Dil Eğitiminin Temel Kavramları - 2. Baskı ?cı / Pasif / Edilgin Kelime Hazinesi ..... 9 Alofon ... Ezber ...

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  • vii

    NDEKLER

    - A -

    Abartma (Mbalaa)............................................................................................................ 1 Ak Bilgi ............................................................................................................................... 1 Ak Oturum ........................................................................................................................ 2 Aforizma ............................................................................................................................... 2 Arlk .................................................................................................................................... 2 Az / ive / Lehe ............................................................................................................. 3 Akc Okuma ........................................................................................................................ 3 Akc Yazma ......................................................................................................................... 4 Akclk .................................................................................................................................. 4 Ak emas ........................................................................................................................... 5 Aksan ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Aksiyon ................................................................................................................................. 6 Akson .................................................................................................................................... 7 Akustik Ses Bilimi ................................................................................................................ 7 Aleksi ..................................................................................................................................... 7 Alettrisma .............................................................................................................................. 8 Alfabe .................................................................................................................................... 8 Alg Genilii ........................................................................................................................ 8 Alc / Pasif / Edilgin Kelime Hazinesi ........................................................................... 9 Alofon ................................................................................................................................... 9 Alt Anlamllk ..................................................................................................................... 10 Alt apkal Dnme Teknii ......................................................................................... 10 Ama ve Kazanm ............................................................................................................. 11 Amallk ............................................................................................................................. 11 Amigdala ............................................................................................................................. 12 Ana Dil ................................................................................................................................ 12 Ana Dili ............................................................................................................................... 13 Ana Dili retimi .............................................................................................................. 13 Ana Duygu .......................................................................................................................... 14 Ana Dnce ...................................................................................................................... 14 Anahtar Kelime .................................................................................................................. 14 Analiz ................................................................................................................................... 15 Analiz Basama Sorusu ................................................................................................... 15

  • viii

    Ansal (Epizodik) Bellek ................................................................................................... 16 Anlam .................................................................................................................................. 16 Anlam Analizi Teknii ...................................................................................................... 17 Anlam Deeri ..................................................................................................................... 18 Anlam Haritas ................................................................................................................... 19 Anlam Kurma .................................................................................................................... 20 Anlama ve Anlamlama ...................................................................................................... 20 Anlama Becerileri .............................................................................................................. 21 Anlamsal (Semantik) Bellek ............................................................................................. 21 Anlamsal Alan .................................................................................................................... 23 Anlat ................................................................................................................................... 23 Anlatm Biimleri ............................................................................................................... 24 Anlatma Becerileri ............................................................................................................. 25 Anlatma Yntemi .............................................................................................................. 25 Ara Disiplin ........................................................................................................................ 26 Ara ...................................................................................................................................... 27 Argo ..................................................................................................................................... 27 Artiklasyon (Eklemleme) Bozukluu ........................................................................... 28 Asperger Sendromu .......................................................................................................... 28 Atlama ................................................................................................................................. 29 Atlayarak Okuma ............................................................................................................... 29 Ayrtrc Dinleme ............................................................................................................ 30

    - B -

    Badaklk (Cohesion) ..................................................................................................... 31 Badatrma / Metafor ..................................................................................................... 32 Baml Biimbirim ............................................................................................................ 34 Bamsz Biimbirim ......................................................................................................... 34 Bamsz Okuma ............................................................................................................... 34 Bamsz Yazma ................................................................................................................. 35 Balam ................................................................................................................................. 35 Balk Kl Teknii .......................................................................................................... 36 Beceri ve Yetenek .............................................................................................................. 36 Beden Dili ........................................................................................................................... 37 Bellek ................................................................................................................................... 38 Benmerkezci Dnme (Egosantrizm) .......................................................................... 40 Benzetme ............................................................................................................................ 42 Betimleyici Yazma ............................................................................................................. 43 Beyin Frtnas .................................................................................................................... 43 Beyin Temelli renme ................................................................................................... 44 BIO Stratejisi ...................................................................................................................... 45 Bildiriim ............................................................................................................................. 46 Bilgi ...................................................................................................................................... 46

