Chuong Trinh Chuyen Sau THPT Chuyen Mon Hoa Hoc

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B GIO DC V O TO

CHNG TRNH CHUYN SU THPT CHUYNMN: HA HC

H Ni, 12/2009

LP 10I. MC CH: Thng nht trn phm vi ton quc k hoch dy hc v ni dung dy hc mn Ho hc cho trng THPT chuyn. Thng nht trn phm vi ton quc ni dung bi dng hc sinh gii cp THPT II. K HOCH DY HC: Tng s tit: 150% s tit ca chng trnh nng cao, trong 50% dnh cho ni dung chuyn su S TT 1 2 Ni dung L thuyt 12 9 Luyn tp 4 2 Thc hnh 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 2 6 8 6 8 8 n tp Kim tra Tng 16 12 16 10 14 18 16 18 6 8 134

Nguyn t Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc v nh lut tun hon 3 Lin kt ho hc 12 4 4 Phn ng ho hc 5 4 5 L thuyt v phn ng ho hc 7 6 6 Dung dch in ly 12 5 7 Nhm Halogen 10 4 8 Nhm Oxi 10 6 n tp u nm, cui nm, hc k Kim tra Tng 77 35 III. NI DUNG DY HC n tp b sung, h thng ho kin thc ho hc trng THCS (2 tit) CH KIN THC NI DUNG 1. Cc n v o lng v danh php ho hc 2. Nguyn t 2.1. Thnh phn nguyn t. Tnh cht sng ht ca vt cht 2

GHI CH

C S HO HC CHUNG

2.2. Ht nhn nguyn t (thnh phn, in tch, s khi, nguyn t khi, khi lng...) 2.3. Nguyn t ho hc. ng v. Nguyn t khi trung bnh. 2.4. S lc ho hc ht nhn 2.5. S chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t - Obitan nguyn t. 2.6. Nng lng ca electron trong nguyn t. Cu hnh electron trong nguyn t. 3. Bng tun hon v nh lut tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc 3.1. Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. 3.2. S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t ho hc 3.3. S bin i tun hon tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc. nh lut tun hon. 3.4. ngha ca bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. 4. Lin kt ho hc 4.1. Khi nim v lin kt ho hc. di lin kt. Nng lng lin kt. Momen lng cc. Lc Van der Waals. 4.2. Mt s loi lin kt ho hc: lin kt ion, lin kt cng ho tr, lin kt cho nhn, lin kt hidro. Phng php cp electron. m in v lin kt ho hc. 4.3. S lai ho cc obitan nguyn t v hnh dng ca phn t. S xen ph obitan to thnh lin kt n, lin kt i v lin kt ba. 4.4. Lin kt kim loi. 4.5. Mng li tinh th phn t, nguyn t, ion. 5. Phn ng ho hc 5.1. Ho tr v s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong phn t 5.2. Phn ng oxi ho - kh. Phn loi phn ng oxi ho - kh. 5.3. Phn loi phn ng ho hc. 6. L thuyt v phn ng ho hc 6.1. Khi nim nhit trong ho hc. 6.2. Chiu v gii hn t din bin ca cc qu trnh 5.3. Cn bng ho hc v cc yu t nh hng. Hng s cn bng Kc. 6.4. Tc phn ng ho hc v cc yu t nh hng. 7. Dung dch S in ly 3

HO HC V C

7.1. Khi nim v dung dch. S ho tan. tan. 7.2. nh lut Raoult 2. p sut thm thu. 7.3. S in ly. Cht in ly mnh, yu. in ly. Hng s in ly. nh lut bo ton nng . 7.4. Tch s ion ca nc. Khi nim pH, ch th mu. 7.5. Thuyt axit baz ca Bronsted. Hng s axit baz. Cp axit baz lin hp. Dung dch m. Tch s tan 7.6. Phn ng ca cc ion trong dung dch: phn ng axit baz, phn ng to hp cht t tan, phn ng thu phn mui, phn ng oxiho - kh, phn ng to phc. 8. Nhm Halogen 8.1. Khi qut v nhm halogen. 8.2. Clo. Cc hp cht c oxi v khng c oxi ca clo. 8.3. Cc halogen khc: Flo, Brom, Iot. Mt s hp cht c oxi v khng c oxi ca brom, iot. 9. Nhm oxi (Cancogen) 9.1. Khi qut v nhm oxi. 9.2. Oxi - Ozon - Hiro peoxit. 9.3. Lu hunh. 9.4. Cc hp cht ca lu hunh: ihidro sunfua v mui sunfua Lu hunh ioxit, lu hunh trioxit. Axit sunfuric v mui sunfat S lc mt s axit c oxi khc ca lu hunh. 1. Mt s thao tc c bn trong thc hnh th nghim ho hc. Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc v nh lut tun hon. 2. Phn ng oxi ho- kh. 3. Tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc. 4. Dung dch in ly 5. Tnh cht ca halogen 4

THC HNH HA HC

N TP, LUYN TP

6. Tnh cht cc hp cht ca halogen. Nhn bit ion Cl- Br-, I-. 7. Tnh cht ca oxi, lu hunh 8. Tnh cht cc hp cht ca lu hunh. n tp u nm, hc k 1, cui nm n luyn tp v cha bi tp. 1. Bi luyn tp 1, 2, 3, 4: Nguyn t 2. Bi luyn tp 5, 6 : Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc v nh lut tun hon. 3. Bi luyn tp 7, 8, 9, 10: Lin kt ho hc. 4. Bi luyn tp 11, 12, 13, 14: Phn ng oxi ho- kh 5. Bi luyn tp 15, 16, 17, 18: L thuyt phn ng ho hc 6. Bi luyn tp 19, 20, 21, 22, 23: Dung dch in ly 5. Bi luyn tp 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29: Nhm Halogen. 6. Bi luyn tp 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35: Nhm Oxi.

KIM - Kim tra 45 pht: 6 bi, mi hc k 3 bi TRA - Kim tra hc k I v cui nm: 2 bi IV. CHUN KIN THC V K NNG

1. N V O LNG V DANH PHP TRONG HO V C1) Ni dung n v o lng Mc cn t Kin thc Bit: - Cc n v o lng theo h SI v s lin h gia cc n v K nng - Bit s dng v chuyn cc loi n v Kin thc Bit: - Cch gi tn cc n cht, nguyn t, hp cht c hai, ba nguyn t. K nng 5 Ch

2)

Danh php

- Bit cch gi tn cc n cht, nguyn t, hp cht c hai, ba nguyn t theo danh php IUPAC. 2. NGUYN T Ni dung 1) Thnh phn nguyn t Mc cn t Kin thc Hiu: - Nguyn t gm ht nhn nm tm nguyn t mang in tch dng v v electron ca nguyn t gm cc electron mang in tch m; chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn. Ht nhn gm cc ht proton v ntron. Khi lng nguyn t tp trung ht nhn, khi lng cc electron l khng ng k. Bit: - n v khi lng, Kch thc ca nguyn t; K hiu, khi lng v in tch ca electron, proton v ntron. - Tnh cht lng tnh sng ht ca vt cht. K nng - Quan st m hnh cc th nghim, rt ra nhn xt. - So snh khi lng ca electron vi proton v ntron. - So snh kch thc ca ht nhn vi electron v vi nguyn t. - Tnh c khi lng v kch thc ca nguyn t. Kin thc Hiu: - S lin quan gia in tch ht nhn, s p v s e, s khi v s n v in tch ht nhn v ntron. - Nguyn t khi v khi lng ht nhn nguyn t K nng - Xc nh c s electron, s proton, s ntron khi bit k hiu nguyn t v s khi ca nguyn t v ngc li. 6 Ch

2)

Ht nhn nguyn t

3)

ng v Nguyn t khi trung bnh.

Kin thc Bit c: - Khi nim ng v, ng v bn, nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t. Khi nim nguyn t ho hc - Nguyn t khi tng i thng vit gn l nguyn t khi v khng c th nguyn. K nng Gii c bi tp: tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t c nhiu ng v, tnh t l % khi lng mi ng v v mt s bi tp khc lin quan.

4)

S lc v ho hc ht nhn

5)

Kin thc Bit c: - ht khi. Nng lng lin kt ca ht nhn. - Khi nim v hin tng phng x, h phng x, phng x, nh lut bo ton s khi. nh lut bo ton proton, nh lut phn r phng x, chu k phn r ca ng v phng x. ng dng ca ng v phng x. - Khi nim v phn ng ht nhn K nng - Bit cch tnh ht khi v nng lng lin kt ht nhn - Bit vit phng trnh phn r phng x v phn ng ht nhn da vo cc nh lut - Bit cch tnh cng phng x, thi gian phn r phng x (tui), lng cht cn li sau khi phn r phng x, thi gian bn r v.v... S chuyn ng Kin thc ca electron trong Bit c: nguyn t . - M hnh hin i v s chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t.. Obitan nguyn t Obitan nguyn t, hnh dng cc obitan nguyn t S, Px, Py, Pz. - Khi nim lp , phn lp electron v s obitan trong mi lp v mi phn lp. Cc s lng t, gi tr cc s lng t v ngha ca chng. K nng 7

6)

- Xc nh c th t cc lp electron trong nguyn t, s obitan trong mi lp, mi phn lp. - Xc nh c mi lin h gia electron, lp electron vi cc s lng t. Nng lng ca Kin thc cc ellectron trong Hiu c: nguyn t. Cu - Mc nng lng obitan trong nguyn t v trt t sp xp. hnh electron - Cc nguyn l v quy tc phn b electron trong nguyn t: Nguyn l vng nguyn t . bn, nguyn l Pauli, qui tc Hun. - Cu hnh electron v cch vit cu hnh electron trong nguyn t. - S phn b electron trn cc phn lp, lp v cu hnh electron nguyn t ca 20 nguyn t u tin. - c im ca lp electron ngoi cng. K nng - Vit c cu hnh electron di dng lng t ca mt s nguyn t - Da vo cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t suy ra tnh cht c bn ca nguyn t l kim loi, phi kim hay kh him.

