Đề án Không Gian Xưa

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<p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa</p> <p>MC LCDANH MC BNG .......................................................................................................... 2 DANH MC HNH ........................................................................................................... 2 M U ............................................................................................................................. 3 Chng I ............................................................................................................................. 3 M T TM TT C S............................................................................................... 31.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Tn c s .......................................................................................................................... 3 Ch c s.......................................................................................................................... 3 V tr a l ca c s ....................................................................................................... 3 Quy m, thi gian hot ng ca c s ............................................................................ 3</p> <p>Chng II ........................................................................................................................... 3 NGUN CHT THI V BIN PHP QUN L/X L ........................................ 32.1. Ngun cht thi rn thng thng .................................................................................... 3Ngun pht sinh .................................................................................................................... 3 Thnh phn v tnh cht ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Khi lng rc thi pht sinh .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Cng tc phn loi thu gom .................................................................................................. 4 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4.</p> <p>2.2.</p> <p>Ngun pht sinh cht thi lng......................................................................................... 5Ngun pht sinh .................................................................................................................... 5 Bin php gim thiu ............................................................................................................ 7</p> <p>2.2.1. 2.2.2.</p> <p>2.3.</p> <p>Ngun cht thi kh .......................................................................................................... 9Kh thi t cc phng tin giao thng ................................................................................. 9 Kh thi ca my pht in d phng ................................................................................... 9</p> <p>2.3.1. 2.3.2.</p> <p>2.4. 2.5.</p> <p>Ngun cht thi nguy hi ................................................................................................. 9 Ting n v rung ......................................................................................................... 9</p> <p>KT LUN, KIN NGH V CAM KT .................................................................... 111. 2. Kt lun .............................................................................................................................. 11 Kin ngh ............................................................................................................................ 