  • ix

    Bilgi Basama Sorusu ....................................................................................................... 47 Bilgi in Dinleme ............................................................................................................. 48 Bilgiyi leme Modeli ......................................................................................................... 48 Bilgi Trleri ......................................................................................................................... 50 Bilgilendiricilik.................................................................................................................... 50 Bili ...................................................................................................................................... 51 Bilisel Alan Basamaklar .................................................................................................. 51 Bilisel Dil Yaklam ......................................................................................................... 53 Bilisel Geliim ................................................................................................................... 54 Bitiik Eik Yaz ................................................................................................................ 54 Bloom Yntemi / Tam renme Modeli ..................................................................... 54 Boumlama / Eklemleme ................................................................................................ 55 Broca Alan ......................................................................................................................... 55 Bulu Yoluyla renme ................................................................................................... 57 Bkmllk ........................................................................................................................ 57 Brn Olgular / Parast Birimler .............................................................................. 57 Btnden Paraya Yaklam ............................................................................................ 58 Btnsel Beyin Modeli ...................................................................................................... 58

    - C -

    Cluster Teknii (Kmeleme / Salkm Oluturma) ....................................................... 61 Cmle zmleme Yntemi ........................................................................................... 61

    - -

    armsal Anlam / Tasarmlar ..................................................................................... 63 atma ................................................................................................................................ 64 ocuk Edebiyat................................................................................................................. 64 oklu Zek Kuram .......................................................................................................... 65 oktan Semeli Testler ..................................................................................................... 65 zmleme ve Birleim Yntemi ................................................................................... 66

    - D -

    Davran Deiiklii .......................................................................................................... 67 Davran Yaklam .......................................................................................................... 67 Deerlendirme ................................................................................................................... 68 Deerler ............................................................................................................................... 68 Deitirim ........................................................................................................................... 69 Deklaratif Bellek / Ak Bellek ....................................................................................... 69 Deklaratif Olmayan (rtk) Bellek ................................................................................ 69 Demagoji ............................................................................................................................. 70 Dendrit ................................................................................................................................ 71 Deneme ............................................................................................................................... 71 Dengeleme .......................................................................................................................... 71

  • x

    Dereceli Puanlama Anahtar (RUBRC) ........................................................................ 72 Derin Yap ve Yzey Yap ............................................................................................... 73 Derinlik ............................................................................................................................... 73 Ders Kitab ......................................................................................................................... 74 Deyim Aktarmas ............................................................................................................... 75 Dik Temel Yaz .................................................................................................................. 75 Dikte .................................................................................................................................... 75 Dil ........................................................................................................................................ 76 Dil Alan / Kavram Alan ................................................................................................ 80 Dil Becerisi ......................................................................................................................... 80 Dil Bilgisi / Gramer .......................................................................................................... 80 Dil Dolamas ..................................................................................................................... 81 Dil Edinim Kuramlar ....................................................................................................... 81 Dil Edinimi ......................................................................................................................... 81 Dil Farkndal .................................................................................................................. 83 Dil retim Yaklamlar ................................................................................................. 83 Dil Yaps / Dil Sistemi .................................................................................................... 84 Dil Yetisi ............................................................................................................................. 84 Dil Bilimi ............................................................................................................................. 85 Dinleme ............................................................................................................................... 86 Dinleme / Anlama Hz .................................................................................................... 87 Dinleyi Ses Bilimi ............................................................................................................. 87 Disemi ................................................................................................................................. 88 Disleksi ................................................................................................................................ 88 Diyafram ............................................................................................................................. 89 Dizartri ................................................................................................................................ 89 Doal ki Dillilik ................................................................................................................ 89 Dorudan Kelime retimi ............................................................................................. 90 Dolayl Yaant ................................................................................................................... 90 Dolgu Ses ............................................................................................................................ 90 Dramatizasyon (Oyunlatrma) Yntemi ....................................................................... 91 Dudak ve Damak Yarkl ............................................................................................... 92 Durak / Kavak ................................................................................................................. 92 Duruma Uygun Olma ....................................................................................................... 92 Duyusal Kayt ..................................................................................................................... 93 Dzenli Bilgi ....................................................................................................................... 94 Dzensiz Bilgi .................................................................................................................... 94