3. BNG TUN HON CC NGUYN T HO HC - NH LUT TUN HON1) Ni dung Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc Mc cn t Kin thc Hiu c: - Nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon. - Cu to ca bng tun hon: , chu k, nhm nguyn t (nhm A, nhm B), cc nguyn t h Lantan, h Actini. - nguyn t gm: k hiu, tn nguyn t, s hiu nguyn t, nguyn t khi, cu hnh electron, m in. K nng - T v tr trong bng tun hon ca nguyn t (, nhm, chu k) suy ra cu hnh electron v ngc li. 8 Ch

2)

S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron ca nguyn t cc nguyn t ho hc

3)

S bin i tun hon tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc.

4)

S bin i tun hon tnh kim loi phi kim ca nguyn t ho hc. nh lut tun hon.

Kin thc Hiu c: - c im cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm A. - S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t trong chu k. - S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t chnh l nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon v tnh cht cc nguyn t. Bit - c im cu hnh electron ho tr ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm B. K nng - Da vo cu hnh electron ca nguyn t nhm A, suy ra cu to nguyn t, c im cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng. - Da vo cu hnh electron, xc nh nguyn t s, p, d. Kin thc - Bit khi nim v quy lut bin i tun hon ca bn knh nguyn t, nng lng ion ho, i lc electron, m in ca mt s nguyn t trong mt chu k, trong nhm A. K nng - Da vo qui lut chung, suy on c s bin thin tnh cht c bn trong chu k (nhm A) c th, th d s bin thin v: m in, bn knh nguyn t, nng lng ion ho, i lc electron. Kin thc - Hiu c khi nim v quy lut bin i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim trong mt chu k, trong nhm A . - Hiu c s bin i ho tr ca cc nguyn t vi hiro v ho tr cao nht vi oxi ca cc nguyn t trong mt chu k. - Bit s bin i tnh axit, baz ca cc oxit v hiroxit trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm A. - Hiu c ni dung nh lut tun hon. 9

K nng Da vo qui lut chung, suy on c s bin thin tnh cht c bn trong chu k ( nhm A) c th, th d s bin thin v: - Ho tr cao nht ca nguyn t vi oxi v vi hiro. - Tnh cht kim loi, phi kim. Vit c cng thc ho hc v ch ra tnh axit, baz ca cc oxit v hiroxit tng ng. 5) ngha ca bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc Kin thc Hiu c: - Mi quan h gia v tr cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon vi cu to nguyn t , gia v tr vi tnh cht c bn ca nguyn t . - Mi quan h gia tnh cht ca mt nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ln cn K nng T v tr ( nguyn t) trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t, suy ra: - Cu hnh electron nguyn t - Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca n cht v hp cht nguyn t . - So snh tnh kim loi, phi kim ca nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ln cn. Mc cn t Kin thc Bit c: - Khi nim lin kt ho hc, qui tc bt t. - di lin kt. Nng lng lin kt. Lc Van der Waals. Momen lng cc. K nng - Bit cch xc nh phn t c cc hay khng phn cc da vo di lin kt, Nng lng lin kt. Lc Van der Waals. Momen lng cc. Kin thc 10 Ch

4. LIN KT HO HC 1) Ni dung Khi nim lin kt ho hc. Mt s d kin v lin kt.

2)

Mt s loi lin

kt ho hc. m in v lin kt ho hc.

3)

4)

5)

Hiu c: - S to thnh ion m (anion), ion dng (cation), ion n nguyn t, ion a nguyn t, s to thnhlin kt ion. - S hnh thnh lin kt cng ho tr, nh ngha lin kt cng ho tr. Phng php cp electron - S hnh thnh lin kt cho nhn, S hnh thnh lin kt hidro - Mi quan h gia m in vi mt s loi lin kt K nng - Vit c cu hnh electron ca ion n nguyn t c th. - Xc nh ion n nguyn t, ion a nguyn t trong mt phn t cht c th. Vit c cng thc electron, cng thc cu to ca mt s phn t c th. D on c kiu lin kt ho hc c th c trong phn t gm 2 nguyn t khi bit hiu m in ca chng. S lai ho obitan Kin thc nguyn t v hnh Hiu c: dng ca phn t. - S xen ph cc obitan nguyn t trong s to thnh phn t n cht ( H2, S xen ph cc Cl2), to thnh phn t hp cht ( HCl, CO2) obitan. - S lai ho obitan nguyn t. sp, sp2, sp3 v dng hnh hc ca phn t - S xen ph trc, s xen ph bn cc obitan nguyn t, lin kt v lin kt . K nng - V s hnh thnh lin kt v lin kt , lai ho sp, sp2, sp3. - Xc nh c trng thi lai ho ca nguyn t v dng hnh hc ca phn t. Lin kt kim loi Kin thc Bit: - Khi nim lin kt kim loi. - Mt s mng tinh th kim loi v tnh cht ca tinh th kim loi.Ly th d c th. Mng tinh th Kin thc 11

nguyn t, mng tinh th phn t v mng li tinh th ion

Bit c: - Khi nim tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t, tinh th ion, mng li tinh th ion. - Tnh cht chung ca hp cht c tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t v hp cht ion. K nng - Da vo cu to loi mng tinh th, d on tnh cht vt l ca cht. Ch

5. PHN NG HO HC 1) Ni dung Mc cn t Ho tr. S oxi ho Kin thc Bit c: - Khi nim in ho tr v cch xc nh in ho tr trong hp cht ion . - Khi nim cng ha tr v xch xc cng ho tr trong hp cht cng ho tr. - Khi nim s oxi ho ca nguyn t. Nhng quy tc xc nh s oxi ho ca nguyn t. K nng Xc nh c in ho tr, cng ha tr, s oxi ho ca nguyn t trong mt s phn t n cht v hp cht c th. Phn ng oxi ho- Kin thc kh Hiu c: - Phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng ho hc trong c s thay i s oxi ho ca nguyn t. - Cht oxi ho l cht nhn electron, cht kh l cht nhng electron. S oxi ho l s nhng electron, s kh l s nhn electron. Bit c: Cc bc lp phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh. - ngha ca phn ng oxi ho - kh trong thc tin. - Cch phn loi cc phn ng oxiho - kh: bnh thng, nh mi trng, t oxiho - kh, oxiho - kh ni phn t, c nhiu nguyn t tham gia... 12

2)

3)

Phn loi phn ng trong ho hc v c.

K nng - Phn bit c cht oxi ha v cht kh, s oxi ho v s kh trong phn ng oxi ho - kh c th. - Lp c phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh da vo s oxi ho - Thnh tho cn bng phng trnh phn ng oxiho - kh theo phng php thng bng electron v phng php ion electron. - Gii c bi ton c phng trnh phn ng oxiho - kh Kin thc Hiu c: - Cc phn ng ho hc c chia thnh 2 loi: phn ng oxiho - kh v khng phi l phn ng oxiho - kh. K nng - Xc nh c mt phn ng thuc loi phn ng oxiho - kh da vo s thay i s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t. - Gii c bi tp ho hc c lin quan Mc cn t Kin thc Bit c: - Nhit phn ng l g? Phn ng to nhit, phn ng thu nhit? Nhit sinh chun, nhit chy chun, nhit chuyn pha... ca mt cht. - nh lut Hees v cc h qu. - Cch tnh hiu ng nhit ca mt phn ng. K nng - Bit biu din phng trnh nhit ho hc c th. - Tnh c nhit phn ng t mt trong hai loi d kin l: Nhit to thnh v Nng lng lin kt. Kin thc 13 Ch

6. L THUYT V PHN NG HO HC 1) Ni dung Khi nim nhit trong ho hc

2)

Chiu v gii hn

t din bin ca cc qu trnh

3)

Cn bng ho hc

4)

Tc phn ng ho hc

Bit c: - Cc khi nim bin thin entanpi H, bin thin entropi S v bin thin th ng p (hay nng lng Gibls) G - Cc biu thc biu din mi quan h gia cc i lng trn. - iu kin qu trnh t xy ra l G < 0 K nng - Gii c mt s bi tp xc nh chiu xy ra ca phn ng Kin thc Hiu c: - nh ngha phn ng thun nghch v nu th d . - nh ngha v cn bng ho hc v i lng c trung l hng s cn bng (biu thc v ngha) trong h ng th v h d th. - nh ngha v s chuyn dch cn bng ho hc v cc yu t nh hng - Ni dung nguyn l L sa- t- li v vn dng trong mi trng hp c th. 0 - Tiu chun v cn bng v t din bin ca qu trnh G = RT ln K K nng - Quan st th nghim rt ra c nhn xt v phn ng thun nghch v cn bng ho hc. - D on c chiu chuyn dch cn bng ho hc trong nhng iu kin c th. - Vn dng c cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc xut cch tng hiu sut phn ng trong trng hp c th. - Gii c bi tp: Tnh hng s cn bng K nhit nht nh ca phn ng thun nghch bit nng cc cht trng thi cn bng v ngc li; bi tp khc c ni dung lin quan. Kin thc Bit c: - nh ngha tc phn ng, tc trung bnh, biu thc tnh tc trung bnh. Hiu c: 14

- Cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng: nng , p sut, nhit , din tch b mt cht rn v cht xc tc. K nng - Quan st th nghim c th, hin tng thc t v tc phn ng, rt ra c nhn xt. - Vn dng c cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng lm tng hoc gim tc ca mt s phn ng trong thc t i sng, sn xut theo hng c li. 7. DUNG DCH S IN LY 1) Ni dung Khi nim v dung dch. Mc cn t Kin thc Bit c: - nh ngha dung dch, cc loi dung dch (lng, rn, keo, huyn ph, nh tng, bo ho v.v...) - S ho tan, c ch s ho tan. tan - Cc loi nng dung dch - nh lut Raoult 2. p sut thm thu. K nng - Tnh c tan ca cht tan v nng ca dung dch to ra bo ho hoc cha bo ho. - Bit p dng cc nh lut gii bi tp Kin thc Hiu c: - Khi nim v s in ly, c ch ca s in ly. - Cht in ly mnh, yu. in ly. Hng s in ly. nh lut bo ton nng . - Tch s ion ca nc, ngha Tch s ion ca nc. pH v nh ngha mi trng axit, mi trng trung tnh v mi trng kim. 15 Ch

2)

S in ly

3)

4)

