ĐẠI HỌC HUẾ

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I HC HU PHN HIU I HC HU TI QUNG TR Lp: CNKTMT K1 BO CO HC PHN: CC QU TRNH SINH HC X L NC THI TI:TM HIU V CNG NGH SN XUT KH SINH HC T CHT THI CHN NUI

Sinh vin: Nguyn Tin Thng Hong Th Kim Tin Dng Hi

MC LC I T VN II, TNG QUAN 2.1) Tnh hnh chn nui gia sc gia cm 2.2) S lc c im cht thi chn nui 2.3). Kh nng gy nhim ca cht thi chn nui III) CNG NGH BIOGAS) 3.1) Gii thiu v Biogas 3.2. Vai tr ca Biogas trong sn xut v i sng 3.3 C s khoa hc ca qu trnh 3.4. Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh ln men 3.5 ) Quy trnh sn xut Biogas 3.6 ) Cu to hm Biogas 3.7 . Lm sch khi Biogas 3.8 . ng dng ca cng ngh Biogas 3.9 Mt s m hnh lm Biogas trn a bn Qung Tr IV) TNG KT V) TI LIU THAM KHO

I. T VN - Chn nui ngy cng pht trin ko theo vic gy ra nhim cho mi trng, vic x l cht thi chn nui ang l vn bc xc - Vit Nam ni ring v th gii ni chung ang ng trc nguy c rt ln v vn thiu ht nng lng nh xng du v than - Biogas l kh sinh hc v cng l 1 khi nim kh quen thuc vi nhiu ngi tuy nhin n cng l 1 khi nim kh mi m. Gia biogas v cht thi chn nui c mi quan h nh th no? tm hiu v lm r vn ny chng ti tin hnh lm ti ny Tim hiu v cng ngh sn xut khi sinh hc t cht thi chn nui

II. TNG QUAN2.1) Tnh hnh chn nui gia sc gia cm * Tnh hnh chn nui ca th giiLoi vt nuiB Ln Gia cm D cu S lng (triu con) 1987 1345 821 10 1431 1997 1469 831 16 1721 2007 1558 993 19 1931 Tng (%) 1987 2007 16 21 95 34

Theo FAO 2007

II, TNG QUAN* Tnh hnh chn nui ti Vit Nam

Loi vt nui Ln Tru B Gia cm

S lng (nghn con) 1/10/2009 27627,7 2886,6 6103,3 280,10

Tng (%) 2008 - 2009 +3,47 -0,38 -3,7 +12,83

Tng cc thng k 2009

II, TNG QUAN2.2) S lc c im cht thi chn nui Bng 1.1 S lng cht thi ca mt s loi gia sc, gia cmLoi gia sc, gia cm Lng phn (kg/ngy) Lng nc tiu (kg/ngy) 10 -15 0,3 0,7

Tru, b ln Heo < 10 kg Heo (14 45 kg) Heo (45 100 kg) Gia cm

20 25 0,5 1 1335 0,08

0,7 22-4 0

Ngun: Nguyn Th Hoa L (1994) HNL TP.HCM Trch Phm Trung Thy (2002)

II, TNG QUANBng 1.2 Thnh phn ca phn heo t 70 -100kg Bng 1.3 Thnh phn nguyn t a lng

c tnh Vt cht kh NH4 - N Nt (Nit tng s) Tro Cht x Carbonates Acid bo mch ngn pH

n v tnh Gam/kg Gam/kg Gam/kg Gam/kg Gam/kg Gam/kg Gam/kg

Gi tr 213 243 0,66 0,76 7,99 9,32 32,5 93,2 151 261 0,23 2,11 3,83 4,47

Loi gia sc Nga B Heo

H2O (%) 74 84 82

Nit ( %) 0,5 0,3 0,6

P2O5 (%) 0,4 0,3 0,6

K2O (%) 0,3 0,2 0,2

Gam/kg

6,47 6,95

Ngun L Trinh trch Phm Thu Thy (2002)

II, TNG QUANBng 1.4 :Thnh phn ha hc ca phn heo

Ch s Nit tng s (%) P2O5 K2O Ca2+ (mldl / 100g) Mg2+ (mldl / 100g) Mn (%) C/N Cu tng s Zn tng s

Hm lng 4 1,76 1.37 8,47

84,9 62,2615,57 81,61 56,363

II, TNG QUANBng 1.5 Cc loi vi khun c trong phnTn K sinh vt Lng k sinh trng Kh nng gy bnh Thng hn Ph thng hn L T Vim d dy rut Vim gan Sn Ung nht Lm m Giun a Lao Bch hu Si Bi lit Tiu chy Giun tc To (oC) 55 55 55 55 55 55 50 54 50 50 60 55 45 65 60 60 iu kin b dit Thi gian (pht) 30 30 60 60 60 3 -5 3 -5 10 10 60 20 45 10 30 30 30