    - E -

    Edeb Metinleri Okuma .................................................................................................... 95 Edim .................................................................................................................................... 95 Edin ................................................................................................................................... 95 Edinilmi Bilgi .................................................................................................................... 96

  • xi

    Editr .................................................................................................................................. 96 Eitim .................................................................................................................................. 97 Eitim Ortam .................................................................................................................... 98 Eitim Program ................................................................................................................ 98 Eitimsel Dilbilim.............................................................................................................. 98 Eksiltili fade / Krk fade .............................................................................................. 99 Eletirel Dinleme ............................................................................................................... 99 Eletirel Dnme ........................................................................................................... 100 Eletirel Konuma ........................................................................................................... 102 Eletirel Okuma ............................................................................................................... 102 Eletirel Yazma ................................................................................................................ 102 Eletiri ............................................................................................................................... 102 El Yazsnda Hz .............................................................................................................. 103 Empati ............................................................................................................................... 103 Empati Kurarak Dinleme ............................................................................................... 104 Epistemoloji / Bilgi Felsefesi ........................................................................................ 104 Estetik Dinleme ............................................................................................................... 105 E Anlamllk .................................................................................................................... 105 E Seslilik .......................................................................................................................... 106 E Yazmllk .................................................................................................................... 106 Eletirmeli Sorular ......................................................................................................... 106 Etkinlik .............................................................................................................................. 107 Ezber ................................................................................................................................. 107 Ezgi / Ezgileme ............................................................................................................... 110

    - F -

    Fkra / Keyazs ........................................................................................................... 111 Fizyolojik Ses Bilimi ........................................................................................................ 111 Fonem ............................................................................................................................... 111 Fonosemi ve Fonestem .................................................................................................. 112 Fonetik ve Fonoloji ......................................................................................................... 112 Fonksiyonel Okur Yazarlk ......................................................................................... 112 Forum / Ktle Tartmas .............................................................................................. 113

    - G -

    Gaf ..................................................................................................................................... 115 Gelimeli Ses Bilim .......................................................................................................... 115 Genelleme ......................................................................................................................... 115 Genilik ............................................................................................................................. 116 Gere ................................................................................................................................. 116 Getalt renme .......................................................................................................... 116 Geveklik .......................................................................................................................... 117 Gizli Okumaz Yazmazlk ............................................................................................... 117

  • xii

    Gnderim ......................................................................................................................... 118 Grsel Okuma / Grsel Okuryazarlk ......................................................................... 118 Gsteri Yntemi .............................................................................................................. 119 Gz Ses Genilii ......................................................................................................... 120 Gz Atarak Okuma ......................................................................................................... 121 Gzlemci Bak Asna Sahip Anlatc ........................................................................ 121 Grafolekt ........................................................................................................................... 121 Grup Olarak Okuma ....................................................................................................... 122 Grup Olarak Yazma ........................................................................................................ 122 Gruplama Yntemi ......................................................................................................... 122 Gdml Konuma ........................................................................................................ 122 Gdml Yazma ............................................................................................................. 123

    - H -

    Hkim Bak Asna Sahip Anlatc ............................................................................. 125 Hazrlk almalar ......................................................................................................... 125 Hazrlkl Konumalar ..................................................................................................... 127 Hazrlksz Konumalar .................................................................................................. 128 Hermenotik (Hermeneutik) ........................................................................................... 128 Hzl Okuma ..................................................................................................................... 129 Hikye Edici Yazma ........................................................................................................ 130 Hikye Haritas Teknii .................................................................................................. 130 Hiper Metin / Hiper Medya (Hiper Ortam) ............................................................... 131 Hiperleksi .......................................................................................................................... 132 Hipokamps ..................................................................................................................... 132 Holofraz ............................................................................................................................ 133

    - I -

    Islklama ............................................................................................................................ 135

