DH Tap Trung - Www.beenvn.com - Download Sach Mien Phi - Khong Can Dang Nhap

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DH Tap Trung - Www.beenvn.com - Download Sach Mien Phi - Khong Can Dang Nhap

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  • www.Beenvn.com - Download sach mien phi - Khong can dang nhap

    1

    NH HNG TP TRUNG TNG LAI CA CTY CC BN PH THUC VO IU NY Tc gi: AL RIES Ngi dch: Thi Hng Tm ***

    LI NI U

    Sau nhiu nm hot ng v nghin cu cc cch ng dng marketing, ti nhn thy v nhn ra tm quan trng ca vic nh hng tp trung trong cc t chc kinh doanh v y cng chnh l l do c mt ca cun sch ny.

    Cun sch ny tp trung vo cc muc tiu thc t ca qu trnh marketing, mt qu trnh khng ch bao gm vic bn mt sn phm hay mt dch v m cn l xc nh mt tng lai cho hot ng ca cc t chc na.

    Cng vic chnh yu nht ca ban qun tr mt cng ty l xc nh mt tng lai cho t chc ca mnh. Khng ch l mt tng lai tng qut m l mt tng lai chuyn bit nm trong tm kim sot ca cc t chc kinh doanh. nh hng tp trung l mt tng lai c d kin v ri ln k hoch, i nhng bc cn phi c to tng lai ny thnh hin thc.

    Tng lai l ni hnh thnh ca cc ch marketing.

    Mi t chc kinh doanh u ch c hai chc nng cn bn, Peter Drucker vit, marketing v sng to t ph.

    Marketing l mt chc nng c o v c trng ca vic kinh doanh, Peter Drucker vit tip. Cng ty kinh doanh l mt t chc hon ton khc bit so vi cc loi t chc khc v t chc ny marketing cho mt sn phm hay mt dch v no . Khng c mt tn gio no, qun i no, trng hc hay quc gia no lm iu ny nh mt cng ty kinh doanh. Bt k mt t chc no tip th cho mt sn phm hay mt dch v no u l mt cng ty kinh doanh. Bt c mt t chc no m cng vic marketing ch l mt yu t ph trong s pht trin u khng nn c iu hnh theo kiu ca mt cng ty kinh doanh.

    n lc m marketing phi c chp nhn nh mt gi tr quan trng m n xng ng. D nhng li trn c Peter Drucker vit ra trong cun The Practice of Management pht hnh ln u t nm 1954, nhn thc ny phi mt mt thi gian mi thm nhp c vo h thng thc lnh o ca cc cng ty M. V cn phi mt thm mt thi gian khng ngn na mt t chc mi c th thay i c nhn thc ca mnh v marketing.

    Sau Th chin I, mi cng ty u tp trung vo vic sn xut. Ngh thut qun tr c th hin theo cc nghin cu v thi gian v s vn ng ca Frederic Taylor. Thnh cng kinh doanh ch n vi nhng cng ty no c th sn xut v nhanh chng a sn phm ca mnh ra th trng nhanh hn v vi chi ph thp hn cc i th.

    Sau Th chin II, s tp trung trn chuyn dn sang vi cc mi trng ti chnh. Ngh thut qun tr lc ny c th hin di khi nim thu ht u t. Thnh cng kinh doanh lc ny li n vi cc t chc c kh nng mua bn cc cng ty kinh doanh ca mnh tt nht, th hin c s tp trung v thu ht u t cao nht.

    Ngy nay, kh nng sn xut v qun tr ti chnh hon tt bc pht trin ca chng v s tp trung ngy nay l thuc v marketing.

    Nhng Bill Gates ca Microsoft, Bert Roberts ca MCI, Ross Perot ca Perot System, Sam Walton cua Wal-Mart, Mike Harper ca ConAgra, Fred Turner ca McDonalds, Michael Eisner ca Walt Disney, John Smale ca Procter & Gamble, Robert Goizueta ca Coca-Cola v Roger Smith ca General Motors c

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    im g chung?

    Ai cng bit nhng ngi ny l mt s trong nhng gim c iu hnh c phch ca th gii trong mt hai thp nin va qua. ng vy nhng tt c nhng ngi ny cn c tn trong danh sch Nhng Ngi lm Marketing ca nm do tp ch Advertising Age bu chn trong thi gian t 1985 n 1994. (nm 1995, Michael Eisner li mt ln na c chn vo danh sch ny).