11</p> <p>1 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa DANH MC BNG Bng 2. 1 Thnh phn cht thi rn sinh hot .................................................................... 4 Bng 2. 2 Thnh phn nc thi sinh hot ......................................................................... 5 Bng 2. 3 Nng cc cht nhim trong nc thi sinh hot ......................................... 6 Bng 2. 4 Nng cc cht c trong nc ma chy trn ................................................. 7 DANH MC HNH Hnh 2. 1. Cu to b t hoi x l nc thi sinh hot ..................................................... 8 Hnh 2. 2. S h thng thot nc ma ti c s ........................................................... 9</p> <p>2 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa M U Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa c thnh lp trn c s giy chng nhn ng k h kinh doanh s 40A8003212 ng k ln u ngy 05 thng 10 nm 2004, ng k thay i ln th 4 ngy 08 thng 04 nm 2011. Tnh trng ca Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa thuc im a khon 1 iu 15 ca Thng t s 01/2012/TT-BTNMT ngy 16 thng 03 nm 2012. Chng I M T TM TT C S 1.1. Tn c s QUN C PH, M THC KHNG GIAN XA 1.2. Ch c s Nguyn Triu Phong Ch c s CMND s: 240696045 a ch thng tr: 24 Trn Hu Trang, Phng Thng Li, Thnh ph Bun Ma Thut, Tnh kLk S in thoi: 0913484040 1.3. V tr a l ca c s 87 Y Ngng, Phng Tn Thnh, Thnh ph Bun Ma Thut, Tnh kLk 1.4. Quy m, thi gian hot ng ca c s Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian xa c tng din tch 3.078m2 v kinh doanh 2 loi hnh dch v chnh bao gm: Qun c ph, nc gii kht 40 bn Nh hng n ung 15 bn Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa c a vo hot ng vo u nm 2010 n nay. Chng II NGUN CHT THI V BIN PHP QUN L/X L 2.1. Ngun cht thi rn thng thng 2.1.1. Ngun pht sinh Cht thi rn thng thng pht sinh t cc hot ng hng ngy ca cc nhn vin trong qun v cc hot ng n ung ca khch hng.</p> <p>3 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa Thnh phn chnh ch yu gm v tri cy, thc n d tha, giy, ti nylon, v hp y a phn l cht hu c nn d phn hy, gy mi kh chu, gy mt v sinh v nh hng n m quan khu vc. Theo thng k, rc thi cha thnh phn chnh l cht hu c, c trnh by trong bng sau: Bng 2. 1 Thnh phn cht thi rn sinh hot T l theo khi lng (%) TT Thnh phn Ln 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cht hu c d phn hu Giy cc loi Kim loi Thu tinh Vi, si Cao su, nilon Cht tr G, dm bo Tng cng 58 5,25 7,3 1,55 3,7 13,2 84 2,6 100 Ma kh Ln 2 60 3,14 0 1,7 4,7 15,6 8,79 5,8 100 Ln 3 65 3 7,7 1,6 2 9,7 7 4 100 Ln 1 68.5 2 4,5 1,0 3 65 7 7,5 100 Ma ma Ln 2 70 2,5 4,8 1,2 3,6 8,5 6,5 3 100 Ln 3 72 2,8 4,55 1,3 4,0 10 4 1,35 100</p> <p>Ngun: Bo co hin trng mi trng tnh kLk nm 2010 Theo Gio trnh Qun l cht thi rn tp 1 Cht thi rn th ca GS.TS Trn Hiu Nhu th lng rc thi sinh hot pht sinh theo u ngui Vit Nam i vi tng loi th 0,35 0,80 kg/ngi/ngy. Qun c 25 nhn vin, i vi lao ng lm vic ti Qun h s pht thi khong 0,5 kg/ngi/ngy tng ng 12,5 kg/ngy. Khch hng n Qun n ung c thi gian lu li khng lu nn h s pht thi t hn vo khong 0,3 kg/ngi/ngy, c tnh s lng khch hng mi ngy khong 100 ngi nn khi lng pht sinh vo khong 30 kg/ngy. Vy tng khi lng cht thi rn sinh hot pht sinh ca Qun trong mt ngy l 42,5 kg. 2.1.2. Cng tc phn loi thu gom Cng tc phn loi, thu gom, lu gi, vn chuyn v x l rc sinh hot c thc hin thc hin nh sau:4 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa Cht thi rn thng thng c cn b v sinh thu gom hng ngy v c cha trong thng rc c th tch 120 lit. Cc cht thi c kh nng ti ch nh, v lon bia, nc ngt c thu gom ring trong cc ti ng sau em bn cho c s thu gom. Qun hp ng vi Cng ty Qun l cht thi rn th thu gom, vn