    - - ki Dillilik (Bilingualism) ................................................................................................ 137 kna Edici Yazma ............................................................................................................ 137 letiim ............................................................................................................................... 138 letiimsel Dinleme .......................................................................................................... 138 likilendirici Yntem ...................................................................................................... 139 lk Okuma Yazma retim Yntemleri ...................................................................... 139 lke ..................................................................................................................................... 139 mge ................................................................................................................................... 141 nteraktif Yaklam .......................................................................................................... 141 Birliine Dayal renme .......................................................................................... 141 Birlii Yaparak (Paylaarak) Yazma .......................................................................... 142 aretleyerek Okuma ....................................................................................................... 142

  • xiii

    itilebilirlik ....................................................................................................................... 142 itsel Szel Dil Zeks ................................................................................................... 143 levsel Dil Kullanm ..................................................................................................... 143 zlek (Tema) ..................................................................................................................... 144

    - J -

    Jargon ................................................................................................................................ 145

    - K - Kabul Edilebilirlik ........................................................................................................... 147 Kalplam Szler ........................................................................................................... 147 Karlatrmal Kuram ..................................................................................................... 147 Karlatrmal Yazma ..................................................................................................... 148 Katlml Dinleme ............................................................................................................ 148 Katlml Konuma .......................................................................................................... 148 Katlmsz Dinleme .......................................................................................................... 149 Kavram .............................................................................................................................. 149 Kavram Haritas ............................................................................................................... 149 Kekemelik ......................................................................................................................... 149 Kelime ............................................................................................................................... 150 Kelime Ailesi .................................................................................................................... 151 Kelime Ayrt Etme .......................................................................................................... 152 Kelime Badakl ......................................................................................................... 152 Kelime Grubu .................................................................................................................. 153 Kelime Hazinesi / Szck Daarc ........................................................................... 154 Kelime Kalitesi ................................................................................................................. 155 Kelime renme Sreci ................................................................................................. 155 Kelime Sarl ve Kelime Krl ............................................................................. 155 Kelime Skl ................................................................................................................... 156 Kelime Tanma................................................................................................................. 157 Kelime Tr ..................................................................................................................... 158 Kelime Yaygnl ............................................................................................................. 158 Kln ve Grn .......................................................................................................... 159 Ksa Sreli Bellek ............................................................................................................. 160 Kip ..................................................................................................................................... 161 Kiplik ................................................................................................................................. 161 Kod .................................................................................................................................... 161 Kod Ama ve Yorumlama ............................................................................................. 161 Kodlama ............................................................................................................................ 162 Kolokyum ......................................................................................................................... 162 Kompozisyon ................................................................................................................... 162 Konferans ......................................................................................................................... 163 Konu .................................................................................................................................. 163

  • xiv

    Konuma ........................................................................................................................... 163 Konuma Dili ................................................................................................................... 164 Konuma Hz .................................................................................................................. 164 Kronem Fark ................................................................................................................... 164 Kuantum renme ......................................................................................................... 164 Kurgu Kurgulama Kurmaca ................................................................................... 165 Kltrel ki Dillilik .......................................................................................................... 165

    - M -

    Makale ............................................................................................................................... 167 Masal Parodisi .................................................................................................................. 167 Materyal Tasarm ............................................................................................................ 168 Medya Okuryazarl ....................................................................................................... 169 Metin.................................................................................................................................. 169 Metin Adac ................................................................................................................... 169 Metin Yaplar (Kk Yap / Byk Yap / st Yap) ............................................ 170 Metin Dil Bilim ................................................................................................................ 170 Metinler Araslk .............................................................................................................. 171 Metinlerle likilendirme ................................................................................................. 171 Metinsellik ltleri ........................................................................................................ 171 Monolog ............................................................................................................................ 172 Motivasyon ve Gdleme .............................................................................................. 172 Multifonksiyonel Okur Yazarlk ................................................................................ 173 Mlakat .............................................................................................................................. 173 Mnazara .......................................................................................................................... 173

    - N -

    Nesnel Bilgi / Objektif Bilgi .......................................................................................... 175 Nitel Aratrma ................................................................................................................ 175 Not Alarak Dinleme ........................................................................................................ 176 Not Alarak Okuma .......................................................................................................... 176 Not Alma .......................................................................................................................... 177 Nron ................................................................................................................................ 177