    Advertising Age nhn thc c thc t ca vic kinh doanh ngy nay. Tng gim c iu hnh cng chnh l tng gim c marketing! Marketing ngy nay l mt cng vic qu quan trng i vi cc b phn marketing, David Packard, ng sng lp Hewlett-Packard, ni th.

    ng ni nht l s thnh cng trn c tuyt vi ca Microsoft. Sau y l nhng g m Lou Gerstner ca IBM phi ni v Bill Gates v Microsoft, i th ca chng ti khng h l mt cng ty c k thut cc tt nhng h l mt cng ty marketing tht tuyt vi m ti tng c chng kin sau hai mi nm ln ln trong ngh marketing.

    Bn c th ngh g v vic mt ngi lm marketing li vit sch v qun tr? Mt cu hi ng gi.

    Nhng cu hi mt nh qun tr l ngi th no? cn l mt cu hi ng gi hn na.

    V cu tr li l: mt ngi lm marketing c kh nng c cc vn bn kt ton v cn i chi ph.

    GII THIU

    Mt tri l mt ngun nng lng khng l. Mi mt gi, mt tri xung tri t ny hng t t kilowatt nng lng. Vi mt ci nn v mt vi vt dng che chn, bn c th tm trong nng mt tri nhiu gi lin m khng h phi e ngi bnh tt.

    Tia laser ch l ngun nng lng nh b, ch tiu th c vi watt nng lng nhng vi s tp trung c nh hng, tia laser c th xuyn thng mt ht kim cng hay t b mt mm mng ung th trong c th con ngi.

    Khi bn nh hng tng lai cho mt cng ty, bn cng ang to thnh mt tc ng tng t nh tia laser. Bn ang to thnh mt kh nng y sc mnh chi phi mt th trng. l kh nng ca s nh hng.

    Khi mt cng ty mt i kh nng nh hng tp trung, n nh m i sc mnh ng gi ny. Cng ty tr thnh mt mt tri ang chia nh ton b nng lng ca n ra cho qu nhiu sn phm v th trng khc nhau.

    Trong vi thp nin gn y, v s sn phm v dch v c tung ra trn cc th trng. S pht trin nhanh chng ca k thut v kh nng sn xut em li cho ngi tiu dng hng ng cc loi sn phm v tt c gn nh lun sn sng khp mi ni. V i ph vi vic ny, cc cng ty m rng cc ging sn phm ca mnh n ht mc c th.

    Nhng cc cng ty khng th c m rng mi cc ging sn phm ca mnh c. H t n ch khng th khng ngh li. H lng tng trc vic phi qun l mt b su tp cc sn phm v dch v qu to ln v phc tp, hiu lc mt dn cng lc vi nhng li th cnh tranh.

    Cc cng ty tr thnh nhng ng mt tri khng l v sc nng ca nhng mt tri ny cng gim thiu tng ng vi s bnh trng ca chng. Trong s nhng mt tri c c nhng tn tui nh General Motors, IBM, Sears, Roebuck

    Mt tri khng th nh hng tp trung cho ngun nng lng ca n nhng cc cng ty th hon ton c

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    3

    th! V y chnh l thng ip ca cun sch ny. n lc pht trin sc mnh tht ca mt cng ty bng cch thu hp v tp trung s nh hng li.

    May mn thay, mt s tng gim c iu hnh nhn c thng ip ny v ngay c n ngi khng l General Electric cng phi ngng vic m rng ca mnh li. H phi bn i mt s cng cuc kinh doanh chnh ca mnh nh my tnh, thit b truyn hnh, v.v

    Nhng g bn ang nhn thy ch l nhng phn ng buc phi c trc s m rng qu . Thay v tip tc m rng, cc cng ty ang i theo hng ngc li. H quay tr li vi nhng g l cn bn ca mnh. H hc c bi hc ca tia laser nh hng tp trung nh th no.

    V cc bn cng khng th khc. Tng lai ca cng ty cc bn ph thuc vo iu ny.

    1- S MT NH HNG TP TRUNG CA CC CNG TY M

    Cc cng ty ni chung u chu chung mt tc ng nh nhau. Pht trin.

    Cc cng ty u buc phi tng trng mi lc v li nhun hng nm cho d h ang phi hot ng trong nhng th trng khng cn c kh nng pht trin. p ng cho yu cu bt buc ny, cc cng ty cng buc phi m rng cc cung ng ca mnh. Thm nhp vo cc th trng mi. Tip nhn thm cc cng ty v sn phm khc na hay chp nhn lin doanh.

