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" " " " 2015 " " , , "" , , " " , " , , .................................................................................................... 4 ................................................................................................................. 12 ............................................................................................................. 16 ............................................................................................................ 18 1: ................................................................... 19 2: ................................................. 222.1 ............................................................................... 222.2 ........................................................................................ 232.3 .................................................................................. 262.4 ............................................................................................ 292.5 ............................................................................. 36 3: - ................................. 403.1 ........................................................................................................ 403.2 .................................................................... 413.3 ............................................................... 443.4 - ................................... 54 4: ......................... 564.1 .................................................. 564.2 ................................................................ 624.3 ................................................................ 684.4 ........................................................................ 71 ............................................................................................... 72 " " 2010. : , " , ". ( " , ), . " -33 . . , , , , . . , , , , , ( ). "-" '' ; . " (") . " :1. - ? ? ? ( ) ?2. ? ? ? , - ?3. ? - , , ? , ? ( ) , ?4. ? -? () ? ? ", (mixed model). : 1. , , , 14 ".2. , ( "). ( ), . - 2014. " , . " ". , : , "" , "" . - , -, . , . , , . . : ( , , ) ; , ; " ". , (90 100 ) " ". . " " , . , ; , . . , . , . " " . . . , , , , , . , . , ( ) . , " ". , " " ( ). , ( ). " ", ( ). , . . , ; , ; " ". , . : -, , . , . , . - : (, , ), . , . - . , , , . - . , . , -. " ", (" "). " " ' '. " " , ; , . , . . -. , . , . , -. "" . ( ) . -. , . , , . . , , "" , . , - . - : ( ) ; "" ; ; ; ; (, , ) ( ', , ). . , . , : -. , - . . , " " . . "" ( ) , "". . "": , , , , " " . . "" , "" . ( ) . . : () , ; () , . , . , . , , ( "" ). , : , . : "", . . , : , "" , ( ) , . , " ". . : , " " , ( ). "" . . , . "" ( , , ). . , . . - . , . ( ), . , . "", . . " " , . . . - . , . ( ) : . . " " 2010. : , " , ". ( " , ), . " -33 . . . - , . . - (" " ). ( -) ---. ( ) , . . , , . . , . . , -, ( ). ( ). "", . , , . . , , , , . . , , , , , ( ). 1. - . - , ( ).2. .3. . . :1. . .2. .3. - .4. .5. .6. : , , , .7. . , , .[footnoteRef:1] [1: : http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Nisuyim/BchiraMevukeret/TozarimTfukot.htm] "-" '' ; . :- , . .- , . . " " .[footnoteRef:2] [2: " " ''.] ":1. , , . 2. .3. , . , .4. . , . .5. .6. ( ).7. , .[footnoteRef:3] [3: " : " 2012.] " " . " . :1. , .2. : (1) ; (2) ; (3) .3. . , ("). . ? - , , ? , ? ( ) , ?. - ? ? ? ( ) ?. ? ? ? , - ?. ? -? () ? ? "-", " ". ", (mixed model). : . .. , . , . . .[footnoteRef:4] , , - " " . [4: , ' (2005). . : .] . , . . , , . . , , . .. : , .[footnoteRef:5] "" ( "). ( ), . [5: , .] 14 ". ; .[footnoteRef:6] , : () , ; () -. [6: - .] , . , -, . 1 . 1: # [footnoteRef:7] [7: " .] "152 73-64--85 4647 5 - 2014. 242 (236 , 6 ) ( " ). 114 ( ), 366 (-127 ) -785 (-130 ). 2 , . 2: () , 785565 2 (78%) . (65%) (55%) . . ( " ?"), . 1 . , . . 2 . , , , , , , . 