Salmella typhl Salmella typhl c typhy A - B Singella Vibri cholerac Escherichia Coli Hepatite A Tacnia sagincta Microccus Streptococcus Ascaris lumbricoides Mycobacterium Tubecudsis Diptheriac Corynerbacterium Giardia Lamblia Tricluris trichiura

105/100ml 102/100ml -

Ngun L Trinh trch Phm Thu Thy (2002)

II. TNG QUAN2.3. Kh nng gy nhim ca cht thi chn nui Bng 1.6 Hm lng bi trong khng kh chung nui cc loi gia sc khc nhau Vt nui Heo Hm lng bi (mg/m3) 3 - 22 0,6 1 - 51 6,2

B saG (nui chung) G tht (nui chung)

Ngun : H Th Kim Hoa 2003

II. TNG QUANBng 1.7: tc hi ca Ammonnia n sc khe v nng sut gia sc gia cm

Vt nui

Heo

G

Nng NH3 Tc hi Nng > Gia tng t l 10ppm gia sc b ho Gim tng 50 100 ppm trng / ngy : 12 13 % Gim 5 % 61 ppm lng thc n Gim sn > 30 ppm lng trng v tht Gy hi 30 ppm chng vim phi Ngun : H Th Kim Hoa 2003

Tn Kh (k hiu)

T L

Methane

55 65%35 45% 0 3% 0 1% 0 1%

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS

Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide

3.1) Gii thiu v Biogas- Biogas (cn gi l kh m ly), mt sn phm bao gm hn hp khi sinh ra ca qu trnh phn hy ym kh cc cht hu c di tc dng ca cc vi khun ym kh - Nguyn liu cho qu trnh sn xut biogas thng l phn ngi, phn gia sc, bn, ph phm nng nghip - Methane c nhit tr cao (gn 9.000 kcal/ ). Do , nhit tr ca biogas khong 4.500 6.000 kcal/ , ty thuc vo phn trm ca methane hin din trong biogas

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.2. Vai tr ca Biogas trong sn xut v i sng

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS

Bng 1.8 - Tim nng k thut sn xut KSH t phn ng vt Theo bo co ca cc ti nghin cu v my pht in chy bng KSH cho thy th cc ng c c ci to hin ti tiu th khong 0,45m3/gi cho 1 m lc hay 0,62 ti 0,7m3 gi cho 1 kW. Nh vy vi lng kh sn xut hng nm nh bng 1.8 c th dng sn xut in vi lng in nng vo khong 3,5 triu MWh/nm

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.3 C s khoa hc ca qu trnh

- L mt qu trnh ln men phc tp xy ra rt nhiu phn ng v cui cng to kh CH4 v CO2 - Qu trnh ny c thc hin theo nguyn tc phn hy k kh.Di tc dng ca cc vi sinh vt ym khi v tri qua 3 giai on - Giai on I (thy phn) - Giai on II (sinh acid) - Giai on III (sinh methan)

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS* Giai on I (thy phn)Cht hu c phc tp: (PROTEIN, A.AMIN, LIPID)

Vi khun

Closdium bipiclobacterium, Bacillus gram m khng sinh bo t, staphilococcus

Cht hu c n gin (ALBUMOZ PEPIT,GLYXERIN, A.BO)

II) NI DUNG* Giai on II (sinh acid) - Nh vo vi khun acetogenic bacteria (vi khun tng hp acetat), cc hydrates carbon => acid c phn t lng thp (C2H5COOH, C3H7COOH, CH3COOH) v pH mi trng di 5 nn gy thi

II) NI DUNG* Giai on III (hnh thnh kh methan) Sn phm ca pha acid l nguyn liu phn hu giai on ny, to ra hn hp kh: CH4, CO2, H2S, N2, H2, v mui khong (pH ca mi trng chuyn sang kim) 4H2 + H+ + HCO3- => CH4 + 3H2O (Q = - 136) T A. formic 4HCOOH => CH4 + 3 HCO3- + 3H+ (Q = - 130) HCOOH => H2 + CO2 T A. acetic CH3 COO - + H2O => CH4 +3 HCO3- (Q = - 30) T A.propionic C2 H5 COO - + 2H2O => CH3 COO - +3 H2 + CO2 (Q = 80) T Metanol 4CH3 OH + H2O => CH3 COO - + 3H+ + H2O (Q = -324) T Etanol C2 H5 OH + H2O => CH3 COO - + 5H2 + CO2 + H+ (Q = 2) C2 H5 OH + H2O => 3/2CH4 +1/2CO2 +H2O (Q = -96) T Propanol C3H7OH +3 H2O => CH3 COO - + 5H2 + CO2 + H+ (Q = 84) C3H7OH +3 H2O => 9/4CH4 + 3/4CO2 + 5/2H2O (Q = -118)