chuyn v x l cht thi rn thng thng trung bnh 1 ln/ngy. 2.2. Ngun pht sinh cht thi lng Cht thi lng ti Qun bao gm nc thi sinh hot ca nhn vin v khch hng n n ung, ngoi ra cn c nc ma chy trn 2.2.1. Ngun pht sinh a. Nc thi sinh hot Tng s nhn vin trong Qun l 25 ngi lng nc cp cho mt ngi khong 100l/ngy vy mi ngy nhn vin trong qun tiu th khong 2,5 m2 nc. Ngoi ra khch hng n n ung lu li khng lu nn lng nc tiu tn t hn vo khong 20l/ngi/ngy nn vi khong 100 khch hng n Qun tiu th 2 m2 nc mi ngy. Nh vy, tng lng nc cp cho Qun l 4,5 m2/ngy, lng nc thi pht sinh chim 80% lng nc cp nn lu lng nc thi sinh hot 3,6 m2/ngy. Thnh phn nc thi sinh hot c th hin trong bng sau: Bng 2. 2 Thnh phn nc thi sinh hot TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BOD5 COD SS Tng Nit NH4 Du m Tng Phospho Ch tiu Khi lng cc cht nhim (g/ngi/ngy) 45 54 72 102 70 145 6 12 2,4 4,8 10 30 0,8 4,0 Ngun s liu: T chc Y t Th gii (WHO), 19935 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa Vi tng s lao ng 25 ngi v 100 khch hng lu lng nc thi khong 3,6 m /ngy, nng cc cht nhim c trong nc thi sinh hot ca d n theo bng sau:3</p> <p>TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7</p> <p>Bng 2. 3 Nng cc cht nhim trong nc thi sinh hot Nng cc cht nhim trong QCVN14:2008/ Cht nhim nc thi sinh hot (mg/lt) BTNMT (Ct B) BOD5 COD SS Tng N NH4 Du m Tng Phospho 562,5 900,0 875,0 75,0 30,0 125,0 10,0 675,0 1275,0 1812,5 150,0 60,0 375,0 50 50 100 10 20 10</p> <p>So vi Quy chun QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT (Ct B), hu ht cc cht nhim c trong nc thi sinh hot khi khng x l c nng vt qua gii hn cho php rt nhiu ln. Bn cht nc thi sinh hot c cha nhiu cn b, cht rn l lng, cht hu c, cht dinh dng v mm bnh cho nn bo v mi trng nc, sc kho con ngi Ch c s c cc bin php x l gim thiu nng cht nhim, vi sinh vt trc khi cho thot ra mi trng. b. Nc ma chy trn Lu lng nc ma chy trn ph thuc vo ch kh hu khu vc, lng nc ny c th b nhim bn do cun theo t , cht thi rn nu khng c bin php ph hp nc ma s lm nhim mi trng nc. Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa c tng din tch 3.087 m2, hin ti mi nh c lp tn kin c nn thc t lng nc ma chy trn khng nhiu, tuy nhin chng ti vn tnh ton v a ra cc bin php gim thiu. Lu lng nc ma bnh qun nm trn a bn thnh ph Bun Ma Thut l 1.967,3mm tr i h s thm bc hi cn li to thnh dng chy Ti lng nc ma chy trn c tnh theo cng thc: Q = (3.087 x 1.967,3 x 0,7)/1.000 = 4.251 m3/nm6 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa Bng 2. 4 Nng cc cht c trong nc ma chy trn TT 1 2 3 4 Ch tiu Tng Nit Tng Phospho COD TSS n v tnh mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l Nng 0,5 - 1,5 0,003-0,004 10-20 10-20</p> <p>Ngun s liu: T chc Y t Th gii (WHO), 1993 Tuy nhin do v c bn c s h tng ca c s hon thin, h thng thu gom, thot nc ma trong khu vc i vo hot ng n nh do nguy c gy nhim mi trng do nc ma chy trn trong khu vc l khng ng lo ngi. Qun s b tr lao ng thng xuyn kim tra, no vt m bo h thng thot nc ma hot ng tt. 2.2.2. Bin php gim thiu a. Nc thi sinh hot Nc thi sinh hot ti Qun c x l qua h thng b t hoi 3 ngn c xy ngm ri thm vo t. B t hoi c thit k, xy dng theo tiu chun ca ngnh xy dng v m bo x l lu lng pht sinh. Lng nc thi sau khi x l c cho vo ging thm. Dung tch ca b t hoi thng c tnh theo cng thc: W = Wn + Wc Trong : - Wn= Th tch nc ca b (m3); - Wc = Th tch cn ca b (m3); - Tr s Wn c th ly bng 1-3 ln lu lng nc thi ngy m. - Tr s Wc xc nh theo cng thc:WC aT (100 W1 )bcN 3 (m ) [(100 W2 )1000]</p> <p>Trong : - a: Lng cn ca bn; - T: Thi gian gia hai ln ly cn; - W1 v W2: m ca cn ti vo b v cn khi ln men;7 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa - b: H s th tch cn khi ln men (gim 30%) v ly bng 0,7; - c: H s li mt phn cn b ln men khi ht cn 20% = 1,2; - N: S ngi m b phc v; Hiu sut x l ca b t hoi t khong 40-60%. Nguyn tc kim sot nc thi sinh hot: B t hoi l cng trnh lm ng thi 2 chc nng: Lng v phn hu cn lng. Cn lng c gi li trong b t 6-8 thng, di nh hng ca vi sinh vt k kh, cc cht hu c b phn hu, mt phn to thnh cc cht kh v mt phn to thnh cc cht hu c ho tan. Hiu qu x l ca b t hoi vo khong 40 - 60%.MT CT M M</p> <p>2 1</p> <p>3 4</p> <p>5</p> <p>6</p> <p>MNmax MNmin</p> <p>10 D 7 8</p> <p>9</p> <p>MC A BMT BNG</p> <p>MD</p> <p>Hnh 2. 1. Cu to b t hoi x l nc thi sinh hot Ngn u tin ca b t hoi c chc nng tch cn ra khi nc thi. Cn lng di y b b phn hy ym kh khi y b, khong 1 nm s dng, cn ny c ht ra theo hp ng vi n v c chc nng a i x l. Nc thi v cn l lng theo dng chy sang ngn th hai. ngn ny, cn tip tc lng xung y ng thi cc cht hu c c vi sinh ym kh phn hy lm lm gim ng k nng trong nc. Nc8 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa thi sau khi c x l qua b t hoi, nng cc cht hu c, cht rn l lng c gim bt khong 40 60%. b. Nc ma chy trn H thng thot nc ma c xy dng bng h thng cng trn b tng ct thp 200, cc cng c b tr t dc theo cc tuyn ng thu nc ma ri xung t mi tn Qun. Sau h thng thot nc ny c u ni v h thng thot nc chung ca khu vc.Nc ma chy trn Tch rc H ga H thng thot nc ma</p> <p>Hnh 2. 2. S h thng thot nc ma ti c s 2.3. Ngun cht thi kh 2.3.1. Kh thi t cc phng tin giao thng Ngun pht sinh cht thi kh ch yu l do vic t tp cc phng tin giao thng ca khch hng n Qun, c cha cc cht nhim nh: Bi, CO2, SO2, NO2, CO, HC v ting n. Tuy nhin thi gian lu li khng lu cng nh bi xe ca Qun c cc cng trnh cy xanh nn nng cc cht nhim khi pht tn c gim thiu, vy nn kh nng gy nhim mi trng khng ng k. 2.3.2. Kh thi ca my pht in d phng Ch c s u t mt my n pht in. Trong qu trnh chy my pht in, my pht in s pht sinh ra mt lng kh thi nh hng n mi trng, tuy nhin s ln chy my trong mt thng ch khong 1-2 ln nn tc ng n mi trng khng nhiu. 2.4. Ngun cht thi nguy hi Trong qu trnh hot ng ca Qun c pht sinh cht thi nguy hi nh bng n in b hng, pin, bnh c quy tuy nhin s lng khng ng k v c thu gom x l. 2.5. Ting n v rung Trong qu trnh hot ng ca Qun ting n pht sinh t cc ngun sau: Phng tin giao thng ca khch hng khi n n ung ti qun, loi nhim ny khng lin tc v ch yu l xe gn my nn tc ng khng nhiu. Ting n trong qu trnh khch hng n ung ti qun, do qun c khun vin rng v khp kin nn loi tc ng ny t nh hng n khu dn c xung quanh.</p> <p>9 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa Ting n do my pht in, nh ni trn trong 1 thng my pht in ch chy t 1-2 ln v qun cng c khu vc ring t my nn loi tc ng ny cng khng ng k.</p> <p>10 n v t vn: Trung tm Quan trc v Phn tch Mi trng k Lk a ch: 46 Phan Bi Chu, TP Bun Ma Thut, tnh k Lk T: 05003 846 648 Fax: 05003 815 137</p> <p> n bo v mi trng n gin Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa KT LUN, KIN NGH V CAM KT 1. Kt lun Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa l c s kinh doanh cc dch v v gii kht, n ung. Cc vn c lin quan n cht thi, cc vn khng lin quan n cht thi u c trnh by chi tit trong bo co v cc tc ng y mc thp khng c tnh cht nghim trng v nm trong kh nng x l ca c s. Tuy nhin mt s cc tc ng khc ngoi tm d on nu xy ra Ch c s s phi hp vi cc n v c chc nng gii quyt m bo v sinh mi trng, hn ch tc ng tiu cc n con ngi, mi trng v ti sn ca qun. 2. Kin ngh Hot ng ca Qun c ph, m thc Khng Gian Xa ph hp vi xu th pht trin kinh t - x hi ca Tp. Bun Ma Thut ni ring cng nh ca tnh kLk ni chung, gp phn thc y kinh t pht trin, to ngun ngn sch cho nh nc, to cng n vic lm n nh cho gia nh Ch c s v ngi la...</p>