- Cht ch th axit - baz : qu tm, phenolphtalein v giy ch th vn nng K nng - Vit c phng trnh in ly cc cht - Xc nh in ly ca cc cht in ly yu. Xc nh c mi quan h gia in ly, pH ca mt dung dch da vo hng s in ly - S dng ch th mu trong phn tch dung dch Thuyt axit baz Kin thc Bit c: - Ni dung thuyt axit baz ca Bronsted. Hng s axit baz. Cp axit baz lin hp. - Khi nim v dung dch m. - Khi nim v tch s ho tan, hng s to phc. K nng - Xc nh c cc axit, baz theo Bronsted - Bit cch s dng hng s axit baz trong dung dch m - Bit cch s dng tch s tan v hng s to phc trong cc phn ng to cht kt ta v to phc cht Phn ng ca cc Kin thc cht trong dung Bit c: dch - Cc loi phn ng trong dung dch in ly: phn ng axit baz, phn ng to cht t tan, phn ng thu phn mui, phn ng oxiho - kh, phn ng to phc... K nng - Vit thnh tho cc phng trnh ho hc dng ion - Biu din c cc cn bng cc loi trong dung dch in ly - p dng thch hp cc loi hng s cho mi loi cn bng tnh ton c. - Gii c cc bi tp lin quan 8. NHM HALOGEN 16

1)

Ni dung Mc cn t Khi qut v nhm Kin thc halogen Hiu c: - V tr nhm halogen trong bng tun hon. - S bin i m in, bn knh nguyn t, nng lng ion ho th nht v mt s tnh cht vt l ca cc nguyn t trong nhm. - Cu hnh electron nguyn t v cu to phn t ca nhng nguyn t trong nhm halogen. Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca cc nguyn t halogen l tnh oxi ho mnh. - S bin i tnh cht ha hc ca cc n cht trong nhm halogen. K nng - Vit c cu hnh lp electron ngoi cng dng lng t ca nguyn t F, Cl, Br, I trng thi c bn v trng thi kch thch. - D on c tnh cht ha hc c bn ca halogen l tnh oxi ha mnh da vo cu hnh lp electron ngoi cng v mt s tnh cht khc ca nguyn t. - Vit c cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht oxi ho mnh ca cc nguyn t halogen, quy lut bin i tnh cht ca cc nguyn t trong nhm. - Gii c bi tp: Tnh % th tch hoc khi lng ca halogen hoc hp cht ca chng trong hn hp; bi tp khc c ni dung lin quan. Clo Kin thc Bit c: - Tnh cht vt l, trng thi t nhin, ng dng ca clo, phng php iu ch clo trong phng th nghim v trong cng nghip. Hiu c: Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca clo l tnh oxi ho mnh (tc dng vi: kim loi, hiro, mui ca cc halogen khc, hp cht c tnh kh); clo cn c tnh kh. K nng 17

Ch

2)

3)

Hiro clorua Axit clohiric

4)

Hp cht c oxi ca clo

- D on, kim tra v kt lun c v tnh cht ha hc c bn ca clo. - Quan st cc th nghim hoc hnh nh th nghim rt ra nhn xt v tnh cht, iu ch clo. - Vit cc PTHH minh ho tnh cht ho hc v iu ch clo. - Gii c bi tp: Tnh khi lng nguyn liu cn thit iu ch th tch kh clo ktc cn dng; cc bi tp khc c ni dung lin quan. Kin thc Bit c: - Tnh cht vt l ca hiro clorua; hiro clorua tan rt nhiu trong nc to thnh dung dch axit clohiric. - Phng php iu ch axit clohiric trong phng th nghim v trong cng nghip. - Tnh cht vt l, ng dng ca mt s mui clorua, phn ng c trng ca ion clorua. Hiu c: - Cu to phn t HCl. - Dung dch HCl l mt axit mnh. HCl c tnh kh K nng - D on, kim tra d on, kt lun c v tnh cht ca axit HCl. - Vit cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca axit HCl. - Phn bit dung dch HCl v mui clorua vi dung dch axit v mui khc. - Gii c mt s bi tp tng hp c ni dung lin quan n tnh cht, ng dng v iu ch HCl. Kin thc Bit c: - Cc oxit v cc axit c oxi ca clo, s bin i tnh bn, tnh axit v kh nng oxi ho ca cc axit c oxi ca clo. - Thnh phn ha hc, ng dng, nguyn tc sn xut mt s mui c oxi ca clo. Hiu c: 18

- Tnh oxiha mnh ca mt s hp cht c oxi ca clo (nc giaven, clorua vi, mui clorat) K nng - Vit c cc PTHH minh ho tnh cht ha hc v iu ch nc Giaven, clorua vi, mui clorat. - S dng c hiu qu, an ton nc Gia-ven, clorua vi trong thc t. - Gii c mt s bi tp ho hc c ni dung lin quan n tnh cht, ng dng v iu ch. 5. Flo, brom, iot. Kin thc Bit c: - Tnh cht vt l, trng thi t nhin, ng dng, iu ch flo, brom, iot - Thnh phn phn t, tn gi, tnh cht c bn, mt s ng dng, iu ch mt s hp cht ca flo, brom, iot. Hiu c: - Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca flo, brom, iot l tnh oxi ho mnh v gim dn t flo n clo, brom, iot; nguyn nhn tnh oxi ho gim dn t flo n iot. K nng - D on, kim tra v kt lun c tnh cht ho hc c bn ca flo, brom, iot. - Quan st th nghim, hnh nh...rt ra c nhn xt v tnh cht ho hc. - Vit c cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca flo, brom, iot v tnh oxi ha gim dn t flo n iot. - Gii c mt s bi tp ho hc c ni dung lin quan n tnh cht, ng dng v iu ch.

9. NHM OXI Ni dung Mc cn t 19 Ch

1)

Khi qut v nhm oxi

2)

Oxi

Kin thc Hiu c: - V tr nhm oxi trong bng tun hon. - S bin i m in, bn knh nguyn t, nng lng ion ho v mt s tnh cht vt l ca cc nguyn t trong nhm. - Cu hnh lp electron ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm oxi tng t nhau; cc nguyn t trong nhm (tr oxi) c nhiu s oxi ho khc nhau. - Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca cc nguyn t nhm oxi l tnh oxi ho. S khc nhau gia oxi v cc nguyn t trong nhm. S bin i tnh cht ha hc ca cc n cht trong nhm oxi. - Tnh cht ca hp cht vi hiro, hiroxit. K nng - Vit c cu hnh lp electron ngoi cng dng lng t ca nguyn t O, S, Se, Te trng thi c bn v trng thi kch thch. - D on c tnh cht ha hc c bn ca nhm oxi l tnh oxi ha da vo cu hnh lp electron ngoi cng v mt s tnh cht khc ca nguyn t. - Vit c cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht oxi ho ca cc nguyn t nhm oxi quy lut bin i tnh cht ca cc nguyn t trong nhm. - Gii c mt s bi tp ho hc c ni dung lin quan n tnh cht n cht v hp cht nhm oxi lu hunh. Kin thc Bit c: - Tnh cht vt l, phng php iu ch oxi trong phng th nghim, trong cng nghip, s to ra oxi trong t nhin. Hiu c: - Cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng dng lng t ca oxi, cu to phn t oxi. - Tnh cht ho hc: Oxi c tnh oxiho rt mnh (oxiho c hu ht kim 20

loi, phi kim, nhiu hp cht v c v hu c), ng dng ca oxi K nng - D on tnh cht, kim tra, kt lun c v tnh cht ho hc ca oxi. - Quan st th nghim, hnh nh...rt ra c nhn xt v tnh cht, iu ch... - Vit PTHH minh ho tnh cht v iu ch. - Gii c mt s bi tp tng hp c ni dung lin quan . 3) Ozon v peoxit hiro Kin thc Bit c: - Ozon l dng th hnh ca oxi, iu kin to thnh ozon. - Tnh cht vt l ca ozon. Ozon trong t nhin v ng dng ca ozon. - Tnh cht vt l v ho hc, ng dng ca hiro peoxit. Hiu c: - Cu to phn t, tnh cht oxiho rt mnh ca ozon - Cu to phn t, tnh cht oxiho v tnh kh ca hidro peoxit K nng - D on tnh cht, kim tra, kt lun c v tnh cht ho hc ca ozon, hidro peoxit . - Quan st th nghim, hnh nh...rt ra c nhn xt v tnh cht... - Vit PTHH minh ho tnh cht ca ozon v hiro peoxit. - Gii c mt s bi tp : Tnh % th tch kh ozon to thnh, khi lng hidro peoxit tham gia phn ng, bi tp khc c ni dung lin quan. Kin thc Bit c: - Hai dng th hnh ph bin (t phng, n t),.nh hng ca nhit i vi cu to v tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh, ng dng v sn xut lu hunh . Hiu c: - V tr, cu hnh electron lp electron ngoi cng dng lng t ca nguyn 21

4)

Lu hunh

5)

