5. Giao thc 1.2.6. Phn loi mng 1.2.7. Qun tr mng v h iu hnh mng 1.2.8. Kin trc mng v chun ha mng

1.1.1. Lch s pht trinGiai on I (60s): Mng x l gm mt my tnh x l trung tm v cc trm u cui. Giai on II: Mng giai on I tch hp thm thit b tp trung (lu tr tm thi thng tin) v b dn knh (gp v chuyn song song cc knh thng tin). Giai on III: Mng giai oan II tch hp b tin x l gim ti cho my tnh trung tm khi s lng cc trm u cui tng nhanh.

Lch s pht trin (t)Giai on 4 (70s):Mng gm cc my tnh c kt ni vi nhau trc tip. Ngi dng c lp kt ni v chia s vi nhau thng qua vic s dng modem quay s v cc mng truyn thng.Modem ng dy in thoi Modem

Thit b u cui

My tnh trung tm

Hnh 1.1. M hnh truyn d liu t xa u tin

Tm tt lch s mng my tnh1994: INTERNET -> siu mng kinh doanh 1988: Tn gi INTERNET thay th cc tn gi khc

1983: Arpanet tch thnh MILNet v Arpanet Gia 1980s: Chia s tp tin bng Modem 1980: IBM a ra PC u tin 1977: Apple gii thiu PC u 1970s: Minicomputer ra i Cui 1950s: Mch tch hp IC 1940s: C in t ,bn dn9/26/2008 11

1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mngMc tiu mng: Tng cng tnh hiu qu v gim chi phChia s ti nguyn thit b phn cng (my in), phn mm (chng trnh ng dng) Chia s thng tin: To ra mi trng truyn thng mnh gia nhiu ngi s dng trn phm vi a l rng Qun tr v h tr tp trung: Tng tin cy ca h thng: Nu mt my tnh hay mt n v d liu no trong mng b hng th lun c th s dng mt my tnh khc hay mt bn sao ca n v d liu.

1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mngVic pht trin mng my tnh to ra cc ng dng mi. Mt s ng dng c nh hng quan trng n ton x hi: kh nng truy xut cc chng trnh v d liu t xa (Telnet, truyn tp tin), kh nng thng tin lin lc d dng v hiu qu, to mi trng giao tip thun li gia nhng ngi dng khc nhau (th in t), kh nng tm kim thng tin nhanh chng trn phm vi ton th gii (dch v tm kim thng tin),...

1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mngPhm vi ng dngTrong cc t chc: D liu c cp nht kp thi; mt ng dng ni ny c th chia s cho ni khc Trong cng ng: a con ngi ti gn nhau hn qua cc dch v nh email, www, chat,... Trong kinh doanh: Mng my tnh tr thnh mt phn khng th thiu ca cc doanh nghip, ngn hng, thng mi in t l mt xu hng tt yu trong kinh doanh

1.2. Nhng khi nim c bn1.2.1. Mng my tnh 1.2.2. Thit b mng 1.2.3. ng truyn vt l 1.2.4. Topo 1.2.5. Giao thc 1.2.6. Phn loi mng 1.2.7. Qun tr mng v h iu hnh mng 1.2.8. Kin trc mng v chun ha mng

1.2.1.Mng my tnhKhi nim:Mng my tnh l mt tp hp cc my tnh v cc thit b lin quan c kt ni bng cc thit b truyn thng thc hin vic chia s d liu, v cc thit b ngoi vi nh cng hay my in, Mng my tnh l mt tp hp cc my tnh v thit b c ni vi nhau bi ng truyn vt l theo mt kin trc no .