    Cho d bn c gi qu trnh m rng ny l m rng ging sn phm, a dng ha hay cng lc th cng ch l mt qu trnh, s thc p phi ln mnh l nguyn nhn lm cho cc cng ty mt s nh hng tp trung. V cng chnh l l do khin cho cc cng ty nh IBM vi tng doanh thu 63 t USD / nm vn phi chu l 8 t v General Motors vi 133 t vn phi chu l 23 t.

    Cho d yu cu phi ln mnh ln l tt yu nhng vic theo ui s ln mnh ch c xem l ln mnh r rng l mt sai lm chin lc nghim trng. V ng nhin phi c nhng tng gim c iu hnh b a ln gin gio tr gi cho nhng sai lm chin lc do chnh h to nn ny. Trong s ny c nhng ci tn nh: James Robinson American Express, John Sculley Apple, Barry Gibbons Burger King, Rod Canion Compaq, Robert Stempel General Motors, John Akers IBM v cn nhiu na.

    Khng ch v theo ui s pht trin m cc cng ty tr nn mt nh hng tp trung. T thn vic mt s nh hng tp trung l mt hin tng t nhin hnh thnh khng dnh g n cc n lc c nh ca mt cng ty.

    Mt cng ty thnh cng thng khi u vi s tp trung cao vo mt vi sn phm hay th trng nhng qua thi gian h mt i s tp trung ny khi bt u cung ng qu nhiu cc loi sn phm v dch v khc nhau nhiu mc gi cho nhng th trng loi.

    Bn chc c th ang lm vic cho mt cng ty tng t. Mi vic pht trin thun li trong thi gian u v nhng sn phm hay dch v u tin l nhng thng li ln. Cng ty bt u c nhng d kin ln lao cng vi gi c phiu c vt nhanh nh ha tin. Nhng thnh cng cng cng lc mang li nhng c hi mi v kh nng m rng ra nhiu hng mi. Mi ngi u hng phn vi ngh ri y ta s cai tr c th gii.

    l mt kch bn tng xy ra vi General Motors trong thp nin 60, vi Sears trong thp nin 70, vi IBM trong thp nin 80 v vi Microsoft trong thp nin 90.

    Sau mt thi gian, mi vic bt u ri rm. iu tng chng l mt th gii nhng c hi bng bin thnh mt v tr nhng vn ! Nhng mc tiu khng t. Mi lc ng chng. Li nhun tut dc v uy tn tht thng.

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    NH HNG TP TRUNG (Bi 3)

    Cc nghin cu v cc cuc tip nhn v gii th ca cc cng ty ni trn cng nh ca nhiu cng ty khc na cho thy chu k mua ri bn ny thng tn ti khong su nm. Su nm l mt thi gian di mt cng ty c th chp nhn sai lm ca mnh. V su nm cng l mt thi gian nhng ngi b vn u t ngui ngoai i nhng tng cng lc k v ng nh y ha hn cho mt tng li pht trin ln mnh khng tng khi cc cuc tip nhn c tin hnh.

    Nu chu k ni trn hon tt vi nhng tc ng tch cc c c trn cc mt trn quan h cng lun, thng bo gii th tr v vi nn tng s nh ng c s ch ca gii bo ch cng nh truyn thng tng t nh khi cc thng bo tip nhn c cng b.

    D sao, mt s cng cuc a dng ha c cc cng ty ln thc hin nhn chung tht ng nc ci. Ngy 7 thng Mi Hai 1985, Lee Iacocca khai trng mt cng ty Chrysler hon ton mi, mt cng ty m m vic sn xut xe ch cn l mt lnh vc hot ng trong ton th m thi. Chrysler tr thnh mt tp on vi bn cng ty con: Chrysler Motors, Chrysler Aerospace (Gulfstream), Chrysler Financial v Chrysler Technologies.

    Vo thi gian , cng ty cui cng Chrysler Technologies- hu nh ch l mt cng ty trn danh ngha bi Iacocca khng mua thm mt cng ty no khc lp y hot ng ca cng ty ny. Nhng khng bao lu sau, Iacocca nhanh chng bt u mt cuc ua tip nhn cc cng ty cng ngh cao vi tng vn u t ln n hng t la.

    Sau ny Iacocca phi th nhn, cng cuc a dng ha Chrysler l mt sai lm ln nht c thc hin. Chng ti khng cn phi tr thnh mt tp on, iu s v a chng ti tr thnh mt cng ty hng siu nng. Nhng nu chng ti lc hng bn bit , t n nay c