    - O -

    Okuma ............................................................................................................................... 179 Okuma Yazma Hakk .................................................................................................. 180 Okuma Eitiminin Fiziksel Unsurlar .......................................................................... 180 Okuma Hz ...................................................................................................................... 182 Okuma Modelleri............................................................................................................. 182 Okuma Stratejileri ............................................................................................................ 182 Okuma Tiyatrosu ............................................................................................................. 183 Okuma Yaklamlar ........................................................................................................ 183

  • xv

    Okumann Zihinsel Unsurlar ........................................................................................ 183 Okumaz - Yazmazlk ...................................................................................................... 184 Okunabilirlik ..................................................................................................................... 184 Okuryazarlk ..................................................................................................................... 185 Okuryazarlk Dzeyleri ................................................................................................... 187 Olay / Vaka ...................................................................................................................... 187 Olay rgs ..................................................................................................................... 188

    - -

    renci rn Dosyas .................................................................................................... 189 renme ........................................................................................................................... 189 renme / retme Sreci ........................................................................................... 190 renme Alan ................................................................................................................. 191 renme Stratejileri ........................................................................................................ 191 retim ............................................................................................................................. 191 retme ............................................................................................................................ 192 retici Metinleri Okuma .............................................................................................. 192 retim Program / Mfredat ...................................................................................... 193 lme ................................................................................................................................ 193 n Bilgi ............................................................................................................................. 194 nerme A ...................................................................................................................... 194 nvarsaym ve Sezdirim ................................................................................................. 195 rnekseme ....................................................................................................................... 196 rtk Bilgi ........................................................................................................................ 196 rtk Program ................................................................................................................. 197 rtl Anlam ................................................................................................................... 197 zdelik Kuram .............................................................................................................. 198 z Deerlendirme ........................................................................................................... 198 z Dzenleme ................................................................................................................. 198 zel renme Gl ................................................................................................. 199 zet karma ................................................................................................................... 199 zetleyerek Okuma ........................................................................................................ 200 znel Bilgi / Subjektif Bilgi .......................................................................................... 200

    - P -

    Pandomim ........................................................................................................................ 203 Panel .................................................................................................................................. 203 Paradan Btne Yaklam ............................................................................................ 204 Parmak Yntemi .............................................................................................................. 204 Patua .................................................................................................................................. 205 Paylaarak Okuma ........................................................................................................... 205 Pelteklik ............................................................................................................................. 205 Performans Deerlendirme............................................................................................ 205

  • xvi

    Performans devi ........................................................................................................... 206 PISA Snavlar .................................................................................................................. 206 Piramit ............................................................................................................................... 207 Planl Yazma ..................................................................................................................... 208 Polyglotte .......................................................................................................................... 208 Praksi ve Apraksi ............................................................................................................. 208 Probleme Dayal renme ............................................................................................ 208 Program / Mfredat ....................................................................................................... 209 Proje devi ...................................................................................................................... 209 Proje Tabanl renme .................................................................................................. 210 Proxemiks ......................................................................................................................... 210

    - R -

    Resimli Ses Yntemi ....................................................................................................... 211 Retorik / Belgat / Hitabet ........................................................................................... 211 Rportaj ............................................................................................................................ 212

    - S -

    Scrol Stratejisi ................................................................................................................... 213 Seici Dinleme ................................................................................................................. 213 Semeli Esnek Okuma ................................................................................................ 214 Sempozyum ...................................................................................................................... 214 Sentez ................................................................................................................................ 215 Serbest Konuma ............................................................................................................. 215 Serbest Yazma .................................................................................................................. 216 Ses Bilimi (Fonetik) ......................................................................................................... 216 Ses Bilinci .......................................................................................................................... 216 Sesil Yazm ...................................................................................................................... 217 Ses Temelli Cmle Yntemi .......................................................................................... 217 Sesli Okuma ...................................................................................................................... 217 Sesli Okuma Hz ............................................................................................................. 219 Sessiz Okuma ................................................................................................................... 219 Sesten Okuma Yntemi ................................................................................................. 220 Sesten retim Yntemi ................................................................................................ 220 Sezgisel Dnme ............................................................................................................ 221 Snama Yanlma ............................................................................................................... 222 Sinaps................................................................................................................................. 222 Sinestezi / Duyular Aras Aktarm ................................................................................ 222 Sorgulayc Okuma .......................................................................................................... 223 Sorgulayc Yazma ........................................................................................................... 223 Soru Cevap Yntemi ....................................................................................................... 224 Soru Sorarak Okuma ....................................................................................................... 225 Sosyolekt ........................................................................................................................... 225