Khng c mng

C mng

26/09/2008

B mn CNTT TMT

Silde 17

Mng cc b n gin:

H thng mng tng qut c cu thnh bing bin mng ( Network Edge): Gm cc my tnh (Host) v cc chng trnh ng dng mng (Network Application) ng trc mng ( Network Core): h thng mng ca cc thit b chn ng, lm nhim v chn ng v chuyn tip thng tin m bo s trao i thng tin thng sut gia hai my tnh trn hai nhnh mng cch xa nhau. Mng truy cp, ng truyn vt l (Access Network , physical media): Gm cc ng truyn ti thng tin cho php ni cc my tnh vo cc router ngoi bin. Mng truy nhp c th l nhng loi mng sau: Mng truy cp t nh, v d nh s dng hnh thc modem dial qua ng in thoi hay ng ADSL. Mng cc b cho cc cng ty, x nghip. Mng khng dy.

1.2.3. Thit b mngThit b ca ngi dng cui (End-user devices):Cc thit b ca ngi dng cui cung cp cho ngi dng mt kt ni n mng c gi l mt host (tm dch l mt trm, v d nh my tnh). Host c kt ni mt cch vt l n mi trng mng thng qua cc card iu hp mng (Network Interface Card _NIC).

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t)Cc thit b (kt ni) mng (Network devices): Bao gm tt c cc thit b kt ni cc thit b ngi dng cui li vi nhau gip chng c th truyn tin.B lp (Repeater) B tp trung (Hub) Cu ni (Bridge) B chuyn mch (Switch) B nh tuyn (Router) Modem (iu ch v gii iu ch)

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t)Repeater l mt thit b mng c dng ti sinh tn hiu b suy hao do tn tht nng lng trong khi truyn. Hub cho php tp trung cc kt ni bng cch gom mt nhm cc host v mng s nhn din nhm cc host ny nh mt ch th n l m khng nh hng ti hot ng truyn s liu. Hub cng c kh nng ti sinh tn hiu. Bridge chuyn i dng d liu cng nh qun l hot ng truyn d liu c bn gia cc mng cc b (LAN) c kin trc khc nhau. Kim tra xem c cho d liu truyn qua bridge hay khng.

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t)Switch khng chuyn i kiu d liu truyn nhng n c th cho php chuyn d liu ti ng kt ni thc s cn d liu ny. Router c tt c cc kh nng cp trn: ti sinh tn hiu, tp trung nhiu kt ni, chuyn i kiu d liu truyn v qun l hot ng truyn d liu. Router l mt thit b c bit cho php cc mng cc b LAN c th kt ni vo mng din rng WAN. Mt cp modem c yu cu cho cc cuc truyn thng ng di qua mi tuyn thu bao (in thoi, ADSL, cp quang )

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t) Cc biu tng thit b kt ni mng

1.2.4. ng truyn vt l mc thp nht, tt c cng vic truyn thng gia cc my tnh bao gm vic to m d liu (cc bit 0, 1) theo mt dng nng lng (xung in, nh sng, sng ) v gi dng nng lng ngang qua mt phng tin truyn ti. ng truyn vt l l ng dng truyn d liu gia cc my tnh. D liu c th c truyn qua mng thng qua ng truyn khng dy hoc s dng cp. Bng thng dng xc nh bao nhiu thng tin truyn t im ny n im khc trong mt n v thi gian. Bng thng l hu hn v b gii hn bi cc ng truyn v cc nh lut vt l.Bng thng ca tn hiu tng t (Hz) Bnf thng ca tn hiu s (bps)

ng truyn s dng cpCp ngVt liu kim loi, truyn cc xung in th hin cho cc bit 0, 1. Phm vi truyn hp, tc nhanh Dy kim loi khng t tin D lp t (so vi cp quang) c s dng trong hu ht cc mng cc b (LAN).

Cp ngCp ng trc:Li ng V cch in Lp v dn kim loi hay si kim an li chng nhiu. Lp v nha Loi mng (thinnet) vi ng knh 0.64cm c th truyn tn hiu khong 185m. Loi dy (thicknet) vi ng knh 1.27cm c th truyn tn hiu khong 500m.

Cp ng(t)Cp xon iGm mt hay nhiu cp ng dy ng c xon vo nhau nhm lm gim nhiu in t gy ra bi mi trng xung quanh v gia chng vi nhau.

