Diplom Bachelor

  • Published on
    02-Dec-2014

  • View
    106

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<p> -1000. : - - - - ...............................................................................................5 ..7 1. .7 2. ..19 .20 3. : 20 4. : .29 5. : ...32 ..38 6. ..................................................................................38 7. ........................................................................38 8. t-Q .......................................................................40 9. ...............................................................42 10. .......................................................................................44 11. ........................................................................49 12. ............................................................................63 13. ...........................................................................67 14. ........................................................69 15. ...71 .76 77 : ...............................................................78 ( -440, -1000) ,(). , ., ? ,, . , -1000 , (), . ,, . ., -1000, , . . .. . - (),. ,,.,-,, ., . , , . . . 11.5[1] 35/. . 1. . . .1,.2,.3 -, ,1- . . 1 : -1000 ( 1) . 2 : , ( 2) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 . 3 : , ( 3) . , 13 2 . , , . . 3 , 2 , , 1.C 1-1000 -1000, (. 1). , :01D =408/;0h =2781.18 / (0 =6.3 ; t0 = ts); ..h =944.758/(t..=220); 1G 4322 = /; 11h =1452.5/; 12h =1278.83/(1p =15,7; 11t =320, 12t= 289 ). 1 2 3 4 , p= Dnp1/D01, .1 01D D e= Q1. :- ( ) ..1 01 .1 .1 01D D D D (1 p ) D = + + = + +e (1) - 1 1 11 12 ..1 0 .. 01Q G (h h ) D (h h ) D r = q = + (2) - </p> <p>..1 .. 01 p . .1 D S D ( k ) S D S = e+ + (3) ..1D ; 0h =1230.34/-0;r=1550.84 /; ..S ,.S ,S (- ),( ),/; pk 0 ( ). , .S =S , (3) </p> <p> .. pS S (1 )( k ) = +e+ e+ + (4) ..S S 84.3 p0.002, k 0 e= = = 0.01 . , (.1) (1)(3),4, , 1. (4) . C 2 1 2 , , . , , 2 1 , ..p = Dnp. /D0 = 0.01 =const ( p0.002, k 0 e= = ). 2: ( , p0.002, k 0 e= = ; = 0.01) .. 0..1D (1 ) DD3 3+ + e = = = 550.53 /. I I 1 ..1 0 ..D [Q D (h h )] r = = 382.65 /, ..25.35/ 1 - . I .I ..I ID D (1 ) D = +e = 167.1 /., 1, 4.08 /. ..II ..I p .IDS S 3.28D ( k ) D= e+ +, 84.3. 2: ,, , II 1D Q r == 484.05 /, ... , (1632 /). : .II .I IID 3 D D (1 ) = +e= 16.32 /. II ..IIII III p .IIDS S 29D ( k ) D= e+ + .. ..II II I IS S (S S ) (S S ) 95 = 21 , : 26. II, . C 3 II ( . 3 , - ). I II . 3: IIo , II II ..II ..D D o= IIo =0,0...0,25. IIo = 0 3 2, . IIo =0,25 3 , 1. IIo &gt; 0,25 4 13, ..II .,, . I 3 IIo [ , (1)(3)]: - III 1 .. 0 ..1D [Q D (h h )] r3 o= (6) - </p> <p>II.I .. I1D D (1 ) D3o= +e (7) - I cy ..IpIII ..1S S3 (1 k )D11 D= o(8) II : - II 1 II .. 0 ..D [Q D (h h )] r = o (9) - .II .D D = (10) - I cy I.. p I..II ..p II .IISD 3 (k ) DSS S(k ) D D + e =+ e + (11) I , (6)(8), . 4. . 4: IIo - , :) ;) ;e- . II(9) II IID ( ) o , IIo = 0,0...0,25IID 484 408 /.0 e= (11) IIo ,. ...IIS S =101.0.002 e= IIo ..IIS S IIo = 0,0...0,25..IIS S 95 84.3 /. ,3, IIo . , I p I .. II p II ..K 3 D (k ) S S D (k ) S S min = +e + +e =(12) IIo pk( ) e ( ) ..S ., 0 (12) IIo=0,125. . : I .. II ..K 3 S S S S min = + =(13) , IIK ( ) o I IIS ( ) o IIo= 0. ,.. . . , . ,, III. IIo , , . IIo ,- . IIo=0,2, 110 /., I II . , ,(12)(13). -1000, II IID . . .