6)

t lu hunh trng thi c bn v trng thi kch thch. Cc s oxi ho ca lu hunh. - Tnh cht ho hc: Lu hunh va c tnh oxi ho (tc dng vi kim loi, hiro), va c tnh kh (tc dng vi oxi, cht oxi ho mnh). K nng - D on tnh cht, kim tra, kt lun c v tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh. - Tin hnh th nghim hoc quan st th nghim, hnh nh... rt ra c nhn xt v tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh. - Vit PTHH chng minh tnh oxi ho v tnh kh ca lu hunh. - Gii c mt s bi tp : Tnh khi lng lu hunh tham gia phn ng v sn phm tng ng; cc bi tp tng hp c ni dung lin quan Hiro sunfua. Kin thc Axit sunfuhidric Bit c: - Tnh cht vt l, trng thi t nhin v iu ch ca hiro sunfua. - Tnh axit yu ca axit sunfuhidric - Tnh cht cc mui sunfua. Hiu c: - Cu to phn t. tnh cht kh mnh ca hidro sunfua. K nng - D on, kim tra, kt lun c v tnh cht ho hc ca H2S. - Vit PTHH minh ho tnh cht ca H2S. - Phn bit H2S vi kh khc bit nh kh oxi, hiro, clo.. - Gii c bi tp: Tnh % th tch hoc khi lng kh H 2S trong hn hp phn ng hoc sn phm; bi tp tng hp c ni dung lin quan. Lu hunh ioxit- Kin thc Lu hunh trioxit. Bit c: Axit sunfuric- Cng thc cu to, tnh cht vt l, trng thi t nhin, tnh cht oxit axit, ng dng, phng php iu ch SO2. - Cng thc cu to, tnh cht vt l, ng dng v iu ch lu hunh trioxi, 22

axit sunfuric. - Tnh cht ca mui sunfat, nhn bit ion sunfat. Hiu c: - Cu to phn t, tnh cht ho hc ca Lu hunh ioxit (va c tnh oxi ho va c tnh kh). - H2SO4 c tnh axit mnh (tc dng vi kim loi, baz, oxit baz v mui ca axit yu FeS...). - H2SO4 c, nng c tnh oxi ho mnh (oxi ho hu ht kim loi, nhiu phi kim v hp cht). K nng - Quan st th nghim, hnh nh...rt ra c nhn xt v tnh cht, iu ch lu hunh ioxit, axit sunfuric. - Vit PTHH minh ho tnh cht v iu ch. - Phn bit mui sunfat , axit sunfuric vi cc axit v mui khc( CH3COOH, H2S ...) - Gii c bi tp: Tnh nng hoc khi lng dung dch H2SO4 tham gia hoc to thnh trong phn ng, khi lng H2SO4 to thnh theo hiu sut; bi tp tng hp c ni dung lin quan. 8. THC HNH HO HC 1) Ni dung Mt s thao tc trong phng th nghim. S bin i tnh cht ca nguyn t trong chu k v nhm. Mc cn t Kin thc - Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: - Rn mt s thao tc thc hnh th nghim: ly ho cht, trn ho cht, un nng ho cht, s dng mt s dng c ho hc thng thng. - S bin i tnh cht nguyn t trong nhm: phn ng gia Na, K vi nc. - S bin i tnh cht nguyn t trong chu k: phn ng gia Na, Mg vi nc. 23

2)

Phn ng oxi ho - kh

K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + Phn ng gia mt s kim loi Fe, Cu vi H2SO4 long hoc c, nng + Phn ng gia kim loi Mg vi dung dch mui CuSO4. + Phn ng gia oxiho - kh gia kim loi vi oxit (Mg + CO 2) nhit cao.. + Phn ng oxi ho - kh trong mi trng axit (Cu + KNO3 + H2SO4). K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + iu ch axit clo, tnh ty mu ca clo m + So snh tnh oxiho ca clo vi brom v iot. + Tc dng ca iot vi h tinh bt. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Kin thc 24

3)

Tnh cht ca cc halogen.

4)

Tnh cht ca cc

hp cht halogen

5)

Tnh cht ca oxi v lu hunh

6)

Tnh cht cc hp cht ca lu hunh

7)

Tc phn ng

Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + Tnh axit ca axit HCl + Tnh ty mu ca nc Giaven. + Bi tp thc nghim nhn bit cc dung dch NaCl, NaBr, NaI. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + Tnh oxi ho ca oxi v lu hunh (tc dng ca H2 + CuO ; Fe + S). + Tnh kh ca lu hunh (tc dng ca S + O2) + S bin i trng thi ca lu hunh theo nhit . K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + Tnh kh ca hidro sunfua (tc dng ca H2S + O2) + Tnh kh v tnh oxi ho ca lu hunh ioxit. + Tnh oxi ho v tnh ho nc ca H2SO4 c. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Kin thc 25

v cn bng ho hc.

Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + nh hng ca nng n tc phn ng + nh hng ca nhit n tc phn ng + nh hng ca din tch b mt cht rn n tc phn ng + nh hng ca nhit n cn bng ho hc K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim.

V. Gii thch v hng dn thc hin Chng trnh chuyn su mn Ha hc lp 10 c xy dng da trn mt s c s sau y: - Mc tiu gio dc ca loi hnh THPT chuyn ni chung v chuyn Ha hc ni ring. - Ni dung dy hc mn Ha hc trng THPT chuyn nm 2001. - Chng trnh mn Ha hc THPT nng cao. 1. K hoch dy hc Ngoi ni dung dy theo chng trnh THPT nng cao, tng thi lng dnh cho ni dung Ha hc chuyn su lp 10 l khong 43 tit c phn b c th theo ni dung cc ch thuc kin thc c s ha hc chung v ha hc v c, n luyn tp v thc hnh. 2. Ni dung dy hc Ngoi ni dung ha hc nng cao thao chng trnh THPT nng cao ha hc 10, ni dung dy hc chuyn su ha hc10 gip pht trin nng lc nhn thc v t duy khoa hc Ha hc to iu kin cho HS tip tc i su v pht trin hng th hc tp, nim say m nghin cu ha hc to iu kin HS tip tc theo hc chuyn ngnh Ha hc hoc KHTN c lin quan. Ni dung dy hc chuyn su to c s cho HS tham gia cc k thi HSG quc gia, quc t gp phn pht hin v bi dng nhn ti Ha hc v cc ngnh khoa hc t nhin. Ni dung dy hc Ha hc 10 chuyn su bao gm cc ni dung c lin quan sau y:

26

- Ha i cng gm mt s kin thc c s ha hc chung: Tnh cht sng ht ca vt cht, S lc ho hc ht nhn, Khi nim v lin kt ho hc. di lin kt. Nng lng lin kt. Momen lng cc. Lc Van der Waals. lin kt hidro. Phng php cp electron, Chiu v gii hn t din bin ca cc qu trnh. Mt s loi lin kt ho hc: lin kt ion, lin kt cng ho tr, lin kt cho nhn, lin kt hidro. Phng php cp electron. Ngoi ra c b sung thm ni dung v dung dch v s in ly Ha hc 11 gm: - Khi nim v dung dch. S ho tan. tan. - nh lut Raoult 2. p sut thm thu. - S in ly. Cht in ly mnh, yu. in ly. Hng s in ly. nh lut bo ton nng . - Tch s ion ca nc. Khi nim pH, ch th mu. - Thuyt axit baz ca Bronsted. Hng s axit baz. Cp axit baz lin hp. Dung dch m. Tch s tan - Phn ng ca cc ion trong dung dch: phn ng axit baz, phn ng to hp cht t tan, phn ng thu phn mui, phn ng oxiho - kh, phn ng to phc. - Ha v c : Cc ni dung chuyn su v hp cht ca cc halogen, oxi, lu hunh, th d: S lc mt s axit c oxi khc ca lu hunh. ng thi tng cng ni dung n, luyn tp gii bi tp v thc hnh th nghim. 3. Phng php v phng tin dy hc Phng php dy hc cn pht huy cao tnh tch cc, ch ng c lp, sng to ca HS trong vic t hc, t c ti liu tham kho, tm tt ni dung v lm cc bi tp ha hc chuyn su. T chc cc hot ng c nhn v nhm gii quyt mt s vn l thuyt, thc hnh, thc tin c lin quan n ha hc. S dng cc phng tin dy hc c th ca b mn Ha hc v phng tin dy hc hin i gip HS khm ph vn dng kin thc mt cch thng minh, sng to. Ch bi dng phng php thu thp thng tin v x l thng tin mt cch linh hot, sng to. 4. nh gi kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh. Tng cng nh gi k nng thc hnh th nghim ha hc c bn v nng cao theo chng trnh chuyn su. Ch trng nh gi nng lc khm ph, vn dng kin thc, rn luyn k nng ha hc mt cch c lp, sng to gii quyt vn c m phng trong bi tp ha hc, mt s vn hc tp ha hc c lin quan n thc tin sn xut v i sng. VI. Ti liu tham kho 1. o Hu Vinh - Nguyn Duy i - Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc 10. Tp 2. NXBGD H ni 2005:20000ng 2. Nguyn Duy A- o Hu Vinh. Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc THPT. Bi tp Ha hc i cng v v c. 27

NXBGD H ni 2003:45000ng 3. Nguyn Tinh Dung. Gio trnh Ha hc phn tch 1: Cn bng ion trong dung dch. NXB HSP H ni 2005: 16000 4. Nguyn Hnh - C s l thuyt ha hc. NXB Gio dc H ni 1997. 5. Nguyn Duy i, Nguyn Tinh Dung, Trn Thnh Hu, Trn Quc Sn, Nguyn Vn Tng... Mt s vn chn lc ca Ha hc. Tp 1,2,3. NXB Gio dc H ni 2005. 6. Hong Nhm- Ha hc v c. Tp 1,2, 3. NXB Gio dc H ni 2005. Tp 1: 25000ng Tp 2: 34000ng Tp 3: 38000ng

28

LP 11I. Mc ch Thng nht trn phm vi ton quc: - K hoch dy hc v ni dung dy hc mn Ha hc cho trng THPT chuyn. - Ni dung bi dng hc sinh gii cp THPT. II. K hoch dy hc: Tng s tit chuyn su: 53 tit S Ni dung L thuyt TT 1 n tp v b tc kin thc v dung 2 dch: Cn bng ion trong dung dch 2 Nhm nit 5 3 Nhm cacbon 3 4 i cng Ha hc hu c 4 5 Hirocacbon no 3 6 Hirocacbon khng no 3 7 Hirocacbon thm. Ngun 2 hirocacbon t thin nhin. 8 Dn xut halogen 2 9 Ancol- Phenol 2 10 Anehit- Xeton 2 11 Axit cacboxylic 3 12 n tp u nm, cui nm, hc k 13 Kim tra Tng s tit 31 Luyn tp 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 5 Thc hnh n tp 1 1 Kim tra Tng s tit 4 7 4 6 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 53

1

1 1 3 3 3 3

III. Ni dung dy hc - Thi lng: 87 tit theo ni dung chng trnh THPT Ha hc nng cao lp 11. 29

- Thi lng 53 tit cn li thc hin cc ni dung chuyn su theo hng dn di y: Ch Ni dung chuyn su 1. n tp v b tc kin thc v dung dch: Cn bng ion trong dung dch 1.1. Cn bng trong dung dch axit - baz - Axit mnh, baz mnh. n axit, n baz yu. - a axit, a baz. Cc hp cht lng tnh. Dung dch phc hiroxo ca cc ion kim loi. - Dung dch m, tnh cht, cch pha ch. - S lc l thuyt v chun axit- baz. 1.2.Cn bng to phc trong dung dch. - Phc cht trong dung dch. Cn bng v tnh cht ca cc phc cht. - Cc yu t nh hng n s to phc: lng thuc th d, pH. - Gii thiu mt s phc cht thng gp. 1.3.Cc phn ng oxi ha- kh - Cp oxi ha- kh v cht oxi ha- kh lin hp. Gii thch nh tnh v nh lng chiu phn ng oxi ha- kh. - Cn bng phng trnh phn ng oxi ha- kh theo phng php ion- electron. 1.4 Cn bng trong dung dch cha hp cht t tan - tan v tch s tan. Tnh tan v tch s tan trong cc trng hp n gin. - Cc yu t nh hng n tan ca cc hp cht t tan. + nh hng ca lng d thuc th. + nh hng ca pH. + nh hng ca cht to phc. - iu kin xut hin kt ta. - iu kin kt ta hon ton v cc yu t nh hng. - S kt ta phn on. - Chn thuc th ha tan cc kt ta kh tan.