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.4. Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh ln meniu kin k kh: khng c O2 trong dch ln men. Nhit : qui m nh thc hin 30-350C, qui m ln c c khi ha va t ng ha thc hin 50550C pH: 6,5 7,5 (nu 7/1. c tinh ca nguyn liu Tc b sung nguyn liu: B sung cng u th sn lng khi thu c cao Khuy o mi trng len men: Tng cng s tip xc c cht. Thi gian ln men: 30 60 ngy

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.5 ) Quy trnh sn xut Biogas - Giai on chun b nguyn liu: chn lc v x l nguyn liu ph hp vi yu cu sau: giu xenluloza, t lignin, NH4 ban u khong 2000mg/1, t l C/N t 20-30, ha tan trong nc (hm lc cht kh 9-9,4% vi cht tan d tiu khong 7%) - Giai on ln men: ln men theo m, bn lin tc hoc lin tc. - Giai on sau ln men: thu v lm sch kh

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.6 ) Cu to hm Biogas

III. CNG NGH BIOGASGy men cht hu c theo m

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS

Gy men cht hu c bn lin tc hoc lin tc Hm sinh Hm sinh Hm sinh kh c khi kiu kh kiu np y vm c ti di ng nh

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.6.1. Hm np tri ni (n ) - Loi hm ny rt ph bin n , cn gi l hm kiu KVIC - Gm c mt phn hm hnh tr xy dng bng gch hoc btng li thp v mt chung cha kh tri ni trn mt ca hm . Chung cha kh thng c lm bng thp tm, btng li thp, btng ct tre, cht do hoc si thy tinh - B nh hng bi cc nhn t mi trng nh nhit (np hm d b n mn hoc b lo ha) - p sut kh thp do bt tin trong vic thp sng, un nu

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.6.2 Hm np vm c nh (Trung Quc) - Loi hm ny c hm cha kh c xy dng trn phn phn.. Hm c dng bn cu c chn hon ton di t tit kim din tch v n nh nhit . Phn cha kh c t bng nhiu lp va bo m yu cu kn kh. phn trn c mt np y c hn kn bng t st, phn np ny gip cho thao tc lm sch hm khi cc cht rn lng y hm. - cc nc thuc khu vc nhit i, nng sut kh ca cc hm ny t c t 0,3-0,4 - Gi thnh rt thp - p lc kh t khong 1000 mmHg nn ngoi phc v un nu cn thp sng v dng t chy ng c - Nhc im l phn cha kh rt kh xy dng v bo m kn kh do hiu sut ca hm thp

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.6.3 Hm kiu ti - Nguyn l hot ng: Cc cht thi sau qu trnh phn hy s to kh, chng b y dn v pha cui ti gas v chy ra h cha dng bn long, u im - o v tr nng, thch hp vi vng c nc ngm cao - Vic lp t h thng vn hnh n gin - Chi ph thp - Mng mng nn c th tng nng sut khi mt tri chiu sng Nhc - D b h hng v vic sa cha kh khn - Cn phi sa cha thng xuyn v c bin php bo v - p sut kh thp, khng thch hp chiu sng - i hi din tch b mt ln - Nhy cm vi bin i thi tit - Tui th thp nht l khi b nng trc tip (2 nm)

II.)NI DUNG3.6.4 M hnh biogas ci tin VACVINA - Kt hp gia m hnh hm xy c vm cun ca Trung Quc, m hnh ti Biogas bng cht do Colombia v m hnh b pht t hoi * u im biogas ci tin VACVINA - Xy dng n gin v d dng - Np hm c th tn dng lm nn chung, gim din tch - Cht thi t h x cng c a lun vo b ny. Do khng cn u t xy dng h x t hoi - Gi thnh r hn nhiu (55% vi hm np vm cng th tch)

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.7 . Lm sch khi Biogas: Chng ta nn loi b CO2 v H2S t hiu qu cao v gim n mn thit b do H2S. 3.7.1 Cch lc CO2 - V CO2 c th ha tan trong nc do vic sc Biogas qua nc c coi l phng php n gin nht loi CO2. Ngoi ra CO2 cn c th b hp thu bi nhng dung dch kim, do ta cng c th dng dung dch NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and KOH loi CO2. Cc phng trnh phn ng nh sau: 2NaOH + CO2 ---> Na2CO3 + H2O (q) Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O---> 2NaHCO3 Ca(OH)2 + CO2 ----> CaCO3 + H2O - 1 kg vi nung ha tan trong 1m3 nc loi 300 L CO2 Kh nng ha tan ca CO2 trong nc (kg CO2 trong 100 kg H2O)

(Theo Nonhebel (1972), trch dn bi

III. CNG NGH BIOGAS3.7.2 Cch lc H2S NaCO3 pt (q) c th dng loi H2S