Communism on Tomorrow Street: The Soviet Unions Revolution in Mass Housing after Stalin Steven E. Harris George Mason University February 19, 2014 Yurii

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Communism on Tomorrow Street: The Soviet Unions Revolution in Mass Housing after Stalin Steven E. Harris George Mason University February 19, 2014 Yurii Pimenov, Wedding on Tomorrow Street (1962) Slide 2 Example of elite, pre-revolutionary housing in St. Petersburg: the Moruzi House, 24/27 Liteinyi prospekt. Source: http://www.sntpeters.comhttp://www.sntpeters.com Slide 3 THE KOMMUNALKA THE COMMUNAL APARTMENT Floor plan of a contemporary St. Petersburg kommunalka. Each room is accessible off the common central hallway; measurements in feet. Source: http://kommunalka.colgate.edu/cfm/site_map.cfmhttp://kommunalka.colgate.edu/cfm/site_map.cfm Slide 4 THE KOMMUNALKA THE COMMUNAL APARTMENT Source: http://kommunalka.colgate.eduhttp://kommunalka.colgate.edu The kitchen of a kommunalka. The long corridor of a kommunalka. A family drinking tea at the dining room table in their own room. A familys room served several functions. Slide 5 A SEPARATE APARTMENT FOR EVERY FAMILY Nikita S. Khrushchev * Leader of the Soviet Union, 1953-1964 A Khrushchev-era apartment building in St. Petersburg, October 2010. Photographed by the author. Slide 6 Paris Brasila Chicago Leningrad Source: James Holston, The Modernist City (Chicago, 1989), 176 Source: Dmitrii Gubin et al., Realnyi Peterburg (St. Petersburg, 1999), 190-91. Source: Norma Evenson, Paris: A Century of Change, 1878- 1978 (New Haven, 1979), 262. Source: Arnold Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto (Chicago, 1998), 244. Slide 7 Floor plans for a four-apartment section in mass housing built under Khrushchev. K. Metelskii, Predlozheniia proektirovshchikov MITEPa, Arkhitektura SSSR, no. 6 (1962); 13. Slide 8 Ilya Ehrenberg (1891-1967) author of The Thaw (1954) Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1918- 2008) * author of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962) Slide 9 Sectional furniture in a living/dining room. This room was part of a 1959 furniture exhibition in Moscow. Source: N. Luppov, O vsesoiuznom konkurse na luchshuiu mebel, Dekorativnoe iskusstvo SSSR, no. 5 (1959): 9. Slide 10 MOVING TO THE SEPARATE APARTMENT Yuri Pimenov, A Lyrical House-Warming Source: Rabotnitsa, no. 5 (1967), 10. Yuri Pimenov, Wedding on Tomorrow Street (1962) The State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow Slide 11 MASS HOUSING AND THE COLD WAR: THE KITCHEN DEBATE Khrushchev and Nixon at the American Exhibition in Moscow, 1959