Công nghệ xử lý chất thải

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<p>B GIO DC V O TO</p> <p>TRNG I HC CN TH KHOA CNG NGH--- oOo ---</p> <p>BI GING MN HC</p> <p>CNG TRNH X L NC THI(Wastewater Treatment Works)GIO TRNH DNG CHO CC SINH VIN CHUYN NGNH K THUT MI TRNG</p> <p>Bin son</p> <p>L ANH TUN- 2005 -</p> <p>Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p> <p>LI M U--- oOo --Con ngi l mt trong cc sinh vt sng trong t nhin v l mt phn ca h sinh thi mi trng. Cc hot ng ca con ngi ngy cng tc ng n mi trng sng cng r rt. Nc thi t cc hot ng sn xut, sinh hot ang l mt trong cc nguy c lm nhim v hy hot mi trng sng. Vic hn ch v ngn chn nhim do nc thi l mt trong cc yu cu quan trng ca k thut mi trng. Bi ging mn hc CNG TRNH X L NC THI ny dnh cho cc sinh vin chuyn ngnh K thut Mi trng. Bi ging t trng tm cho sinh vin cc nguyn l tnh ton v thit k c bn cho mt s hng mc cng trnh x l nc thi. Sinh vin hc mn hc ny cn bt buc thc hin thm 1 n mn hc, c xem nh mt chuyn nghin cu thc t (case study). Mn hc c 2 phn: Phn l thuyt c 2 tn ch (30 tit) v phn n 1 tn ch. Phn n s thc hin sau khi hc phn l thuyt. Trong iu kin cho php, Khoa Cng ngh s phi hp vi ging vin t chc cho sinh vin i thm mt s chuyn ving thm cc cng trnh x l nc thi trong khu vc. Cc thut ng s dng trong bi ging l cc t tng i quen thuc trong nc. trnh nhm ln, mt s thut ng c phn ch thch ting Anh i km. Ngoi cc bi ging chnh, sinh vin c th tham kho thm mt s ti liu tham kho trnh by cui gio trnh. Sinh vin c th s dng cc ti liu tham kho nh mt ti liu th hai cho vic b sung kin thc ca mnh. Ti liu ny bin son da vo nhiu ti liu tham kho v nghin cu khc nhau m ngi vit tch ly c. Mt s v d, hnh v, cu gii thch ... trong bi ging c trch dch t cc ti liu ca cc tc gi trong ti liu tham kho. Do khng c iu kin tip xc, trao i xin php trch dn cc ngun khc nhau, mong qu v vui lng min chp. Bi ging ny ch s dng trong ni b, khng mang tnh kinh doanh v li. Mc du c nhiu c gng nhng bi ging khng th trnh khi cc khuyt im, sai st, tc gi mong c nhn cc ph bnh ng gp ca cc bn hon chnh dn cho cc bin son k tip. Trn trng. L Anh Tun</p> <p>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M U - MC LC</p> <p>ii</p> <p>Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p> <p>MC LC========== trang ... TRANG BA.................................................................................................... LI M U ................................................................................................. ii MC LC....................................................................................................... iii Chng 1 KHI QUT V CNG TRNH X L NC THI................ 1 1.1 NH NGHA V CC KHI NIM......................................................... 1 1.1.1 nh ngha Nc thi ........................................................................... 1 1.1.2 Gii thiu mn hc ............................................................................... 1 1.1.3 Khi nim v Cng trnh X l Nc thi ............................................ 2 1.1.4 Cc phng php c bn X l Nc thi .................................... 3 1.1.5 Cc yu cu chnh ca mt Cng trnh XLNT...................................... 7 1.2 CC BC HNH THNH MT D N X L NC THI .............. 7 1.2.1 Tin trnh tng qut............................................................................... 7 1.2.2 iu tra, kho st.................................................................................. 8 1.2.3 nh khi lng nc thi.................................................................... 8 1.2.4 xut Phng n ............................................................................. 9 1.2.5 Phn tch cc Phng n..................................................................... 9 1.3 H S CNG TRNH XLNT................................................................... 9 1.3.1 Yu cu................................................................................................. 9 1.3.2 Tm tt cng trnh................................................................................. 10 1.3.3 Tp thuyt minh Cng trnh .................................................................. 10 1.3.3 Cc s liu - Ph lc............................................................................. 11 Chng 2 XC NH KHI LNG V THNH PHN NC THI LIN QUAN N CC CH S THIT K CNG TRNH ................. 12 2.1 NC THI SINH HOT........................................................................ 12 2.1.1 Khi lng ............................................................................................ 12 2.1.2 Thnh phn v tnh cht ....................................................................... 13 2.2 NC THI SN XUT ......................................................................... 17 2.2.1 Khi lng ............................................................................................ 17 2.2.2 Thnh phn v tnh cht ....................................................................... 