  • xvii

    Sylem ............................................................................................................................... 225 Sylev (Nutuk) ................................................................................................................. 226 Syleyi Ses Bilimi ........................................................................................................... 227 Sz Korosu ....................................................................................................................... 227 Szce .................................................................................................................................. 227 Szcelem / Szceleme .................................................................................................... 228 Szl Dil Becerileri .......................................................................................................... 228 Szlksel Alan .................................................................................................................. 229 Strateji ................................................................................................................................ 229 Sunu Yoluyla Szck retimi .................................................................................... 229 Sre .................................................................................................................................... 230 Sre Odakl Yazma Yaklam ..................................................................................... 230

    - -

    ema .................................................................................................................................. 231

    - T - Tahmin Ederek Okuma .................................................................................................. 233 Tam Okuma ..................................................................................................................... 233 Tartarak Okuma ............................................................................................................ 234 Tartma Yntemi ............................................................................................................ 234 Tartmac Metin .............................................................................................................. 235 Tartmac Metin Elementleri ........................................................................................ 235 Teknik ................................................................................................................................ 236 Tema .................................................................................................................................. 236 Temel Anlam .................................................................................................................... 237 Temel Okur Yazarlk ................................................................................................... 237 Terim ................................................................................................................................. 237 Tez (Ana Dnce) ......................................................................................................... 237 Ton .................................................................................................................................... 238 Tonem Fark ..................................................................................................................... 238 Tutarllk ............................................................................................................................ 238 Tutukluk ............................................................................................................................ 239 Tutum lekleri............................................................................................................... 239 Tmdengelim (Deduction) ............................................................................................ 240 Tmevarm (nduction) .................................................................................................. 240 Tmdengelim Yntemi ................................................................................................... 240 Tmevarm Yntemi ....................................................................................................... 241

    - U -

    Uzak Badatrma ............................................................................................................ 243 Uzun Sreli Bellek ........................................................................................................... 243

  • xviii

    - - retici / Aktif / Etkin Kelime Hazinesi ..................................................................... 245 rn Odakl Yazma Yaklam ...................................................................................... 246 slp ................................................................................................................................. 247

    - V - Ven emas ....................................................................................................................... 249 Vurgu ................................................................................................................................. 249 Wernicke Alan ................................................................................................................. 250

    - Y -

    Yanl Analizi Envanteri ................................................................................................. 253 Yanstc Dnme .......................................................................................................... 253 Yaplandrmac Yaklam ................................................................................................ 254 Yaratc Dnme ............................................................................................................ 256 Yaratc Yazma ................................................................................................................. 256 Yar Okur-Yazarlk .......................................................................................................... 257 Yar Sesli Okuma ............................................................................................................. 257 Yaz Bilinci ........................................................................................................................ 258 Yazl Dil ve Yaz Dili ..................................................................................................... 258 Yazl Dil Becerileri ......................................................................................................... 258 Yazma ................................................................................................................................ 258 Yazma Kaygs .................................................................................................................. 259 Yazma Tutukluu ............................................................................................................ 259 Yazma Trleri .................................................................................................................. 260 Yeni Bilgi .......................................................................................................................... 260 Ynlendirme Kurallar / Projection Rules .................................................................. 261 Yntem / Metot .............................................................................................................. 262

    - Z -

    Zihin Haritas ................................................................................................................... 263 Zihinsel Szlk ................................................................................................................ 263

    KAYNAKLAR ............................................................................................. 265

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