Chuong Trinh Chuyen Sau THPT Chuyen Mon Hoa Hoc

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<p>B GIO DC V O TO</p> <p>CHNG TRNH CHUYN SU THPT CHUYNMN: HA HC</p> <p>H Ni, 12/2009</p> <p>LP 10I. MC CH: Thng nht trn phm vi ton quc k hoch dy hc v ni dung dy hc mn Ho hc cho trng THPT chuyn. Thng nht trn phm vi ton quc ni dung bi dng hc sinh gii cp THPT II. K HOCH DY HC: Tng s tit: 150% s tit ca chng trnh nng cao, trong 50% dnh cho ni dung chuyn su S TT 1 2 Ni dung L thuyt 12 9 Luyn tp 4 2 Thc hnh 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 2 6 8 6 8 8 n tp Kim tra Tng 16 12 16 10 14 18 16 18 6 8 134</p> <p>Nguyn t Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc v nh lut tun hon 3 Lin kt ho hc 12 4 4 Phn ng ho hc 5 4 5 L thuyt v phn ng ho hc 7 6 6 Dung dch in ly 12 5 7 Nhm Halogen 10 4 8 Nhm Oxi 10 6 n tp u nm, cui nm, hc k Kim tra Tng 77 35 III. NI DUNG DY HC n tp b sung, h thng ho kin thc ho hc trng THCS (2 tit) CH KIN THC NI DUNG 1. Cc n v o lng v danh php ho hc 2. Nguyn t 2.1. Thnh phn nguyn t. Tnh cht sng ht ca vt cht 2</p> <p>GHI CH</p> <p>C S HO HC CHUNG</p> <p>2.2. Ht nhn nguyn t (thnh phn, in tch, s khi, nguyn t khi, khi lng...) 2.3. Nguyn t ho hc. ng v. Nguyn t khi trung bnh. 2.4. S lc ho hc ht nhn 2.5. S chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t - Obitan nguyn t. 2.6. Nng lng ca electron trong nguyn t. Cu hnh electron trong nguyn t. 3. Bng tun hon v nh lut tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc 3.1. Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. 3.2. S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t ho hc 3.3. S bin i tun hon tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc. nh lut tun hon. 3.4. ngha ca bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. 4. Lin kt ho hc 4.1. Khi nim v lin kt ho hc. di lin kt. Nng lng lin kt. Momen lng cc. Lc Van der Waals. 4.2. Mt s loi lin kt ho hc: lin kt ion, lin kt cng ho tr, lin kt cho nhn, lin kt hidro. Phng php cp electron. m in v lin kt ho hc. 4.3. S lai ho cc obitan nguyn t v hnh dng ca phn t. S xen ph obitan to thnh lin kt n, lin kt i v lin kt ba. 4.4. Lin kt kim loi. 4.5. Mng li tinh th phn t, nguyn t, ion. 5. Phn ng ho hc 5.1. Ho tr v s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong phn t 5.2. Phn ng oxi ho - kh. Phn loi phn ng oxi ho - kh. 5.3. Phn loi phn ng ho hc. 6. L thuyt v phn ng ho hc 6.1. Khi nim nhit trong ho hc. 6.2. Chiu v gii hn t din bin ca cc qu trnh 5.3. Cn bng ho hc v cc yu t nh hng. Hng s cn bng Kc. 6.4. Tc phn ng ho hc v cc yu t nh hng. 7. Dung dch S in ly 3</p> <p>HO HC V C</p> <p>7.1. Khi nim v dung dch. S ho tan. tan. 7.2. nh lut Raoult 2. p sut thm thu. 7.3. S in ly. Cht in ly mnh, yu. in ly. Hng s in ly. nh lut bo ton nng . 7.4. Tch s ion ca nc. Khi nim pH, ch th mu. 7.5. Thuyt axit baz ca Bronsted. Hng s axit baz. Cp axit baz lin hp. Dung dch m. Tch s tan 7.6. Phn ng ca cc ion trong dung dch: phn ng axit baz, phn ng to hp cht t tan, phn ng thu phn mui, phn ng oxiho - kh, phn ng to phc. 8. Nhm Halogen 8.1. Khi qut v nhm halogen. 8.2. Clo. Cc hp cht c oxi v khng c oxi ca clo. 8.3. Cc halogen khc: Flo, Brom, Iot. Mt s hp cht c oxi v khng c oxi ca brom, iot. 9. Nhm oxi (Cancogen) 9.1. Khi qut v nhm oxi. 9.2. Oxi - Ozon - Hiro peoxit. 