18 2.3 CC V D C BN XC NH CH S THIT K THY LC........... 19 2.3.1 Phng trnh Manning v phng trnh Hazen-Williams .................... 19 2.3.2 Xc nh ng knh ti u cho my bm........................................... 20 2.3.3 p trn thnh mng ............................................................................ 21 2.3.4 o lu lng nc thi ........................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Cn bng dng chy............................................................................. 22</p> <p>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M U - MC LC iii</p> <p>Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Chng 3 CNG TRNH X L NC THI BNG C HC ................ 25 3.1 CNG TRNH LM SCH C HC....................................................... 25 3.1.1 Song chn rc ...................................................................................... 25 3.1.2 Mt s kiu song chn rc ................................................................... 27 3.2 B LNG CT ......................................................................................... 31 3.3 B LNG S CP .................................................................................. 37 3.4 B THU DU, B THU M .................................................................... 42 3.5 B LC.................................................................................................... 43 Chng 4 CNG TRNH LM SCH NC THI DI T ................ 48 4.1 CNG TRNH NH V SINH .................................................................. 48 4.1.1 Khi qut............................................................................................... 48 4.1.2 B tr Nh v sinh ................................................................................. 49 4.1.3 Phn loi Nh v sinh........................................................................... 51 4.1.4 B t hoi ............................................................................................. 53 4.3 H THNG G LC .............................................................................. 61 4.2 CNG TRNH GING THM .................................................................. 62 4.2.1 Nguyn l v S ging thm ........................................................... 62 4.2.2 Kt cu ging thm............................................................................... 64 4.3 CNH NG LC, TI ....................................................................... 65 4.3.1 Nguyn l ............................................................................................. 65 4.3.2 Thit k ................................................................................................ 65 4.3.3 Tnh ton mc ti thy lc v xc nh din tch.................................. 70 Chng 5 T HP CNG TRNH X L NC THI ........................... 81 5.1 NGUYN L ........................................................................................... 81 5.2 CC CH TIU THIT K ....................................................................... 83 5.2.1 S liu thit k ..................................................................................... 83 5.2.2 S h thng cng trnh ................................................................... 83 5.2.3 Chn phng n x l ......................................................................... 85 5.3 V D THIT K MNG LI NC THI TH V K NGH ..... 86 5.4 QUN L CNG TRNH X L NC THI ...................................... 90 5.4.1 Nguyn tc chung ................................................................................ 90 5.4.2 Cng tc o lng ............................................................................... 90 5.4.3 Cng tc qun l .................................................................................. 91 BNG QUI I N V................................................................................ 92 PH LC ...................................................................................................... 93 TI LIU THAM KHO................................................................................. 99 ===========================================================</p> <p>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M U - MC LC iv</p> <p>Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun -------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p> <p>Chng</p> <p>--- oOo ---</p> <p>KHI QUT V CNG TRNH X L NC THI1.1 NH NGHA V CC KHI NIM 1.1.1 nh ngha Nc thi Tt c cc hot ng sinh hot v sn xut trong mi cng ng u to ra cc cht thi, cc th kh, lng v rn. Thnh phn cht thi lng, hay nc thi (wastewater) c nh ngha nh mt dng ha tan hay trn ln gia nc (nc dng, nc ma, nc mt, nc ngm, ...) v cht thi t sinh hot trong cng ng c dn, cc khu vc sn xut cng nghip, tiu th cng nghip, thng mi, giao thng vn ti, nng nghip, ... y cn hiu l s nhim nc (water pollution) xy ra khi cc cht nguy hi xm nhp vo nc ln hn kh