Cp UTP khng c lp chng nhiu (UTP-Unsheilding Twisted Pair) c nm loi v c th truyn d liu vi khong cch 100 m, vi tc t 4 Mbps ti 100 Mbps ty vo loi UTP. Cp STP chng nhiu (STP- Sheilding Twisted Pair) l loi cp c lp chng nhiu gip truyn d liu i xa hn nhiu so vi UTP. ScTP (Screened TP): Lai ghp gia UTP v STP

Cp ng (t)u im ng trc Nhc im ng dng-Nhiu dng truyn d liu

- Suy hao tn hiu t hn -t tin v kh khn nn phm vi truyn ln trong lp t do kch c hn (thicknet),

bao gm c v tuyn -S dng lm ng trc trong mt mng cc b (Ethernet)

STP/ScTP

-Chng nhiu -Chy dy c xa hn

so vi cp UTP

- Khng chy dy c xa nh cp ng trc - t tin v kh khn trong lp t so vi UTP - Khng chy dy c xa nh cp ng trc-Truyn d liu, ging ni - Dng trong hu ht cc

UTP

-R tin -Kch thc nh, d lp t (u ni RJ45)

kin trc mng cc b

ng truyn s dng cpCp quang (Fiber Optic Cable)Vt liu thy tinh, cht do truyn cc xung nh sng th hin cho cc bit 0, 1. Phm vi truyn rng do t suy hao (nhiu km), truyn nhanh Chng tp m tt, truyn nhiu d liu hn cp ng Lp t kh khn (so vi cp ng) Truyn im ni im c ly xa, bng thng ln (trn cc ng trc ca mng cc b hoc cc kt ni vi mng din rng).

Cp quang(t)Dy dn trung tm l 1 hoc 1 b si thy tinh c th truyn dn tn hiu quang. Lp v bc c tc dng phn x cc tn hiu tr li gim s mt mt tn hiu. Lp v bo v plastic

31

ng truyn khng dyS dng tia hng ngoi (infared) S dng tia Laser S dng sng radio (sng ngn, UHF, VHF ) S dng sng in thoi di ng (vi sng) S dng v tinh

1.2.4. Topology (Topo)nh ngha:Topo mng l cu cu trc lin kt mngTopo vt l:l cch b tr cc thit b v dy ni trong mng. Topo ca mng din rng (MAN, WAN) thng thng l ni n s lin kt gia cc mng cc b thng qua cc b dn ng (router) v knh vin thng. Topo vt l mng cc b (LAN) c dng chun: Hnh tuyn (Bus), Hnh vng (Ring), Hnh sao (Star), Dng li (Mesh) Hnh sao m rng, Phn cp Topo logic: Cc dng kt ni ca topo logic da trn cch thc truyn d liu trong mng. Dng im ni im (point to point) Dng im ni a im / qung b (point to multipoint)

Topo vt lMng hnh tuyn (bus): Cc thit b c ni v vi nhau trn mt trc dy cp truyn ti tn hiu chnh. Pha hai u dy cp c bt bi hai thit b gi l terminator. Mng hnh sao (star): Cc my tnh c ni trc tip vo mt b tp trung ni kt (router, switch, hub). D liu t mt my qua b tp trung ni kt c chuyn ti my khc Mng hnh vng (ring): Mng c b tr theo dng vng trn. ng dy cp c b tr lm thnh mt vng khp kn. Tn hiu chy quanh vng theo mt chiu no . Mng hnh li (mesh): Mi mt my c ni ti tt c hoc my cn li

TopologicPoint to point: ng truyn ni tng cp nt mng vi nhau. Thng tin t nt ngun qua nt trung gian ri gi tip nu ng truyn khng b bn. Mi nt trung gian c trch nhim lu tr tm thi sau chuyn tip d liu n ch. Mng kiu ny cn c gi l mng lu v chuyn tip. Point to multipoints: Tt c cc nt chia s chung mt ng truyn vt l. D liu c gi i t mt nt no s c th c tip nhn bi tt c cc nt cn li , bi vy ch cn ch ra a ch ch ca d liu mi nt cn c vo kim tra xem d liu c phi dnh cho minh hay khng? Bt k mt topo no dng mt on cp chung u phi vn dng mt cch thc truy nhp on cp . my tnh c th truy nhp vo mt mng trnh c nhng ng c th xy ra (mng cc b) th cn c mt phng thc iu khin truy nhp ng truyn hp l.