9.3. Lu hunh. 9.4. Cc hp cht ca lu hunh: ihidro sunfua v mui sunfua Lu hunh ioxit, lu hunh trioxit. Axit sunfuric v mui sunfat S lc mt s axit c oxi khc ca lu hunh. 1. Mt s thao tc c bn trong thc hnh th nghim ho hc. Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc v nh lut tun hon. 2. Phn ng oxi ho- kh. 3. Tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc. 4. Dung dch in ly 5. Tnh cht ca halogen 4</p> <p>THC HNH HA HC</p> <p>N TP, LUYN TP</p> <p>6. Tnh cht cc hp cht ca halogen. Nhn bit ion Cl- Br-, I-. 7. Tnh cht ca oxi, lu hunh 8. Tnh cht cc hp cht ca lu hunh. n tp u nm, hc k 1, cui nm n luyn tp v cha bi tp. 1. Bi luyn tp 1, 2, 3, 4: Nguyn t 2. Bi luyn tp 5, 6 : Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc v nh lut tun hon. 3. Bi luyn tp 7, 8, 9, 10: Lin kt ho hc. 4. Bi luyn tp 11, 12, 13, 14: Phn ng oxi ho- kh 5. Bi luyn tp 15, 16, 17, 18: L thuyt phn ng ho hc 6. Bi luyn tp 19, 20, 21, 22, 23: Dung dch in ly 5. Bi luyn tp 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29: Nhm Halogen. 6. Bi luyn tp 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35: Nhm Oxi.</p> <p>KIM - Kim tra 45 pht: 6 bi, mi hc k 3 bi TRA - Kim tra hc k I v cui nm: 2 bi IV. CHUN KIN THC V K NNG</p> <p>1. N V O LNG V DANH PHP TRONG HO V C1) Ni dung n v o lng Mc cn t Kin thc Bit: - Cc n v o lng theo h SI v s lin h gia cc n v K nng - Bit s dng v chuyn cc loi n v Kin thc Bit: - Cch gi tn cc n cht, nguyn t, hp cht c hai, ba nguyn t. K nng 5 Ch </p> <p>2)</p> <p>Danh php</p> <p>- Bit cch gi tn cc n cht, nguyn t, hp cht c hai, ba nguyn t theo danh php IUPAC. 2. NGUYN T Ni dung 1) Thnh phn nguyn t Mc cn t Kin thc Hiu: - Nguyn t gm ht nhn nm tm nguyn t mang in tch dng v v electron ca nguyn t gm cc electron mang in tch m; chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn. Ht nhn gm cc ht proton v ntron. Khi lng nguyn t tp trung ht nhn, khi lng cc electron l khng ng k. Bit: - n v khi lng, Kch thc ca nguyn t; K hiu, khi lng v in tch ca electron, proton v ntron. - Tnh cht lng tnh sng ht ca vt cht. K nng - Quan st m hnh cc th nghim, rt ra nhn xt. - So snh khi lng ca electron vi proton v ntron. - So snh kch thc ca ht nhn vi electron v vi nguyn t. - Tnh c khi lng v kch thc ca nguyn t. Kin thc Hiu: - S lin quan gia in tch ht nhn, s p v s e, s khi v s n v in tch ht nhn v ntron. - Nguyn t khi v khi lng ht nhn nguyn t K nng - Xc nh c s electron, s proton, s ntron khi bit k hiu nguyn t v s khi ca nguyn t v ngc li. 6 Ch </p> <p>2)</p> <p>Ht nhn nguyn t</p> <p>3)</p> <p>ng v Nguyn t khi trung bnh.</p> <p>Kin thc Bit c: - Khi nim ng v, ng v bn, nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t. Khi nim nguyn t ho hc - Nguyn t khi tng i thng vit gn l nguyn t khi v khng c th nguyn. K nng Gii c bi tp: tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t c nhiu ng v, tnh t l % khi lng mi ng v v mt s bi tp khc lin quan.