nng t lm sch ca chnh bn thn ngun nc. Nc thi cha x l (untreated wastewater) l ngun tch ly cc cht c hi lu di cho con ngi v cc sinh vt khc. S phn hy cc cht hu c trong nc thi c th to ra cc cht kh nng mi. Thng thng, nc thi cha x l l nguyn nhn gy bnh do n cha cc loi c cht phc tp hoc mang cc cht dinh dng thun li cho vic pht trin cho cc loi vi khun, cc thc vt thy sinh nguy hi. Ti nhiu quc gia trn th gii, vic i hi phi kim sot v x l ngun nc thi tr thnh lut l bt buc. Hu ht cc ngnh sn xut u c cc ti liu ch dn v tiu chun lm sch nc thi. 1.1.2 Gii thiu mn hc Mn hc Cng trnh X l Nc thi (Wastewater Treatment Works) l mt trong nhng mn hc bt buc i vi chuyn ngnh hc K thut Mi trng. Mn ny l phn tip ni tip mn hc Phng php X l Nc thi. Mn hc t trng tm phn gii thiu cc thit b, cng trnh trong chui x l nc. Cc kin thc khoa hc c bn nh Ton hc,Vt l, Ha hc, ... to nn mng ban u cho mn hc. Cc mn c s nh Thy lc, Thy vn, Kt cu cng trnh, nhim mi trng ... l cc mn tin quyt cho mn hc ny. Phng php v Cng trnh X l Nc thi l mn hc chuyn ngnh cho vic o to K s ngnh K thut Mi trng. Tuy nhin do gii hn thi gian v qui m o to, mn hc ny ch gii hn mc hng dn vic kho st, thit k, xy dng v qun l vn hnh cc cng trnh lm sch nc thi sinh hot dn dng v mt phn cng nghip vi qui m nh (lin quan n mt cng ng khong 5.000 c dn tr li, mc nc thi ti a trung bnh cho 1 c dn l 250 lt/ngy m) v va (mc t 5.000 n 50.000 - 100.000 c dn). Phn cng trnh x l nc thi cho mt cng ng trn 100.000 c dn nm trong mt chuyn khc (nh Lun vn Tt nghip). Mc tiu chnh ca mn hc l:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chng 1: KHI QUT V CNG TRNH X L NC THI 1</p> <p>Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Hiu c tiu chun cht lng i hi cho mt h thng x l nc thi sinh hot v mt s ngnh cng nghip. C kh nng nh lng vic chuyn ti thy lc nc thi n trm/nh my x l nc thi. C kh nng xc nh vic b tr v tp trung cc nh hng ca nc thi n trm /nh my x l nc thi. C kh nng thit k cc hng mc cng trnh x l nc thi. Bit cch qun l, vn hnh mt h thng x l nc thi.</p> <p>1.1.3 Khi nim v Cng trnh X l Nc thi Cng trnh X l Nc thi l mt khi nim chung ch mt h thng t hp bao gm cc hng mc cng trnh v thit b i km bin nc thi thnh nc sch mc chp nhn c. C 4 loi nc thi c th chy vo h thng x l nc: Nc thi sinh hot c dn (domestic watsewater): do cc h dn thi ra qua sinh hot gia nh, mua bn, vn phng, ... Nc thi cng nghip (industrial watsewater): do cc nh my sn xut cng nghip v tiu th cng nghip ni chung. Nc thm lu/nc chy trn (infiltration/inflow): nc thm lu l tt c cc loi nc chy vo h thng cng rnh do s r r, b v ng ng hoc thm qua tng chn. Nc chy trn l lng nc ma chy vo h thng cng rnh t h thng tiu nc ma, mi nh, h ph, ... Nc ma (stormwater): nc trn mt do ma ti ch hoc tuyt tan. Ty theo nhim v cng trnh v kh nng ti chnh, ngi ta c th tch ra tng h thng x l nc thi sinh hot, nc thi cng nghip v nc ma ring r hoc tng hp. Theo thi gian, nc thi c th t lm sch mt phn nh qu trnh chuyn ha nc ton cu. Tuy nhin, hin nay con ngi cha th c nhng tc ng ln vo s cn bng nc trong thin nhin nhm lm sch ngun nc m ch c th can thip, to ra cc h thng x l nc thi b nhim trc khi vo ngun tip nhn theo mt s tiu chun c nh nc ban hnh. Qui trnh tng qut ca ngun cp nc v vic x l nc thi:</p> <p>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chng 1: KHI QUT V CNG TRNH X L NC THI 2</p> <p>Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------NGUN TIP NHN</p> <p>NC TH H THNG CP NC CNG TRNH LM SCH NC</p> <p>MNG LI S DNG NC</p> <p>X L NC THI TRIT (LN III)</p> <p>NC THI CHA X L</p> <p>X L NC THI TH CP (LN II)</p> <p>X L NC THI S CP (LN I)</p> <p>H THNG X L NC THI</p> <p>Hnh 1.1: Lin quan gia ngun cp nc v x l nc thi 1.1.4 Cc phng php c bn X l Nc thi C nhiu phng php khc nhau trong x l nc thi, bng di y cho mt tng quan v tng cng ngh v phng php. Trong thc t ty iu kin a phng, ti chnh v chnh sch m ta c cc chn la c th khc nhau (v d nh hnh 1.2). Sinh vin tham kho gio trnh Phng php x l nc thi v ti liu lin quan hiu thm v vic la chn cng trnh.</p> <p>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chng 1: KHI QUT V CNG TRNH X L NC THI 3</p> <p>Gio trnh CNG TRNH X L NC THI L Anh Tun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bng 1.1 : Tng quan v cng ngh v phng php x l nc thi Cng ngh Phng php Cng trnh Mc tiu x l x l x l x l - Tch cc cht l - Tuyn ni + Ha L lng v kh mu - Hp ph - Keo t... X l s b - Trung ha v kh - Oxy ha + Ha hc c nc thi - Trung ha + C hc - Song chn rc - B chn rc - B lng t I - H sinh vt - Cnh ng lc, ti - Knh oxy ha - Aeroten - B lc sinh hc - B lng t II - Trm trn Clor - Mng trn - B tip xc - B metan - Sn phi bn - Trm x l c hc bn cn - B lc ct - B aeroten bc II - B lc sinh hc bc II - H sinh vt - B kh nitrat - B oxy ha - Tch cc tp cht rn v cn l lng - Tch cc cht hu c dng l lng v ha tan</p> <p>+ Sinh hc</p> <p>X l tp trung</p> <p>+ Kh trng</p> <p>- Kh trng trc khi x ra ngun - n nh v lm kh ngun cn</p> <p>+ X l bn cn</p> <p>+ C h...</p>

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