Broadcast

37

1.2.5. Giao thcGiao thc l mt tp hp cc quy tc v chun c t ra gip cho my tnh c th kt ni vi nhau v trao i thng tin sao cho c t li nht c th.TCP/IP: truyn thng tin gia cc my tnh trn mng Internet HTTP: truyn cc ti liu siu vn bn gia my ch v my trm SMTP gip truyn tin cc th in t trn mng v.v..

1.2.6. Phn loi mngTheo khong cch a l: Theo k thut chuyn mch: Phn loi theo kin trc mng s dng Phn loi theo h iu hnh mng Phn loi theo mi trng truyn dn mng

1.2.6. Phn loi mng(t)Theo khong cch a l:Mng cc b LAN (Local Area Network) Mng th MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Mng din rng WAN (Wide Area Network) Mng ton cu GAN (Global Area Network)

Theo k thut chuyn mch:Mng chuyn mch knh Mng chuyn mch thng bo Mng chuyn mch gi

1.2.6. Phn loi mng(t) (theo phm vi)Mng LAN (mng cc b) thng c s dng trong ni b mt c quan hay t chc. LAN c th kt ni hai my tnh vi nhau hoc hng trm my tnh s dng mt ng truyn c tc cao, bng thng rng (thng khng hn ch). Mng MAN(mng th/mng thnh ph) l mng c ci t trong phm vi mt th hoc mt trung tm kinh t - x hi. Mt MAN thng bao gm hai hay nhiu LAN trong cng mt vng a l. Cc LAN ny c kt ni bng cc ng dy truyn dn ring. ng truyn ny cng c th l ng truyn cp quang hoc s dng cng ngh khng dy. Mng WAN hay mng din rng l mng khng c gii hn v mt a l, mng kt ni my tnh trong cng mt quc gia hay gia cc quc gia trong cng mt chu lc. Mng WAN c to thnh thng qua vic kt ni rt nhiu mng LAN vi nhau. Thng thng kt ni ny c thc hin thng qua mng vin thng hoc v tinh.INTERNET ? INTRANET?

WAN

ISDN: Dch v thoi k thut s s dng ng cp ng thoi c sn v c s dng truyn tn hiu in thoi v d liu ng thi (Router: ISDN Router) T1: l mt loi ng in thoi thu bao tc cao c s dng truyn ting ni v d liu (1.544 Mbps )

1.2.6. Phn loi mng(t) (theo k thut chuyn mch)Mng chuyn mch knh: Mng thit lp mt knh truyn c nh (circuit) gia 2 thc th cn lin lc vi nhau. Knh truyn ny c duy tr cho ti khi mt trong hai bn ngt lin lc. Mng ny c hiu sut khng cao v c lc knh truyn b khng. Mng chuyn mch thng bo :Thng bo (message) hay bn tin l mt n v thng tin ca ngi s dng c khun dng c quy nh trc. Mi thng bo u cha vng thng tin iu khin ch r ch ca thng bo. Mng chuyn mch thng bo chuyn mt thng bo t my gi n my nhn ging nh phng php gi th thng thng. Cc nt mng cn c vo a ch ch ca thng bo chn nt k tip.