</p> <p>4)</p> <p>S lc v ho hc ht nhn</p> <p>5)</p> <p>Kin thc Bit c: - ht khi. Nng lng lin kt ca ht nhn. - Khi nim v hin tng phng x, h phng x, phng x, nh lut bo ton s khi. nh lut bo ton proton, nh lut phn r phng x, chu k phn r ca ng v phng x. ng dng ca ng v phng x. - Khi nim v phn ng ht nhn K nng - Bit cch tnh ht khi v nng lng lin kt ht nhn - Bit vit phng trnh phn r phng x v phn ng ht nhn da vo cc nh lut - Bit cch tnh cng phng x, thi gian phn r phng x (tui), lng cht cn li sau khi phn r phng x, thi gian bn r v.v... S chuyn ng Kin thc ca electron trong Bit c: nguyn t . - M hnh hin i v s chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t.. Obitan nguyn t Obitan nguyn t, hnh dng cc obitan nguyn t S, Px, Py, Pz. - Khi nim lp , phn lp electron v s obitan trong mi lp v mi phn lp. Cc s lng t, gi tr cc s lng t v ngha ca chng. K nng 7</p> <p>6)</p> <p>- Xc nh c th t cc lp electron trong nguyn t, s obitan trong mi lp, mi phn lp. - Xc nh c mi lin h gia electron, lp electron vi cc s lng t. Nng lng ca Kin thc cc ellectron trong Hiu c: nguyn t. Cu - Mc nng lng obitan trong nguyn t v trt t sp xp. hnh electron - Cc nguyn l v quy tc phn b electron trong nguyn t: Nguyn l vng nguyn t . bn, nguyn l Pauli, qui tc Hun. - Cu hnh electron v cch vit cu hnh electron trong nguyn t. - S phn b electron trn cc phn lp, lp v cu hnh electron nguyn t ca 20 nguyn t u tin. - c im ca lp electron ngoi cng. K nng - Vit c cu hnh electron di dng lng t ca mt s nguyn t - Da vo cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t suy ra tnh cht c bn ca nguyn t l kim loi, phi kim hay kh him.</p> <p>3. BNG TUN HON CC NGUYN T HO HC - NH LUT TUN HON1) Ni dung Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc Mc cn t Kin thc Hiu c: - Nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon. - Cu to ca bng tun hon: , chu k, nhm nguyn t (nhm A, nhm B), cc nguyn t h Lantan, h Actini. - nguyn t gm: k hiu, tn nguyn t, s hiu nguyn t, nguyn t khi, cu hnh electron, m in. K nng - T v tr trong bng tun hon ca nguyn t (, nhm, chu k) suy ra cu hnh electron v ngc li. 8 Ch </p> <p>2)</p> <p>S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron ca nguyn t cc nguyn t ho hc</p> <p>3)</p> <p>S bin i tun hon tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc.</p> <p>4)</p> <p>S bin i tun hon tnh kim loi phi kim ca nguyn t ho hc. nh lut tun hon.</p> <p>Kin thc Hiu c: - c im cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm A. - S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t trong chu k. - S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t chnh l nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon v tnh cht cc nguyn t. Bit - c im cu hnh electron ho tr ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm B. K nng - Da vo cu hnh electron ca nguyn t nhm A, suy ra cu to nguyn t, c im cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng. - Da vo cu hnh electron, xc nh nguyn t s, p, d. Kin thc - Bit khi nim v quy lut bin i tun hon ca bn knh nguyn t, nng lng ion ho, i lc electron, m in ca mt s nguyn t trong mt chu k, trong nhm A. K nng - Da vo qui lut chung, suy on c s bin thin tnh cht c bn trong chu k (nhm A) c th, th d s bin thin v: m in, bn knh nguyn t, nng lng ion ho, i lc electron. Kin thc - Hiu c khi nim v quy lut bin i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim trong mt chu k, trong nhm A . - Hiu c s bin i ho tr ca cc nguyn t vi hiro v ho tr cao nht vi oxi ca cc nguyn t trong mt chu k. - Bit s bin i tnh axit, baz ca cc oxit v hiroxit trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm A. - Hiu c ni dung nh lut tun hon. 9</p> <p>K nng Da vo qui lut chung, suy on c s bin thin tnh cht c bn trong chu k ( nhm A) c th, th d s bin thin v: - Ho tr cao nht ca nguyn t vi oxi v vi hiro. - Tnh cht