Ghi ch C cp hng s cn bng v th ng p , ng nhit chun v c vn dng trong cc trng hp c th.

30

2. Nhm nitphotpho. Hp cht ca nit v photpho

2.1. Amoniac Tnh cht to phc. Gii thiu mt s phc cht ca NH3 vi cc ion kim loi. 2. 2 Mt s oxit thng gp ca nit Cu to phn t, tnh cht ha hc, cch iu ch. 2.3. Mui amoni Phn ng axit yu ca mui amoni. 2.4. Axit nitr v mui nitrit Cu to phn t. Tnh cht vt l. S phn hy bi nhit ca cc axit nitr v cc mui nitrit. Tnh oxi ha- kh ca axit nitr. 2.5. Axit nitric v mui nitrat Tnh cht oxi ha mnh ca axit nitric v mui nitrat. Nc cng thy. 2.6. Mt s hp cht khc c nhiu ng dng ca nit Hirazin, hiroxylamin, mt s nitrua kim loi: Khi nim azit, s lc v cu to phn t, tnh cht v ng dng. 2.7. Mt s hp cht khc c nhiu ng dng ca photpho Photpho oxit, photpho halogenua, photphin, axit cha oxi( axit photphor, hipophotphor): S lc v cu to phn t, tnh cht v ng dng. 3.1. Cac bua kim loi S lc v cu to phn t, tnh cht v ng dng. 3.2. Hiro xianua S lc v cu to phn t, tnh cht v ng dng. 3.3. Axit xianic, axit thioxianic v cc mui S lc v cu to phn t, tnh cht v ng dng. 4.1. Cc loi danh php hu c quan trng Khi nim v danh php na h thng, danh php trao i, danh php cng v danh php tr. 4.2. Cc loi cng thc lp th 31

3. Nhm cacbonsilic. Mt s hp cht ca cacbon

4. i cng v ho hc hu c

Khi nim

5. Hirocacbon no

Cng thc lp th kiu" nt lin- ng cho" (sawhorse representation), cng thc Niumen ( Newman), cng thc Fis (Fischer). 4.3. Cc loi hiu ng electron Khi nim ( c minh ha) v quy lut v hiu ng cm ng v hiu ng lin hp. Khi nim ( c minh ha) v hiu ng siu lin hp. 4.4. Cc kiu phn ct lin kt cng ho tr. Cacbocation, cacbanion v gc t do Kiu phn ct d li to thnh cacbanion. Khi nim, cu trc hnh hc, cu trc electron v bn tng i ca tng loi tiu phn: Cacbocation, cacbanion v gc t do. 4.5. Khi nim c ch phn ng Khi nim v minh ha v c ch phn ng. Phn loi s b c ch phn ng ( phn ng theo c ch gc t do, phn ng electrophin v phn ng nucleophin). 5.1. Danh php ankan, ankyl, xicloankan Danh php ankan v ankyl c mch phn nhnh. p dng quy tc" im khc nhau u tin". Danh php xicloankan loi hai vng kiu spiro v kiu bixiclo. 5.2. Cu dng Cu dng mt s ng ng trn ca etan: cc dng bn v dng khng bn, cch biu din cu dng. Hnh dng ca cc vng no t 3 cnh n 6 cnh. Xiclohexan: khi nim v dng gh v dng thuyn, lin kt bin v lin kt trc. 5.3. Quan h gia cu to v mt s tnh cht vt l Nhit si v nhit nng chy: Quy lut trong dy hirocacbon no, lin h n cc dn xut ca ankan. Tnh tan: Quy lut chung, vn dng vo dy hirocacbon no, lin h n cc dn xut ca ankan. 5.4. C ch phn ng SR v s lin quan gia kh nng phn ng vi cu to phn t Quy lut th SR cc ng ng ca metan. Kh nng phn ng tng i v cch tnh gn ng t l % sn phm ng phn. 32

v ngha.

Vn dng hiu ng electron.

Khng kho st dn xut th.

6. Hirocacbon khng no

6.1. Cch gi tn hirocacbon khng no v gc khng no Tn ca hirocacbon c 2 lin kt kp v tn ca cc gc khng no khng phc tp. 6.2. ng phn hnh hc Khi qut chung v iu kin xut hin ng phn hnh hc. Danh php cu hnh: cis/trans v Z/E; khi nim v danh php syn/anti. So snh tnh cht ( t0s, t0nc, mo men lng cc...) gia hai ng phn hnh hc. 6.3. C ch cng electrophin v kh nng phn ng Vn dng c ch AE v hiu ng electron, so snh kh nng phn ng gia anken v ankin, gia etilen v ng ng. 6.4. C ch cng hiro v kh nng phn ng C ch phn ng. So snh kh nng phn ng gia anken v ankin, gia etilen v ng ng... 6.5. Phn ng oxi ho lin kt kp v phng php xc nh v tr ca lin kt kp Oxi ha gi nguyn mch cacbon; oxi ha ct mch cacbon; phng php xc nh v tr lin kt kp da trn sn phm oxi ha ct mch. 7. 1. Cch gi tn aren v aryl ng ng ca benzen v aren ngng t. Cc aryl tng ng. 7. 2. c im cu trc ca vng thm cp quy tc Huckel, cc h khc benzen nh ion tropili, d vng 5-6 cnh,v.v...

C cp quy tc CIP v hn cp.

u tin phn ng ozon phn. Gii hn aren ngng t: naphtalen, antraxen, phenantren.

7. Hirocacbon thm v ngun hirocacbon t thin nhin

7.3. C ch th electrophin SE, quy tc th v nh hng ca cu to n kh Ch c d nng phn ng vng thm. C ch chung v c ch ca mt vi loi phn ng c th. M rng quy tc th. 7.4. Ch bin du m bng phng php ho hc Crackinh nhit v crackinh xc tc( bn cht, c ch phn ng), hirocrackinh, 33

8. Dn xut halogen ca hirocacbon

9. Ancol - Phenol

rifominh( iu kin phn ng v 5 loi phn ng c bn). 8.1. Khi nim m u v nguyn t cacbon bt i v ng phn quang hc Khi nim v nguyn t cacbon bt i xng, t dn ti khi nim v tnh khng trng vt - nh( chirality). ng phn quang hc trong trng hp phn t ch c mt cacbon bt i xng. 8.2. C ch phn ng th nucleophin Cc c ch SN2, SN1. Quan h gia cu to v kh nng phn ng. 8.3. C ch phn ng tch nucleophin Cc c ch E2, E1. Quy tc v hng ca phn ng tch. 8.4. Phn ng to thnh hp cht c magie v ng dng trong tng hp hu c Phn ng to thnh v chuyn ha hp cht c magie. 9.1. Lin kt hiro v nh hng ti tnh cht ca hp cht hu c Bn cht, phn loi v iu kin hnh thnh. nh hng n mt s tnh cht ( nhit si, nhit nng chy, tnh tan, bn...) 9.2. Tnh axit ca ancol, phenol v nh hng ca cu trc Vn dng cc hiu ng electron so snh v gii thch. 9.3. C ch mt s phn ng ca ancol v phenol Cc phn ng SN2, SN1, E2, E1 ca ancol. Phn ng SE ca phenol. 9.4. Khi nim v ete v epoxit Khi nim, danh php, tnh cht ha hc v ng dng. 9.5. Cc phn ng c trng ca poliol c 2 nhm OH lin k To phc vi Cu(OH)2, vi H3BO3 v oxi ha bi HIO4.

Vn dng v pht trin cc kin thc hc trc .

Xt glixerol c lin h etylen glycol. 10. Anehit - Xeton 10.1. Danh php anehit Anehit mch h cha 3 nhm anehit v cc anehit mch vng. 34

11. Axit cacboxylic

10.2. c im cu trc ca nhm cacbonyl trong phn t anehit v xeton c im hnh hc v cu trc electron. S lin quan gia c im cu trc vi phn ng ca nhm C=O v ca gc hirocacbon. 10.3. Phn ng cng nucleophin C ch, kh nng phn ng v ng dng trong tng hp hu c. 10. 4. Phng php ha hc nhn bit anehit xeton v mt s chc khc Nhn bit anehit xeton. Nhn bit ancol, phenol, dn xut halogen, anken,... 10.5. Khi nim v 1,3- ixeton v quinon 1,3-ixeton: Cch gi tn, tnh linh ng ca H v cn bng xeto-enol; s to phc vi ion kim loi( nh Cu2+). Quinon: Khi nim quinon v nhm quinoit; c tnh ha hc. 11.1. Cch gi tn axit v gc axyl Tn ca axit cha nhiu nhm cacboxyl ni vi cacbon mch h v tn ca axit cha nhiu nhm cacboxyl ni vi cacbon mch vng. Tn ca gc axyl. 11.2. Tnh cht axit v hiu ng cu trc Cc axit no: Nguyn nhn tnh axit. Hiu ng cm ng ca nhm th gc hirocacbon. Cc axit khng no: nh hng ca lin kt kp; nh hng ca cu hnh cis/trans. Cc axit thm: nh hng ca cc nhm th trong vng. 11.3. Phn ng to thnh cc dn xut ca axit Este, clorua axit, anhirit axit, amit. 11.4. Phn ng kh nhm cacboxyl v phn ng ecacboxyl ha Phn ng kh nhm cacboxyl thnh ancol bc 1. Phn ng ecacboxyl ha thnh hirocacbon v thnh xeton. 11.5. S lc v hiroxi axit Khi nim, ng phn, danh php. Phn ng ca tng nhm chc ring r v phn ng ca c hai nhm chc. 11.6. ng phn quang hc trong trng hp phn t c hai cacbon bt i xng ng phn quang hc v danh php cu hnh. Phn t c hai C* khc nhau v 35

Trng tm l este.