3 -. - , , , . 4 . , . 1: ( ) . , . , . , . :- , "" . , . - , . , . " " " ".- , .- , . . , . , , "" . " " , . , . , : " [...] ". , " " . "", . , . , . , . , . : " , , , ' '[...] . , . " ( ). . , "", - , . "" . , , -, ( ). , " [ ] . , , : , , ". ( ) , . , . , " , . , , , . ". , " " . , "" . , " . , . , : , , ".: , ( ). . . . , , . 2: , . , , , , , .2.1 ( ) , .- , . , ( ). , ; , ( , ). , - . - , . -, . - .- : , .. . , . . , " , , ".. . , "" . , " , . . . , ".. ( , , , ), . , " . , , , , , , , - ". , , . " ". , " , - . - . [...] . : ' , '. ' ', . . ". : , . , .2.2 , . , . . , ( , , ) . , . , (GIS) . , (90 100 ) " ". ( " ") , . (" ") . , , ( ). -, . , . "" , ( !) . , . , . , . , " " . , . , . ( ), . . , " " . , :- , . , . " , , . , , , ".- , .[footnoteRef:8] , " , . , ". [8: , . , .] - . , " , [...] , , , ? ? ! , , ? ". :- , . , " , . , [...] ".- , . , " . : , . [...] - , ".- " " , .: : ; ; ( , , , ). , , . . . : ( ) ; , ; " ". , (90 100 ) " ". , . . " " , . : () ; () , .2.3 . , "" . , . , . , . 3 . 3: (N=144)" ?" , 44%, 35%, 10% 11% , ( ). , 21% . . , . , . , " , . . [] , , - ". " " , , . . , " , . , ". , : , . . " " ( ). , . , . . , . : " . ' ', . , . , . , . , ". , "" . , . : , , . , , . , . 10 15 , . , , . , . , , :- , . , .- , ( ) . , .- , "" . - , . , . . - .: (44%) , 21% . , . . " " , . , " " . . , , : , , . , , . . 2.4 . , . . " " , . "" : , , (" ). . 4 . 4: (N=785)" / / ?" 39%61% . , . . : ? ? ? ? . 5 -6 . 5: (N=255)" ..."( "" ) 54% 52% 44% 37% 35% "32% 20% 14% 6: (N=255)" ? , / / ?"( ) , , 28%17%47% 8% 52% 12% 22% 14% 51% 9% 28%12% 5, , , , . : (54%), (52%) (44%). (37%), (35%), " (32%), (20%) (14%). "" , , . , . , , ( "). 6 . , . , ( ) , . . 7 . 7: (N=255)" , / / ?" 28% 17%55% . , . 8 . 8: (N=255)" / / ?"( " " " " ) ( )73% 67% 72% 62% 62% (73%-62%) : , , , . , , . . " ", . 9 . 9: (N=144) " ?" ( "")94%", ?" ( " " " )58% 9 : 94% . 64% , . . ( ), . , . , , .- , , . , ( ) . , .[footnoteRef:9] , , . , " . , : , . [...] , . ". , . [9: - , ( ). .] - , . " " , . , . . , . , " , , ". , . , " ". - "" , . , " : ' . '. , . ". , " " . ( "" ), , . . . . , . - : , , . : ( ) -, , . " " , . - , " . . , , . ". . , . , . , , "". - , . , " " . , . , . , . , "" . , " " : , .- , . : ( ) , . , ( ). , " " . , " [ ]. , , ". " [ ] . , . ". , . ( ), " " ( ). , . .: . . , . , . , ( ). " ", ( ). , . . " " ( ); ( ); " ". , ( ). .2.5 , . (73%) . 10 . 10: (N=785)" ?"( " " " ") 65% () 61% 52% / 46% 45% 35% 54% 43% 42% 65% 50% 22% 16% 10 : , , . . , , - . (65%) (65%). (61%) . (45%) "" , . , ( ) . . : (54%), (43%) (42%). (35%). , , , : . , . - , : () ( ) ; () , -. , " . , . , . , ". : " , , . , , ". , " " . , . , : " . , . , . , . , . , ".- , - . , . - . , " , , . , , , , ". , " , . 10% . , ". , . , ( ). , " . : . , . , ".: , . ( -), ( ). "" . . , , , : , . " " , " " . . , . , -. , . , , . 3: - : . -, . - , . , .3.1 . , . - . , - :- ( ). , .- ( ). -, .- , . , . , ( , ). , . 11 . 11: 3.2 . -, . , . , " , . . : , ". , . , . , " ' '. , , . - . ". . . 12 . 12: (N=144) 37% 22% 17% 10% 9% 5% , . : , . , , , , . . . (35%) , , ( ) . , : , .- : , , . ; , . , " - , [...] , , ". , " . , ': , ".- , . : (, , ) - , . , " , [...] [ ]. . : , ". , " , . , . : , ". - . , . , " [...] : , , '' . , , . ". , " , 99 [...] . ". , -. ( ), . , " . , . , , . , , ". . : ( ) , - . . : " , . , . , , ' : , , ".: , . : ( , , ), . ; , .3.3 , . ( , ), , . . 13 . 13: (N=144)", ?" 11% 44% 45% 13 (89%) . . . . , " , . , , , . . , ". , " " ( " "). " ", , . , " , '!' , : , , ? , . ". : " . ". : " , . , . , [...] . , ". , , . , " [] . , , . ". , -. . , . 14 . 14: " ?"( " " " ") (N=144) (N=366) 90% 84% ( ) 80%79% 68%--- 64%74% 60%--- 59%--- - . (90%) (84%) , (80% -79% ) . . , -, . , . , .- . - . , . , . , " . . , , . , . , . ". , . . , " , . , ". , ( , , , ) . . , " , ". , " . ' , '. , , ". , -, .