kim loi, phi kim. Vit c cng thc ho hc v ch ra tnh axit, baz ca cc oxit v hiroxit tng ng. 5) ngha ca bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc Kin thc Hiu c: - Mi quan h gia v tr cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon vi cu to nguyn t , gia v tr vi tnh cht c bn ca nguyn t . - Mi quan h gia tnh cht ca mt nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ln cn K nng T v tr ( nguyn t) trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t, suy ra: - Cu hnh electron nguyn t - Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca n cht v hp cht nguyn t . - So snh tnh kim loi, phi kim ca nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ln cn. Mc cn t Kin thc Bit c: - Khi nim lin kt ho hc, qui tc bt t. - di lin kt. Nng lng lin kt. Lc Van der Waals. Momen lng cc. K nng - Bit cch xc nh phn t c cc hay khng phn cc da vo di lin kt, Nng lng lin kt. Lc Van der Waals. Momen lng cc. Kin thc 10 Ch </p> <p>4. LIN KT HO HC 1) Ni dung Khi nim lin kt ho hc. Mt s d kin v lin kt.</p> <p>2)</p> <p>Mt s loi lin</p> <p>kt ho hc. m in v lin kt ho hc.</p> <p>3)</p> <p>4)</p> <p>5)</p> <p>Hiu c: - S to thnh ion m (anion), ion dng (cation), ion n nguyn t, ion a nguyn t, s to thnhlin kt ion. - S hnh thnh lin kt cng ho tr, nh ngha lin kt cng ho tr. Phng php cp electron - S hnh thnh lin kt cho nhn, S hnh thnh lin kt hidro - Mi quan h gia m in vi mt s loi lin kt K nng - Vit c cu hnh electron ca ion n nguyn t c th. - Xc nh ion n nguyn t, ion a nguyn t trong mt phn t cht c th. Vit c cng thc electron, cng thc cu to ca mt s phn t c th. D on c kiu lin kt ho hc c th c trong phn t gm 2 nguyn t khi bit hiu m in ca chng. S lai ho obitan Kin thc nguyn t v hnh Hiu c: dng ca phn t. - S xen ph cc obitan nguyn t trong s to thnh phn t n cht ( H2, S xen ph cc Cl2), to thnh phn t hp cht ( HCl, CO2) obitan. - S lai ho obitan nguyn t. sp, sp2, sp3 v dng hnh hc ca phn t - S xen ph trc, s xen ph bn cc obitan nguyn t, lin kt v lin kt . K nng - V s hnh thnh lin kt v lin kt , lai ho sp, sp2, sp3. - Xc nh c trng thi lai ho ca nguyn t v dng hnh hc ca phn t. Lin kt kim loi Kin thc Bit: - Khi nim lin kt kim loi. - Mt s mng tinh th kim loi v tnh cht ca tinh th kim loi.Ly th d c th. Mng tinh th Kin thc 11</p> <p>nguyn t, mng tinh th phn t v mng li tinh th ion</p> <p>Bit c: - Khi nim tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t, tinh th ion, mng li tinh th ion. - Tnh cht chung ca hp cht c tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t v hp cht ion. K nng - Da vo cu to loi mng tinh th, d on tnh cht vt l ca cht. Ch </p> <p>5. PHN NG HO HC 1) Ni dung Mc cn t Ho tr. S oxi ho Kin thc Bit c: - Khi nim in ho tr v cch xc nh in ho tr trong hp cht ion . - Khi nim cng ha tr v xch xc cng ho tr trong hp cht cng ho tr. - Khi nim s oxi ho ca nguyn t. Nhng quy tc xc nh s oxi ho ca nguyn t. K nng Xc nh c in ho tr, cng ha tr, s oxi ho ca nguyn t trong mt s phn t n cht v hp cht c th. Phn ng oxi ho- Kin thc kh Hiu c: - Phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng ho hc trong c s thay i s oxi ho ca nguyn t. - Cht oxi ho l cht nhn electron, cht kh l cht nhng electron. S oxi ho l s nhng electron, s kh l s nhn electron. Bit c: Cc bc lp phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh. - ngha ca phn ng oxi ho - kh trong thc tin. - Cch phn loi cc phn ng oxiho - kh: bnh thng, nh mi trng, t oxiho - kh, oxiho - kh ni phn t, c nhiu nguyn t tham gia... 12</p> <p>2)</p> <p>3)</p> <p>Phn loi phn ng trong ho hc v c.