Curs Operare CFP

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CURS OPERARE

CALCULATOR PERSONAL COMPATIBIL IBm - PC Doru Chiorean i Adina Pred

Autori: Doru Chiorean Adina Preda

2003-2010

Doru Chiorean, Adina Preda

2

Cuprins1. ARHITECTURA MICROCALCULATORULUI COMPATIBIL IBM - PC ____________________7 1.1. UNITATEA DE INTRARE (U.I.) _________________________________________________7 1.1.1. Tastatura (Keyboard) _______________________________________________________7 1.1.2. Mouseul __________________________________________________________________8 1.1.3. Scannerul _________________________________________________________________9 1.2. UNITATEA CENTRAL (U.C. Central Unit)____________________________________9 1.2.1. Microprocesorul central (CPU Central Processing Unit) ____________________________9 1.2.2. Memoria __________________________________________________________________11 Memoria intern __________________________________________________________________12 Memoria extern __________________________________________________________________13 1.2.3. Unitile de discuri flexibile ___________________________________________________13 1.2.4. Unitatea de stocare pe termen lung (discul fix sau harddisk-ul) _______________________14 1.2.5. Unitatea de CD-ROM ________________________________________________________15 1.2.6. Unitatea de CD-R/W_________________________________________________________15 1.2.7. Unitatea de DVD (Digital Video Disc --- Digital Versatile Disk) ______________________15 1.2.8. Unitatea BD (Blu-ray Disk) ___________________________________________________16 1.2.9. Interfeele _________________________________________________________________16 1.3. UNITATEA DE IEIRE (U.E.) __________________________________________________17 1.3.1. Monitorul (Display) _______________________________________________________17 1.3.2. Imprimanta ________________________________________________________________17 1.3.3. Plotter-ul __________________________________________________________________19 1.3.4. Conectarea a dou sau mai multor calculatoare prin modem __________________________19 1.3.5. Conectarea a dou sau mai multe calculatoare n reea ______________________________19 2. SISTEMUL DE OPERARE WINDOWS XP ____________________________________________21 Sistem de operare _________________________________________________________________21 Tipuri de aplicaii _________________________________________________________________21 Aplicaii de tip linie de comand ____________________________________________________21 Aplicaii de tip meniu _____________________________________________________________21 Aplicaii de tip fereastr ___________________________________________________________21 Cteva SO: _____________________________________________________________________22 2.1. Componentele de baz ale SO MS-DOS ___________________________________________24 2.2. ncrcarea sistemului de operare _________________________________________________24 2.3. Organizarea fiierelor i a directorilor ____________________________________________25 2.4. Structura de arbore a directorilor ________________________________________________25 2.5. Numele unitilor de disc _______________________________________________________26 2.6. Directorul curent ______________________________________________________________26 2.7. Dialogul utilizator MS-DOS____________________________________________________26 2.8. Comenzi MS-DOS _____________________________________________________________26 2.8.1. Prompterul MS-DOS ________________________________________________________27 2.8.2. Schimbarea unitii curente ___________________________________________________27 2.8.3. Afiarea coninutului unui director ______________________________________________27 2.8.4. Crearea unui director ________________________________________________________27 2.8.5. Schimbarea directorului curent _________________________________________________27 2.8.6. Copierea fiierelor __________________________________________________________28 2.8.7. Formatarea ________________________________________________________________28 3