- " " , (" ") . " " ' '. " " , ( " " " "); , . " " , " [...] , ". , . - . , . -. , . - " " . " ", , , . , " [] , . . . '' ".- , -. "" . , " , , ' ' , ". ( ) :- .- , .- .- , . -, "" , .- - . 15 . 15: (N=340) " , ..."( ) 75% 74% 71% 71% 71% , -: , , , . , - " ". : , ( ). , : , , , , "", . "" . , " . . , . : ". - , " ' ' . . , , . , ". - , " , . . , , . , ". , . , " , , , . , ' ' , ". , " , , . ". , :- - . , " . , . ".- . , " . ".- . , . - , " . [...] ? . . , ". : " . , ; , - ; - , . ". , , -. ( , , ), . 16 : "" . "" . 16: "" "" " " "" "" : ( ) ( ). .. " " , . , . ( -), . - . -. " " , . .. : , -. ( , , ) ' ', ( , , ) . " " : , , . . 41 . .. , . . . , .. . . , " . , . .. (, , , ), . " " . . ( , , ).. , , . (-). ( ) . , .. " " " ". , . . , . , -:- , .- , , . " " " " ( ).- .- , . .- "" . .- (, , , ) ( ', , , ).- , .: , . , . , : , , , . , - " ". , , . " ", - . : - ( ) ( ). , . . , , . , .- " " , (" "). " " ' '. " " , ( " " " "); , . , . - . -. , . . " ", , , .- , -. "" .- , . -. . , (, , , ), "". , . : - , . , -: ( ) , " ", , , ( ), (, , ) ( ', , ). 3.4 - - "" , , - . 17 -18 . 17: (N=366)" ..."( " " " ") 87% 77% , (87%) (77%). 18: (N=144)" ..."( " " " ") 96% 80% 72% 63% (80%), (96%) . , : (63%) . , . 4: " " . , . . , . ( , - ), . , , .4.1 " " , . . 19. 19: (N=144)" / / ?"( " " " ") 64% 56% 19 (64% ) (56% ). , . 20 . 20: (N=144)" / ?" 0%10%90% 0%10%90% -011%89% 0%12%88% 1%13%86% 0%15%85% 0%17%83% 1%17%82% 1%14%85% 2%14%84% 0%19%81% 0%21%79% 3%19%78% () 9%49%42% 11%51%38% , . , : 82 90 , -, , , , . , . . () , -. , . , () () . , " " . "" ( ) , .. . , . , . , " . , . , . : - . ". , " . , . ". , " " : " . , [ ], ". , . , - . , " . . , , . : , , , ". , ( ) . , " , ".. :- " " . . , " , ' '. , . ".- ( ). , " , , . ' ', . , . ".- . , " . , . -21 , . , , ".- , . . , " . , . , ".- " " . , . , , . : , , , , , . , .- , . , : , . , , . , . :- . , ( ) ; , . , " : , . , ".- . , " ". , " , , . , , , , , , ". , . , " , [...] , ". , . , " . . , . ". . , . , . -, . , [...] , , . , , , .. , . : -75% . - , . , " , . , : , . ". . , " , ". , . , , -DNA . , , : , ? ? ? . , . . , , : [...] , . . , -. , . , , . , " . , . , -, , . , ". : , . , " , . , . . . , ". , . , . , . , . . , , . . , . , .4.2 . 21 . 21: (N=366)" / ?" 1%7%92% 2%9%89% -2% 10%88% 0% 21%79% ( )2% 19% 79% 1% 10%88% 3% 11%86% 2% 22% 76% 1% 24%75% 3% 26% 71% 3% 28%68% 4% 30%66% 4% 40%56% 15% 48%37% 44% 34%22% 2%6%92% , . , -, ( -), . . , , . . , . ( ). 37% , (15%) . , " " . : 22% , 44% . . , " " . , () () . , " " .. , , " ". , " . , , [...] . ". , " . . , . []". " " -: " , , , . : , ". , . , , : . , -', -'. , . , , . ". , . , . " ", , . , , ' '. , . ' ', ' '. . , . , .. "" , "". . , " , . , , . , ". :- "" . , , , . , -75% , . " " . , " . , , , . . , , ". " . , . , ".- . , . , , [...] . : , . , , , . . . :- . , " [...] . [...] , . , ".- . , " , , . , . , , ".. , . " " , . , " , . . . , ". , " . , . , [...] [...] , , . [...] ". , : " , , . , , , ". . , , . . :, . . , [...] , [...] . , . [...] , [...] , '. , ? .: , " " -. , , . . , , -15% " " . , " " . : . , " " . -. . , . , , " ". " " , ( ). , "" , "". . "" : ( ), , , , . . "" , . ( ) . , . , . , . , . : () , ; () , . , . , . , . , .4.3 " " . . 22 . 22: (N=785)" / ...?"( " " " ") 89% 85% 84% 83% 81% 71% . (89%) , -80% , . - , . , 76% . . 23 . 23: (N=255)", ?"( ) 8% 22%70% 5%33%62% , . . , - . . , ( "" ). , " . . : , ". - , , [...] [...] . . . , . . . , " ". - , ". , . , " , . , [...] . , [...] , , [...] . , ( ). , " , , , ". - . , : " , , . ? ". : " . , . , , . , , ".- - ( ). , . , ; , . , . , , . , . - , . , , . " ", .: , . , . , . . , "" . , . , ( , ). . ( ), " " . - . , . , .4.4 . " , / ?" 84% -85% . . "" , . , . , , "". . , , , . ; . , , : -, , . . . ( ", ), , , . "" , . , . . , , . . . "", . , ; "" . , "". . , . , , . , . , , . : , . - " " '1