C suy ra trng hp

phn t c hai C* ging nhau.

c n C* khc nhau.

Thc hnh Ha hc Bi Ni dung Mc cn t Ghi ch

36

1

Tnh cht axit baz ca mt s cht. Chun axit -baz. Cn bng to phc trong dung dch.

Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim xc nh pH ca mt s axit, baz, mui, xc nh nng axit baz bng phng php chun . + Xc nh pH ca mt s dung dch ring bit c cng nng 0,01 M nh cc axit HCl, CH3COOH; cc baz NaOH, NH3; cc mui CH3COONa, NH4Cl. + Chun axit baz dng ch th l qu tm, phenolphtalein, metylda cam + S to thnh phc cht [Cu(NH3)4]2+ v s phn hy phc cht [Cu(NH3)4]2+ bng axit. + S to thnh kt ta AgCl t dung dch AgNO3 v dung dch HCl. Ha tan kt ta AgCl bng dung dch NH3. K nng - Quan st mu sc ca giy ch th, xc nh c pH. - Gii thch, vit PTHH v rt ra nhn xt so snh tnh axit- baz ca cc dung dch cng loi trn. - Thc hin cc thao tc th nghim : S dng ng ht nh git ly ha cht, nh thuc th vo dung dch, thao tc chun dung dch, ... - Quan st hin tng, m t hin tng to kt ta, hin tng ha tan kt ta, gii thch hin tng to kt ta, ha tan kt ta, s thay i mu ca cht ch th... v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim.

Thi gian 60 pht.

37

2.

3

Kin thc - Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + Phn ng ca kh NO2 lm mt mu thuc tm v dung dch nc brom + Phn ng ca axit HNO3 vi mt s n cht v hp cht c tnh kh. + Phn ng to thnh P2O5 v tc dng ca P2O5 vi dung dch kim. + Phn ng ca mui photphat vi dung dch axit, nhn bit ion photphat trong dung dch. + Phn ng ca natri silicat (thu tinh lng) vi axit. + Phn ng ca CO2 vi cc dung dch: kim, aluminat, hn hp bt nh v nc. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Mt s thao tc th Kin thc nghim ho hc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh cc th nghim: hu c. + Lm quen vi ni quy, quy nh v an ton th nghim ho hu c, mt s dng Tnh cht vt l ca c thu tinh, mt s my mc n gin; Chng ct thng, kt tinh cht rn. mt s ankan, + Th tnh cht vt l ca mt s ankan: kh nng tan ca xng, du ho, ... trong olime no, tnh cht nc v trong hexan. ho hc ca metan. + Phn ng ca metan vi clo cc iu kin thch hp. Tnh cht ca mt + Th tnh cht chuyn t trng thi rn sang trng thi lng ca mt s polime no s hirocacbon (polietilen: PE cc loi, polipropilen: PP....) thm + Th tnh cht ca polime khng no nh cao su t nhin. + Th tnh tan v kh nng ho tan ca toluen v du ho trong nc v trong hexan. + Phn ng chy ca toluen. Th tnh tan v tnh thng hoa ca naphtalen. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Tnh cht ca mt s hp cht ca nit ( NO2, HNO3). Tnh cht ca photpho v mt s hp cht ca photpho. Tnh cht ca mt s hp cht v vt liu cha cacbon, silic. 38

Thi gian 60 pht.

Thi gian 60 pht.

4

5

6

Th nghim v dn Kin thc xut halogen, Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: ancol v phenol + Phn ng ioofom t etanol. + Chng ct ru t ru 15 thu c cc loi ru v cn c nng xc nh. + Phn ng ca ancol vi natri. + Phn ng ca ancol cc bc vi thuc th Lucas. + Th phn ng ca phenol vi dung dch kim, ca CO2 vi dung dch phenolat. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Nghin cu tnh Kin thc cht ho hc ca Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: anehit - xeton, + Phn ng oxi ho fomanehit bng thuc th Felinh. axit cacboxylic + Phn ng iodofom ca axeton. Phn ng ca axeton vi 2,4initrophenylhirazin. + Phn ng ca axit axetic vi ancol etylic. + Th tnh khng no ca axit oleic. + Phn ng iu ch CH3COOH t CH3COONa. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Thc hnh t chn Kin thc v Ho hc v c Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: Xc nh hm lng bc, ng trong hp kim hn rng (amangam bc hay c th thay bng hn hp 4 kim loi) bng phng php trng lng. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. 39

Thi gian 60 pht.

Thi gian 60 pht.

Thi gian 90 pht

Ha tan hon ton a gam hp kim cha 4 kim loi l Ag, Cu, Sn v Zn trong dung dch HNO3 long. To kt ta v tch AgCl v dung dch Y. Chuyn AgCl thnh Ag v xc nh khi lng Ag. To kt ta dung dch Y, tch ly Cu(OH)2 kt ta. Chuyn Cu(OH)2 thnh CuO. Chuyn CuO thnh Cu v xc nh khi lng Cu trong hp kim. Tnh phn trm khi lng %Ag, %Cu trong a gam hp kim. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. 7 Thc hnh t chn Kin thc Thi v Ho hc Hu c Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: gian 90 Xc nh hm lng axit axetylsalixylic (CH3COOC6H4COOH ) c trong thuc pht aspirin (vin) bng phng php thu phn trong kim v chun ngc vi dung dch chun l HCl hay dung dch H2SO4 v cht ch th phenolphtalein. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn v tnh c phn trm khi lng axit axetylsalixylic. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. Thc hnh t chn Kin thc Thi v tng hp hu c Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: gian 90 2 giai on Thc hin phn ng tng hp etylbenzoat qua 2 giai on: pht + Giai on1: iu ch axit benzoic bng phn ng oxi ho toluen vi KMnO 4 nng. + Giai on 2: iu ch etylbenzoat bng phn ng este ho. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn v 40

8

chng minh c sn phm l etylbenzoat. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. IV. Gii thch v hng dn thc hin Chng trnh chuyn su mn Ha hc lp 11 c xy dng da trn mt s c s sau y: - Mc tiu gio dc ca loi hnh THPT chuyn ni chung v chuyn Ha hc ni ring. - Ni dung dy hc mn Ha hc trng THPT chuyn nm 2001. - Hng dn ni dung dy hc chuyn su Ha hc lp 10. - Chng trnh mn Ha hc THPT nng cao. 1. K hoch dy hc Ngoi ni dung dy theo chng trnh THPT nng cao, tng thi lng dnh cho ni dung Ha hc chuyn su lp 11 l 53 tit c phn b c th theo ni dung cc ch thuc kin thc c s ha hc chung, ha hcv cv ha hc hu c. 2. Ni dung dy hc Ni dung dy hc chuyn su 11 gip pht trin nng lc nhn thc v t duy khoa hc Ha hc to iu kin cho HS tip tc i su v pht trin hng th hc tp, nim say m nghin cu ha hc tip tc theo hc chuyn ngnh Ha hc hoc KHTN c lin quan. Ni dung dy hc to c s cho HS tham gia cc k thi HSG quc gia, quc t gp phn pht hin v bi dng nhn ti Ha hc v cc ngnh khoa hc t nhin. Ni dung dy hc Ha hc 11 chuyn su bao gm cc ni dung c lin quan sau y: - Ha i cng: Cn bng ion trong dung dch. 41

- Ha v c : Cc ni dung chuyn su v hp cht ca nit, photpho, cacbon, silic. - Ha hc hu c: Cc ni dung chuyn su v: i cng ha hc hu c, hirocacbon v dn xut hirocacbon ( dn xut halogen, ancol, phenol, anehit, xeton, axit cacboxylic). 3. Phng php v phng tin dy hc Phng php dy hc cn pht huy cao tnh tch cc, ch ng c lp, sng to ca HS trong vic t hc, t c ti liu tham kho, tm tt ni dung v lm cc bi tp ha hc chuyn su. T chc cc hot ng c nhn v nhm gii quyt mt s vn l thuyt, thc hnh, thc tin c lin quan n ha hc. S dng cc phng tin dy hc c th ca b mn Ha hc v phng tin dy hc hin i gip HS khm ph vn dng kin thc mt cch thng minh, sng to. Ch bi dng phng php thu thp thng tin v x l thng tin mt cch linh hot, sng to. 4. nh gi kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh. Ch nh gi k nng thc hnh th nghim ha hc c bn v nng cao theo chng trnh chuyn su. Ch nh gi nng lc khm ph, vn dng kin thc, rn luyn k nng ha hc mt cch c lp, sng to gii quyt vn c m phng trong bi tp ha hc, mt s vn hc tp ha hc c lin quan n thc tin sn xut v i sng. Ti liu tham kho 1. o Hu Vinh - Nguyn Duy i - Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc 10. Tp 2. NXBGD H ni 2005. 2. Nguyn Duy A- o Hu Vinh. Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc THPT. Bi tp Ha hc i cng v v c. NXBGD H ni 2003. 3. Trn Quc Sn. Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc 11-12. Tp 1- Ha hc hu c. NXBGD H ni 2008. 42

4. Nguyn Tinh Dung. Gio trnh Ha hc phn tch 1: Cn bng ion trong dung dch. NXB HSP H ni 2005. 5. Trn Quc Sn, ng Vn Liu. Gio trnh c s Ha hc hu c. Tp 1,2. NXB HSP H ni 2007. 6. Nguyn Hnh - C s l thuyt ha hc. NXB Gio dc H ni 1997. 7. Nguyn Duy i, Nguyn Tinh Dung, Trn Thnh Hu, Trn Quc Sn, Nguyn Vn Tng... Mt s vn chn lc ca Ha hc. Tp 1,2,3. NXB Gio dc H ni 2005. 8. Hong Nhm- Ha hc v c. Tp 1,2, 3. NXB Gio dc H ni 2005. 9. Trn Quc Sn, Trn Th Tu. Danh php hp cht hu c. NXB Gio dc H ni 2008. 10. L Th Anh o, ng Vn Liu. Thc hnh ha hc hu c. NXB HSP H ni 2007. 11. Trn Quc Sn. Mt s phn ng ca hp cht hu c. NXB Gio dc H ni 2006.

