COBOL ROMANA

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Suport Curs de programare COBOLAutor : Ioan PogangeanuFirma Kepler-Rominfo Bucuresti

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  • Page 1 of 92

    Suport Curs de programare COBOL Autor : Ioan Pogangeanu

    Firma Kepler-Rominfo Bucuresti Toate drepturile privind multiplicarea , fotocopierea , distribuirea sau publicarea unor parti din acest curs, rezervate firmei Kepler-Rominfo Bucuresti, oricare din actiunile mai sus amintite, fiind permise doar cu acordul scris al firmei.

  • Page 2 of 92

    Cuprins

    1. Introducere n COBOL.................................................................................................. 5

    Ce este limbajul Cobol? ...................................................................................................5

    Avantaje Cobol versus alte limbaje de manipulare date......................................................6

    Caracteristicile generale ale limbajului Cobol ...................................................................7

    2. Structura generala a programelor COBOL ........................................................................ 7

    Setul de caractere ............................................................................................................7

    Operatori relationali .........................................................................................................8

    Structuri ierarhice ............................................................................................................9

    Formate de scriere cod Cobol.........................................................................................10

    Diviziunile unui program Cobol.......................................................................................11

    3. Declararea datelor n COBOL ..................................................................................... 14

    Categorii principale de date............................................................................................14 Clauza VALUE ............................................................................................................................. 14 Clauza OCCURS.......................................................................................................................... 14 Clauza REDEFINES ..................................................................................................................... 15 clauza RENAMES ........................................................................................................................ 15 Numerele de nivel......................................................................................................................... 15

    Tipuri de variabile ..........................................................................................................16 Alfabetice..................................................................................................................................... 16 Alfanumerice ................................................................................................................................ 16 Numerice ..................................................................................................................................... 16

    Clauza NEXT pentru constante utilizator .................................................................................... 16 Daca avem o descriere de forma urmatoare:........................................................................................ 16 [USAGE IS DISPLAY] .............................................................................................................. 17 [USAGE IS] COMPUTATIONAL ................................................................................................ 17 [USAGE IS] INDEX .................................................................................................................. 18 [USAGE] IS POINTER ............................................................................................................. 18 [USAGE] IS PROCEDURE POINTER ........................................................................................ 19 Tipuri de date definite de utilizator, clauza TYPEDEF .................................................................. 19

    Formate de editare numerice ..........................................................................................20

    Literali...........................................................................................................................21

    Constante figurative.......................................................................................................22

    4. Fisiere secventiale ..................................................................................................... 22

    Declararea fisierelor .......................................................................................................22

    Fraza SELECT pentru fisiere secventiale .........................................................................22

    Forma generala rubrica FD (File Description), cu principalele clauze: ...............................23

    Instructiuni utilizare fisiere .............................................................................................24 Instructiunea OPEN ...................................................................................................................... 24 Instructiunea READ secvential ....................................................................................................... 24 Instructiunea WRITE secvential ..................................................................................................... 25

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    Instructiunea CLOSE fisier ............................................................................................................ 26

    Fisiere secventiale in format fix si variabil .......................................................................26

    Exmplu de declarare a uni fisier secvential cu format fix de inregistrare ...........................26

    Declarative ....................................................................................................................27

    Declarare FILE-STATUS .................................................................................................29

    Fisiere de listare ............................................................................................................30

    5. Editorul de rapoarte Cobol............................................................................................. 31

    Generalitati....................................................................................................................31

    Structura generala a unui raport .....................................................................................31

    Declararea raportului in sectiunea FILE SECTION ............................................................32

    Declararea raportului in sectiunea REPORT.....................................................................32

    Descrierea grupelor de editare........................................................................................33

    Instructiuni executabile specifice editorului de rapoarte...................................................34

    Instructiunea USE pentru report .....................................................................................35

    Registrii speciali report : LINE-COUNTER si PAGE-COUNTER ..........................................35

    6. Fisiere selective........................................................................................................... 35

    Caracteristici generale ...................................................................................................35

    Clauza select .................................................................................................................35

    Moduri de acces ............................................................................................................36

    READ secvential pe fisier selectiv pentru acces dinamic : ................................................36

    READ pentru acces direct ..............................................................................................36

    Instructiunea START ......................................................................................................37

    Instructiunea REWRITE ..................................................................................................37

    instructiunea WRITE cu INVALID KEY adaugare directa.................................................38

    instructiunea DELETE cu INVALID KEY stergere directa ...............................................38

    7. Fisiere indexate.......................................................................................................... 38

    Caracteristici generale ...................................................................................................38

    Fraza select pentru declararea unui fisier indexat ............................................................39

    Instructiunea READ secvential pentru acces DYNAMIC....................................................39

    Instructiunile READ, WRITE, REWRITE, START si DELETE in acces direct ........................39

    SPLYT KEY - setare cheie fisier indexat.....................................................................