</p> <p>K nng - Phn bit c cht oxi ha v cht kh, s oxi ho v s kh trong phn ng oxi ho - kh c th. - Lp c phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh da vo s oxi ho - Thnh tho cn bng phng trnh phn ng oxiho - kh theo phng php thng bng electron v phng php ion electron. - Gii c bi ton c phng trnh phn ng oxiho - kh Kin thc Hiu c: - Cc phn ng ho hc c chia thnh 2 loi: phn ng oxiho - kh v khng phi l phn ng oxiho - kh. K nng - Xc nh c mt phn ng thuc loi phn ng oxiho - kh da vo s thay i s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t. - Gii c bi tp ho hc c lin quan Mc cn t Kin thc Bit c: - Nhit phn ng l g? Phn ng to nhit, phn ng thu nhit? Nhit sinh chun, nhit chy chun, nhit chuyn pha... ca mt cht. - nh lut Hees v cc h qu. - Cch tnh hiu ng nhit ca mt phn ng. K nng - Bit biu din phng trnh nhit ho hc c th. - Tnh c nhit phn ng t mt trong hai loi d kin l: Nhit to thnh v Nng lng lin kt. Kin thc 13 Ch </p> <p>6. L THUYT V PHN NG HO HC 1) Ni dung Khi nim nhit trong ho hc</p> <p>2)</p> <p>Chiu v gii hn</p> <p>t din bin ca cc qu trnh</p> <p>3)</p> <p>Cn bng ho hc</p> <p>4)</p> <p>Tc phn ng ho hc</p> <p>Bit c: - Cc khi nim bin thin entanpi H, bin thin entropi S v bin thin th ng p (hay nng lng Gibls) G - Cc biu thc biu din mi quan h gia cc i lng trn. - iu kin qu trnh t xy ra l G &lt; 0 K nng - Gii c mt s bi tp xc nh chiu xy ra ca phn ng Kin thc Hiu c: - nh ngha phn ng thun nghch v nu th d . - nh ngha v cn bng ho hc v i lng c trung l hng s cn bng (biu thc v ngha) trong h ng th v h d th. - nh ngha v s chuyn dch cn bng ho hc v cc yu t nh hng - Ni dung nguyn l L sa- t- li v vn dng trong mi trng hp c th. 0 - Tiu chun v cn bng v t din bin ca qu trnh G = RT ln K K nng - Quan st th nghim rt ra c nhn xt v phn ng thun nghch v cn bng ho hc. - D on c chiu chuyn dch cn bng ho hc trong nhng iu kin c th. - Vn dng c cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc xut cch tng hiu sut phn ng trong trng hp c th. - Gii c bi tp: Tnh hng s cn bng K nhit nht nh ca phn ng thun nghch bit nng cc cht trng thi cn bng v ngc li; bi tp khc c ni dung lin quan. Kin thc Bit c: - nh ngha tc phn ng, tc trung bnh, biu thc tnh tc trung bnh. Hiu c: 14</p> <p>- Cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng: nng , p sut, nhit , din tch b mt cht rn v cht xc tc. K nng - Quan st th nghim c th, hin tng thc t v tc phn ng, rt ra c nhn xt. - Vn dng c cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng lm tng hoc gim tc ca mt s phn ng trong thc t i sng, sn xut theo hng c li. 7. DUNG DCH S IN LY 1) Ni dung Khi nim v dung dch. Mc cn t Kin thc Bit c: - nh ngha dung dch, cc loi dung dch (lng, rn, keo, huyn ph, nh tng, bo ho v.v...) - S ho tan, c ch s ho tan. tan - Cc loi nng dung dch - nh lut Raoult 2. p sut thm thu. K nng - Tnh c tan ca cht tan v nng ca dung dch to ra bo ho hoc cha bo ho. - Bit p dng cc nh lut gii bi tp Kin thc Hiu c: - Khi nim v s in ly, c ch ca s in ly. - Cht in ly mnh, yu. in ly. Hng s in ly. nh lut bo ton nng . - Tch s ion ca nc, ngha Tch s ion ca nc. pH v nh ngha mi trng axit, mi trng trung tnh v mi trng kim. 15 Ch </p> <p>2)</p> <p>S in ly</p> <p>3)</p> <p>4)</p>...