43

LP 12I. Mc ch - Thng nht trn phm vi ton quc k hoch dy hc v ni dung dy hc mn Ha hc cho hc sinh chuyn Ha hc cc trng THPT chuyn. - Thng nht trn phm vi ton quc ni dung bi dng hc sinh gii cp THPT mn Ha hc. II. K hoch dy hc: Tng s tit: 150% s tit ca chng trnh nng cao, trong 50% l dnh cho ni dung chuyn su. Ty theo iu kin tng trng ca a phng c th b tr thi gian trong hc k 1 v hc k 2 cho ph hp. Bng 1. KHDH Ha hc 12 nng cao 2,5 tit x 35 tun = 87 tit S TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ni dung L thuyt Luyn tp Thc hnh n tp u nm, cui nm, hc k Kim tra Tng

Este - Lipit Cacbohirat Amin- Amino axit - Protein Polime v vt liu Polime i cng Kim loi Kim loi Kim - Kim th Nhm

4 6 7 4 9 8

1 2 1 1 2 2

0 1 1 0 2 2

5 9 9 5 13 12

44

7 Crom, st, ng. 8 Phn bit mt s cht v c. Chun dung dch. 9 Ho hc v vn kinh t x hi mi trng n tp u nm, cui nm, hc k Kim tra Tng

10 5 3

2 1 0

1 2 0

13 8 3 4 6 87

56

12

9

4

6

Bng 2. KHDH Ho hc 12 chuyn su: 42 tit S Chuyn TT 1 Mt s vn v Ha hc hu c 2 3 i cng v Kim loi Mt s vn v kim loi s, p v kim loi chuyn tip d. Mt s vn v Ha hc phn tch Tng L thuyt Luyn tp Thc hnh Kim tra Tng

11 5

2 1

1 1

1

15 7

4

9 5 30

2 1 6

1 1 4

1 2

13 7 42

III. Ni dung dy hc 45

3.1 Cu trc ni dung dy hc + Ni dung nng cao: c quy nh trong chng trnh nng cao mn Ha hc lp 12, ban hnh km theo Quyt nh s 16/2006/Q-BGDT ngy 05 thng 5 nm 2006 ca B trng B Gio dc v o to. Bng 3. Ni dung chng trnh Ha hc 12 nng cao S TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ni dung Este Lipit Cacbohirat Amin- Amino axit Protein Polime v vt liu Polime i cng Kim loi Kim loi Kim - Kim th - Nhm Crom, st, ng. Phn bit mt s cht v c. Chun dung dch. Ho hc v vn kinh t x hi mi trng

3.2 Ni dung chuyn su Ni dung chuyn su Ha hc 12 c trnh by theo cc chuyn Bng 4. Ni dung chuyn su Ha hc 12 S TT 1 Chuyn Mt s vn v Ha hc hu c 46

2 3 4

i cng v Kim loi Mt s vn v Kim loi s, p v Kim loi chuyn tip d. Mt s vn v Ha hc phn tch

CHUYN 1: MT S VN V HO HC HU C Tng s tit : 14 tit (11 LTh + 2 LT + 1 TH)

47

TT

1

Ni dung Dn xut ca axit cacboxylic Lipit 1.1. Cc phn ng thu phn v kh nhm chc ca este v cc dn xut khc ca axit cacboxylic. 1.2.Mt s ng dng ca este trong tng hp hu c. 1.3.Khi nim v cc ch s ho hc ca cht bo.

Mc cn t Kin thc: Hiu c khi nim v cc dn xut ca axit cacboxylic, s ging nhau v s khc nhau gia chng v phn ng thu phn v v phn ng kh. Bit c cc phn ng: tng hp malonic, ngng t Claisen, ng vng icman, tng hp ancol bc ba t hp cht c magie. Hiu c khi nim v cc ch s axit, x phng ho, este, iot. K nng: Vit c cng thc cu to v cc phn ng thu phn, kh cc dn xut n chc v a chc ng nht ca axit. Gii c cc bi tp tng hp hu c nhiu giai on, m khng qu phc tp, c s dng ring r cc phn ng tng hp malonic, Claisen, icman hoc tng hp c magie. Gii c cc bi tp lin quan n cc ch s ho hc ca cht bo.

Ghi ch

Tu tng a phng, c th b bt ngng t Claisen v ng vng icman.

2

Cacbohirat 2.1.ng phn lp th ca monosaccarit. 2.2.Mt s phn ng chuyn ho t monosaccarit ny sang monosaccarit khc.

Kin thc: Hiu c khi nim ng phn lp th dng mch h v dng Pentoz mch vng ca monosaccarit. v hexoz Bit c nguyn tc tng hp tng mch Kiliani v tng hp gim mch Ruff. K nng: Tnh c s ng phn lp th ca monosaccarit. Vit c cng thc cu trc ca pentoz v hexoz dng mch h v dng vng. Gii c bi tp khng phc tp, c s dng phn ng Kiliani v phn ng Ruff 48 Tu tng a phng, c th b bt gim mch Ruff.

CHUYN II: I CNG V KIM LOI Tng s tit : 7 (5 LTh + 1 LT + 1 TH)

49

TT Ni dung Sn xut kim loi

1

Mc cn t Ghi ch Kin thc: 1. 1. Trng thi t nhin ca kim Bit c s tn ti v phn b nguyn liu sn xut kim loi loi: Mt s loi qung ph bin trn th gii (tch hp vi cc kin thc a l). Tu tng a v quan trng nht trong t nhin. Hiu c khi nim giu, ngho ca qung. phng, Khi nim v qung giu, qung Hiu c mt s qu trnh lm giu, tuyn qung v tc ng c th vn ngho. dng gii mi trng chng hn ch to boxit v x l bn . 1. 2. Mt s vn v sn xut thch c th kim loi: X l qung trc khi Hiu c iu kin nhit ng hc v ng hc ca iu ch v dy chuyn kh, h thng ha cc phng sn xut mt s kim loi quan trng. sn xut kim php kh ion kim loi, tch kim loi a loi sau kh v gia cng kim loi. K nng: phng nu Vit c cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi ch bin qung c. v sn xut kim loi. Gii c cc bi tp iu ch kim loi qua nhiu bc tch. Gii c cc bi tp tnh ton lng cht trong cc qu trnh iu ch v sn xut kim loi

2

Ho hc v dng in 2. 1. Th in cc: S ph thuc ca th in cc vo nng Phng trnh Nec (Nernst), 2. 2. Sut in ng: Khi nim sut in ng ca ngun in,

Kin thc: Hiu c mi quan h gia th in cc v nng cc ion trong dung dch, in cc loi 1 v loi 2, in cc chun. Bit c s ph thuc ca sut in ng pin vo nng , pin chun dng o sut in ng ca pin. Tu tng kh Hiu c nguyn tc hot ng ca pin in v acquy. 50

51

CHUYN III: MT S VN V KIM LOI s, p V KIM LOI d Tng s tit: 12 tit ( 9 LTh + 2 LT + 1TH)

52

TT Ni dung 1. Kim loi kim, kim th, nhm v mt s hp cht quan trng 1.1. Tnh cht ca cc n cht 1.2. Tnh cht ca cc hp cht

Mc cn t Kin thc: Hiu c:

Ghi ch

Ch cho HS vn dng S khc nhau v tnh kh ca cc n cht kim loi kim, kim mi lin h th v nhm: Phn ng vi mt s oxit kim loi, oxit phi kim, gia cu to, mui clorua. tnh cht, phng php S to thnh cc hp cht ca kim loi kim: Hirua, peoxit v iu ch v supeoxit, nitrua, photphua, amiua v tnh cht c bn ca chng. ng dng thc tin. - S bin i tnh cht axit-baz ca mt s oxit v hiroxit. K nng: So snh v cu to nguyn t, nng lng ion ha, th in cc chun, tnh kh ca cc n cht kim loi kim, kim th v nhm. So snh tnh axit-baz ca oxit v hiroxit. D on v kim chng tnh cht ca hirua, peoxit v supeoxit, nitrua, photphua, amiua, mt s mui sunfat Vit cc PTHH.

2.

Gii mt s bi tp phc hp c ni dung gn vi thc tin, lin quan n vic vn dng tnh cht ca n cht v hp cht ca kim loi s, p mt cch linh hot, sng to: Tinh ch kim loi, s dng kim loi, nhn bit kim loi, kh cht thi c ion kim loi chng nhim mi trng... Kim loi Pb, Sn v mt s hp cht Kin thc: Ch yu quan trng cu HS suy Hiu c mc tnh kh ca Pb, Sn khi tc dng vi n on tnh 2.1. Tnh cht ca cc n cht 53

CHUYN IV: MT S VN V HA HC PHN TCH Tng s tit: 7 tit (5 LTh + 1 LT + 1 TH) Ni dung Phn tch v c Mc cn t Ghi ch

Kin thc: Bit nguyn tc phn loi cc nhm cation theo phng php 1.1. Tch v nhn bit mt s cation, axit-baz. anion trong hn hp v trong dung Hiu c: dch ring bit. Cch tch tng nhm cation t dung dch hn hp theo thuc th nhm. 1.2. Tch v phn bit mt s cht kh. Cch tin hnh nhn bit mt s cation trong dung dch ring bit v trong hn hp bng cc phn ng c trng. 1.3. Phn tch 1 mui rn nguyn cht Cch nhn bit mt s anion (NO3-; CH3COO-, CO32-, SO32-, v nhn bit ha cht mt nhn. SO42-, S2-, CN-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AsO43-...) trong dung dch ring bit 1. cng nh cch tch v nhn bit cc anion trong hn hp Cch tch v phn bit mt s kh (CO2, SO2, Cl2, NO2, H2S, NH3, O2, H2, HCl, CO) bng cc phn ng c trng. Nguyn tc phn tch 1 mui rn nguyn cht v cch nhn bit ha cht mt nhn. K nng: Lp c s tch v nhn bit cc cht; Chn thuc th thch hp tch v nhn bit cc cht, da vo cc du hiu c trng. Vit c cc phng trnh phn ng ha hc minh ha cho 54

phn ng nhn bit. 2. Phn tch hu c (nhn bit hp cht hu c) 2.1. Nhn bit mt s hirocacbon thuc cc loi khc nhau. 2.2. Nhn bit mt s dn xut quan trng ca hirocacbon. Kin thc: Bit c im cu to ca tng loi hirocacbon v nhm chc phn bit chng. Hiu c: S khc nhau v cu to dn n tnh cht ha hc khc nhau ca tng loi nhm chc. Cch nhn bit c tng loi nhm chc bng cc phn ng ha hc c trng. K nng: Xy dng c quy trnh tch v nhn bit. T hin tng th nghim, rt ra nhn xt v gii thch hin tng. Chn thuc th thch hp nhn bit cc loi nhm chc, da vo cc du hiu c trng. Phn bit v nhn bit c cc loi nhm chc bng phn ng ha hc. THC HNH HA HC TT Ni dung 55 Mc cn t Ghi ch

1

Tnh cht ca mt s cht hu c. 1.1.S thu phn ca cht bo hoc tinh bt hoc xenluloz bng kim hay axit. 1.2. Xc nh ch s axit ca cht bo; phn ng ca glucoz vi thuc th Tolen, Felinh v nc brom. 1.3. Mt s phn ng mu ca amino axit v protein.