2.9. Sistemul de operare WINDOWS XP ______________________________________________30 S.O. multiuser i multitasking _______________________________________________________30 Monotasking Multitasking ________________________________________________________30 Monouser Multiuser_____________________________________________________________30 2.10. Ce este WINDOWS XP? _______________________________________________________30 2.11. Descrierea desktop-ului WINDOWS XP __________________________________________31 2.12. Descrierea butonului Start i a barei de sarcini. ____________________________________32 2.12.1. Meniul START ____________________________________________________________32 2.12.2. Personalizarea meniului START ______________________________________________32 2.12.3. Opiunile meniului START __________________________________________________33 2.12.4. Bara de sarcini Taskbar ____________________________________________________33 2.13. Structura unei ferestre de tip WINDOWS ________________________________________34 2.13.1. Prile componente ale unei ferestre ____________________________________________34 2.13.2. Formele unei ferestre _______________________________________________________35 2.13.3. Utilizarea meniurilor, a barelor de instrumente i a panourilor _______________________35 2.13.4. Utilizarea casetelor de dialog _________________________________________________36 2.14. Utilitarul My computer (Calculatorul meu) ________________________________________37 2.14.1. Deschiderea i vizualizarea ferestrei My Computer ________________________________37 2.14.2. Deschiderea i vizualizarea ferestrei My Computer ________________________________38 2.14.3. Selectarea obiectelor ________________________________________________________38 2.14.4. Cteva operaii care se pot executa cu My computer _______________________________38 2.14.5. Crearea fiierelor text _______________________________________________________39 2.15. Utilitarul Windows Explorer (Explorarea Windows-ului) ____________________________39 2.15.1. Lansarea programului _______________________________________________________39 2.15.2. Descrierea programului _____________________________________________________39 2.15.3. Operaii care se pot executa cu programul Windows Explorer ________________________39 2.16. Cutarea fiierelor i a dosarelor ________________________________________________40 2.16.1. Cutai fiiere i dosare ______________________________________________________40 2.16.2. Folosii rezultatele cutrii ___________________________________________________41 2.17. Schimbarea i aranjarea modului de vizualizare a fiierelor i dosarelor _______________41 2.17.1. Schimbai detaliile afiate pentru fiiere_________________________________________41 2.17.2. Aranjarea fiierelor i dosarelor _______________________________________________41 2.18. Control Panel (personalizarea sistemului Windows XP) _____________________________42 2.18.1. Vizualizarea ferestrei Control Panel ____________________________________________42 2.18.2. Modificarea fundalului pentru spaiul de lucru ___________________________________43 2.18.4. Personalizarea spaiului de lucru ______________________________________________43 2.18.5. Modificarea proprietilor de afiare ___________________________________________44 2.18.6. Stabilirea datei i a orei______________________________________________________44 2.18.7. Schimbarea opiunilor regionale _______________________________________________45 2.19. Reele de calculatoare _________________________________________________________46 2.19.1. Generaliti _______________________________________________________________46 2.19.2. Interconectarea TCP/IP ______________________________________________________46 2.19.3. Vizualizarea unei reele _____________________________________________________49 2.20. Internet _____________________________________________________________________50 2.20.1. Istoria internetului __________________________________________________________50 2.20.2. Reeaua Internet ___________________________________________________________52 2.20.3. Ce program folosim pentru navigare? __________________________________________52 2.20.4. Cum navigm n Internet? ___________________________________________________53 2.20.5. Adrese Internet ____________________________________________________________53 2.20.6. Tehnici de cutare n Internet _________________________________________________54 2.20.7. Deschiderea unui cont email __________________________________________________55 4

2.21. Virui i antivirui ____________________________________________________________57 2.21.1. Infectarea cu virui a unui calculator. ___________________________________________57 2.21.2. Prevenirea infestrii ________________________________________________________57 2.21.3. Eliminarea viruilor din calculator. ____________________________________________57 2.21.4. Programe antivirus _________________________________________________________58 3. MICROSOFT WORD 2003 __________________________________________________________59 3.1. Lansarea programului Word ____________________________________________________59 3.2. nchiderea programului Word ___________________________________________________60 Ecranul Word ____________________________________________________________________60 3.3. Deschiderea documentelor ______________________________________________________61 3.3.1. Deschiderea unui document nou ________________________________________________61 3.3.2. Deschiderea unui document existent ____________________________________________61 3.3.2. Deschiderea unui fiier utilizat recent ___________________________________________61 3.4. Salvarea documentelor _________________________________________________________61 3.4.1. Salvarea fiierelor sub un alt nume ______________________________________________62 3.4.2. Salvarea fiierelor