1.2.6. Phn loi mng(t) (theo k thut chuyn mch)Mng chuyn mch gi: Chia nh thng bo thnh tng gi tin (packet) c kch thc c nh ( 512 bytes), phn u l a ch ch, m tp hp cc gi. Cc gi ca cc thng bo khc nhau c th c truyn c lp trn cng mt ng truyn cng nh l cc gi thuc v cng mt thng bo c th gi i qua mng ti ch bng nhiu con ng khc nhau.

1.2.7.Qun tr mng v h iu hnh mngQun tr mng: l cc tc v qun tr cho my trm v my ch m bo h thng mng hot ng n nh, gm:Qun tr ti khon ngi dng v ti khon nhm Qun tr an ninh Qun tr my in Gim st ti nguyn v s kin trn mng Lu d phng v phc hi d liu

1.2.7.Qun tr mng v h iu hnh mng(t)H iu hnh mng: l h thng phn mm c chc nng qun l ti nguyn, tnh ton v x l truy nhp mt cch thng nht trn mng nh tp, a, thit b ngoi vi .Vi h iu hnh mng ngang hng mi my tnh trn mng c th va ng vai tr ch va khch tc l chng va c th s dng ti nguyn ca mng ln chia s ti nguyn ca n cho mng, v d: LANtastic ca Artisoft, NetWare lite ca Novell, Windows (for Workgroup, 95, NT Client) ca Microsoft. Vi h iu hnh mng phn bit cc my tnh c phn bit ch v khch, trong my ch mng gi vai tr ch v cc my cho ngi s dng gi vai tr khch. Khi c nhu cu truy nhp ti nguyn trn mng cc trm to ra cc yu cu v gi chng ti my ch sau my ch thc hin v gi tr li. V d cc h iu hnh mng phn bit: Novell Netware, LAN Manager ca Microsoft, Windows NT Server ca Microsoft, LAN Server ca IBM, Vines ca Banyan System vi server dng h iu hnh Unix.

1.2.8.Kin trc mng v chun ho mnga. Kin trc mng b. Chun ho mng v cc t chc chun

ho mng

a.Kin trc mngKin trc mng th hin cch ni cc my tnh vi nhau ra sao v tp cc quy tc, quy c m tt c cc thc th tham gia truyn thng trn mng phi tun theo m bo truyn thng tin mt cch tin cy Kin trc bao gm Topo mng v cc giao thc s dng trong h thng mng .

Kin trc Ethernetc tnhKiu topo truyn thng Kiu topo khc Kiu truy nhp mng c t Tc truyn d liu Kiu cp

M tLinear bus Star bus CSMA/CD IEEE 802.3 10 Mbps hoc 100 Mbps Cp ng trc (Thicknet), cp xon UTP

Kin trc Token Ringc tnhKiu topo truyn thng Kiu truy nhp mng c t Tc truyn d liu Kiu cp

M tStar-wired ring token-passing IEEE 802.5 4 Mbps hoc 16 Mbps Cp xon STP, UTP

b.Chun ho mng v cc t chc chun ho mngTnh trng khng tng thch gia cc thnh phn ca mng ? Vic nh ra cc chun lm cn c cho cc nh nghin cu v thit k mng to ra cc sn phm m v mng. Chng c th c sn xut bi bt k nh sn xut no nhng li s dng c trn tt c cc mng.

1.3. Kin trc mngChun ha mng v cc t chc chun ha ISO (International Standard Organization) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) ITU (International Telecommunication Union) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) v.v..

ou! a nk y Th

u ni, cm RJ45

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 1:Ct cp

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 2: Lt lp v bo v

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 3: Tch cc cp dy

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 4: G cc dy theo ng th t

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 5: Lm phng cc u dy

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 6: Loi b phn cch in (1.2cm)

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 7: Chun b a vo u RJ45

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 8: a dy vo u RJ45

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 9: n mnh dy vo u cm

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 10: Kim tra k th t mu

T-568 A ph hp vi chun kt ni ca cng ty in thoi, chun chnh T-568 B l chun thay th

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 11: a u RJ45 vo km v n mnh

Cc bc u ni u RJ45Bc 12: Kim tra hai u dy