Kin thc: Hiu c mi quan h gia cu to phn t, tnh tan v cc hin tng bin i khi xy ra phn ng ha hc. Hiu c kh nng phn ng ca cht bo hoc tinh bt hoc xenluloz vi kim hay axit. Bit cc phn ng l c s cho vic xc nh ch s axit ca cht bo; phn ng ca glucoz vi thuc th Tolen, thuc th Felinh v nc brom. Hiu c hin tng khi xy ra phn ng biure, ninhirin, xantoproteinic. K nng: Quan st hin tng xy ra khi tin hnh th nghim. Gii thch, vit c cc PTHH v rt ra nhn xt. Vit tng trnh th nghim. S dng c cc dng c th nghim nh ng nh git, un ng nghim c ha cht chy c. S dng cc dung dch kim, axit, nc brom an ton.

1 tit

C th ch chn mt s ni dung k trn cho ph hp iu kin tng trng.

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2 Tnh cht ca mt s kim loi v hp kim

Kin thc:

2.1. Phn bit niken, tn trng thic (thp trng), km Hiu c cc phn ng ha hc lm c v tn trng km, s phn bit : + niken v tn trng thic (thp trng), + km v tn trng km, 1 tit

Ty theo iu kin + nhm v km bng dung dch kim, NH3. c th ca trng m la chn cc 2.2. Phn bit hp kim ca ng, ca vng - bc - Nu cch phn bit c ng thau vi th nghim ph ng. ng . hp. 2.3. Phn ng ca cc kim loi: niken, thic, km, Nu cch phn bit c vng, bc v nhm hp kim vng - bc - ng bng mu sc v bng phn ng ho hc. 2.4. Phn ng ca cc hp kim ng, vng bc- ng vi cc dung dch axit, kim.

K nng: Rn k nng quan st mu sc ca kim loi, hp kim. 57

IV. Gii thch v hng dn thc hin Chng trnh chuyn su mn Ha hc lp 12 c xy dng da trn cc c s sau y: - Mc tiu gio dc ca loi hnh THPT chuyn ni chung v chuyn Ha hc ni ring. - Ni dung dy hc mn Ha hc trng THPT chuyn nm 2001. - Hng dn ni dung dy hc chuyn su Ha hc lp 10, 11. - Chng trnh mn Ha hc THPT nng cao lp 12. 1. K hoch dy hc - Ngoi ni dung dy hc theo chng trnh THPT nng cao, tng thi lng dnh cho ni dung ha hc chuyn su lp 12 l 42 tit c phn b c th theo ni dung cc chuyn thuc Ha hc hu c, Ha hc i cng - v c, Ha hc phn tch v Thc hnh ha hc. - Ty iu kin c th tng trng v trnh hc sinh c th thay i th t cng nh kt hp ni dung nng cao vi ni dung chuyn su cho ph hp. 2. Ni dung dy hc Bng 4. Ni dung chng trnh chuyn su Ha hc 12 Ni dung chuyn Ha hc 12 Ni dung nng cao Ni dung chuyn su Este - Lipit Dn xut ca axit cacboxylic Lipit Cacbohirat Cacbohirat Amin - Amino axit - Protein Amin, mui arendiazoni, d vng cha nit. Amino axit, peptit Polime v vt liu Polime i cng v polime 58 Ghi ch Chuyn chuyn su Chuyn 1. Mt s vn v Ha hu c

i cng Kim loi

Sn xut kim loi. Ho hc v dng in. Mt s vn v cc hp cht phc Kim loi Kim - Kim th - Kim loi kim, kim th, nhm v mt s hp cht Nhm quan trng Crom, st, ng. Kim loi Pb, Sn v mt s hp cht quan trng. S lc v mt s kim loi Mt s kim loi chuyn tip quan trng Phn bit mt s cht Phn tch v c v c. Chun dung dch. Phn tch hu c Ho hc v vn KTXH&MT Thc hnh Thc hnh

Chuyn 2. i cng kim loi. Chuyn 3. Mt s vn v kim loi s,p v kim loi chuyn tip d

Chuyn 4. Mt s vn v phn tch ha hc

Ni dung dy hc chuyn su Ha hc 12 gip pht trin nng lc nhn thc v t duy khoa hc to iu kin cho HS th hin nng lc v Ha hc v pht trin hng th hc tp, nim say m nghin cu ha hc, tip tc theo hc chuyn ngnh Ha hc v Khoa hc khc c lin quan. Ni dung dy hc to c s cho HS tham gia cc k thi HSG quc gia, quc t , pht hin v bi dng nhn ti. Ni dung dy hc Ha hc 12 chuyn su gm mt s ni dung nng cao, m rng v Ha hc hu c, Ha hc i cng v c v Ha hc phn tch so vi chng trnh THPT nng cao. Ngoi ni dung thc hnh bt buc cn c ni dung thc hnh t chn dnh cho cc trng cc a phng c iu kin c th thc hin thm gip nng cao k nng thc hnh cho HS chuyn Ha hc. 3. Phng php v phng tin dy hc C th lng ghp ni dung chuyn su vo ni dung tng ng ca cc ch THPT nng cao hoc tch thnh chuyn ring sao cho ph hp vi trnh nng lc ca GV v HS mi a phng. 59

Phng php dy hc cn pht huy cao tnh tch cc, ch ng c lp, sng to ca HS trong vic t hc, t c ti liu tham kho, tin hnh th nghim, tm tt ni dung v gii cc bi tp ha hc chuyn su. T chc cc hot ng c nhn v nhm gii quyt mt s vn l thuyt, thc hnh, thc tin c lin quan n ha hc. Ch bi dng phng php thu thp thng tin v x l thng tin mt cch linh hot, sng to. Ngoi danh mc thit b dy hc ti thiu Ha hc 12 c B GD - T ph duyt, khuyn khch s dng cc phng tin dy hc c th ca b mn Ha hc v phng tin dy hc hin i gip HS khm ph vn dng kin thc mt cch thng minh, sng to. 4. nh gi kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh. Ch nh gi nng lc khm ph, vn dng kin thc, nng lc lm vic c lp, sng to gii quyt vn c m phng trong bi tp ha hc, mt s vn ha hc c lin quan n thc tin sn xut v i sng. Ch hn vic nh gi k nng thc hnh th nghim ha hc c bn v nng cao theo chng trnh chuyn su. Ni dung thi chn HS gii quc gia mn Ha hc cn m bo mc , phm vi ni dung khng vt qu chng trnh chuyn su lp 10,11,12. Ni dung bi dng i tuyn Ha hc thi Olympic quc t cn tham kho thm ni dung chng trnh thi Olympic quc t ni chung v tng nm ni ring. Coi trng hnh thc nh gi qua bi kim tra t lun ca HS. V. Ti liu tham kho 1. Trn Quc Sn. Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc 11-12. Tp mt - Ha hc hu c. NXB Gio dc H ni 2009. 2. o Hu Vinh - Nguyn Duy i - Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc 11-12. Tp 2. NXB Gio dc H ni 2005. 60

3. Nguyn Duy A- o Hu Vinh. Ti liu gio khoa chuyn Ha hc THPT. Bi tp Ha hc i cng v v c. NXB Gio dc H ni 2009. 4. Nguyn Tinh Dung. Ha hc phn tch phn II: Phn ng ion trong dung dch nc. NXB HSP H ni 2008. 5. L Th Anh o, ng Vn Liu. Thc hnh ha hc hu c. NXB HSP H ni 2007. 6. Nguyn Th Thu Nga. Gio trnh Ha hc phn tch. Hng dn thc hnh. NXB HSP H Ni 2007. 7. Nguyn Duy i, Nguyn Tinh Dung, Trn Thnh Hu, Trn Quc Sn, Nguyn Vn Tng... Mt s vn chn lc ca Ha hc. Tp 1, 2, 3. NXB Gio dc H Ni 2005. 8. Trn Quc Sn, ng Vn Liu, Nguyn Vn Tng. Gio trnh c s Ha hc hu c. Tp 3. NXB HSP H Ni 2007. 9. Hong Nhm. Ha hc v c. Tp 2, 3. NXB Gio dc H ni 2005. 10. Trn Quc Sn, Trn Th Tu. Danh php hp cht hu c. NXB Gio dc H Ni 2008. 11. Trn Quc Sn. Mt s phn ng ca hp cht hu c. NXB Gio dc H ni 2009. 12. Nguyn c Vn. Ha hc v c Tp 2. Cc kim loi in hnh. NXB KHKT H Ni 2008. 13. Trn Th , ng Trn Phch. C s l thuyt cc phn ng ha hc, NXBGD H Ni 2004. 14. Nguyn Duy i. Mt s phn ng trong ha hc v c, NXB Gio dc H Ni 2005.

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