[11] () co , : 22 c c c cc c c cp (1 k ) (k k ) p (1 k )2 p 0p (1 k ) (1 p) k (k k ) p (1 k ) (1 p) k (k k ) + o + o = + + + + </p> <p>:co - ( ), c II D / D o = DII - ,/; D- , /. , . p D / D = .D - , /. k - , k k = e +</p> <p>e -;k - . </p> <p>ck - , c c ck k = e +</p> <p>ce - ; </p> <p>ck - . k k = , co :2c c2 p p 0 o + o =. =0.01 co= 0.0905. :0.002 e= ( e- ) pk 0 = (k - ) : D 1632 = : .. D D (1 ) 1632(1 0.01 0.002) 1651.6 = + + e = + + :....ID 1651.6D 550.53 3 3= = : c I(1 ) D (1 0.0905) 1632D 494.8 3 3o = = : .I ..I ID D (1 ) D 550.53 (1 0.002) 494.8 54.74 = +e = + :</p> <p>..II .ID 3 D 3 54.74 164.22 = = = : II c D D 0.0905 1632 147.6 = o = : . D p D 0.01 1632 16.32 = = = : v1 ..I.. I p .IS D 550.5310S D ( k ) D 494.8 (0.002 0) 54.74= = e+ + + + :v2 v2 v1 ..II v1.. v1 .. II p .II ..S S S D S 164.2210 98S S S D ( k ) D S 147.6 (0.002 0) 16.32= = = e+ + + + (1) : II , , I . ( 1) 3 II . , ,-I. , II,I. ()- . , ., - . : 1. -1000 ( )-I II .2. II . 2. . 1. III. , II, . 2.I II . , ., I II . 3. ,, , 2- . 4. ,,, , .3. . 1-2-. 1-2- . :1) .2) 1-2-.3) . 3. : </p> <p> . 5 : . 1 2 3 4 . : 1. , ,.. . , 1.5/; 2. , , . 0.5/ . , , w= 1.0 / . (). : R 2 d = : R - , ;d - , . : d0.051 0.19R = + . ~ 90 . R 2 d = , : 10.051 0.19 0.1462 = + = . . 1 = . 0.5 = . 1- [7] 0.5 = : 2d1.74 2 log2| || | = + | | | o\ .\ .</p> <p>: o - . o 0.1, . . o =0.0001. : 2 L wp ( )d 2A = + : -,3 ; L- ,;=6.3,t 278.5 C = 3752.4 = 1 : .11DD2= =27.37 / : 114 Dd 0.215 w=t Dy250 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 1d = 241. 11214 D w 0.797d= t 10.5 = (); 21.5 = ( ); 1 1r 2 d 0.482 = = : 1 11 1 2r rL 3.514 2 2t t= + + + = : 211d1.74 2 log 0.0162| || | = + | | o\ .\ . 1 : 21 11 1 1L wp ( ) 449.65 d 2A = + + + 2 : 2 .1D D 54.74 = = : 224 Dd 0.304 w=t Dy300 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 2d = 287. 22224 D w 1.125d= = t 2 2r 2 d 0.574 = = . 14 1dr 0.603 2= + = . 3r 12 =. :3 22 3 4 3r rL 20.354 2 2t t= + + + = + : 222d1.74 2 log 0.0152| || | = + | | o\ .\ . . : 213d0.051 0.19 0.056r = + 2 : 22 22 2 1 23L wp ( )d 225.56 1329.82 A = + + + + + 3 : 3 .1D 2 D 109.48 = = : 334 Dd 0.43 w=t Dy500 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 3d = 474 . 33234 D w 0.825d= t : 33 4rL 19.452 2t= + = : 233d1.74 2 log 0.0142| || | = + | | o\ .\ . :323d0.051 0.19 0.059r = + 3 : 23 33 3 2 3L wp ( ) 416.417 d 2A = + + 4 : 4 .1D 3 D 164.22 = = : 444 Dd 0.527 w=t Dy600 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 4d = 580 . 44244 D w 0.826d= t 4 4r 2 d 1.16 = = : 3 44r rL 20.672 2 2t t= + = : 244d1.74 2 log 0.0132| || | = + | | o\ .\ . :433d0.051 0.19 0.06r = + 4 : 24 44 4 3 4L wp ( ) 174.808 d 2A = + + . , . - ., , . [2] : 1 =1.4- ; 2 =0.5- ; 3 =1.0- . ..w 7.5 = : ( )24.. ..II 1 2 3w 6.13710 2 A = + + : 1 2 3 4 II 3p p p p p p 25.56 63738.32 A = A + A + A + A + A = + H A :I 1 1 1 3 2 3H h r r r 5.038 , A = + + + + + = +g H p A = A : . 3=3.6 , ,H A = 8.6. : 21, , . - , ,,, . 4. : 1- 2- </p> <p> 1 2 3 4 . 11 : . 13 . 22 30 = . : 1p 449.65 A = 2p 1329.82 A =</p> <p>3p 416.417 A = 4 : : 4D 164.22 = 4d = 580 . 4w 0.826= 53 = . 4r 1.16 = :3 4 44 5r r rL 25.494 2 2 2t t t= + + + = : 40.013 = :30.06 = 4 : 24 44 4 3 4L wp ( ) 240.721d 2A = + + + : 41 2 3 4 IIp p p p p p 6.38 10 A = A + A + A + A + A = I IIP P 63.8 . II 1( r 1557);D Q r 146; = = = , - r . : . . 5. : . </p> <p> . 14 : . 1 2 3 4 . ,. , ,. , , ( ,). ,. , . . , ps : s gH = , . .. : 4.13V10 (n )C= H : n , /; V , 3/; , ; = 800-1000; , ( ) , = 1500-1700; ; (, ) . - : .1 = H H , ; A = 1,11,3. , : .I3..II3 DDV 0.218 = = = 800, n = 1000 /, =1.2 : .1. g A = H</p> <p> g =9,81/2 - .4. 4.31910 A = </p> <p> 1-4 : 1p 449.65 A = 2 3p 25.56 1329.82 A = + 3p 416.417 A = 4p 174.808 A = ( ) 1 2 3 4 3 25.56 2370.694 A = A + A + A + A = + , 3 : .g H p p A&gt; A +A 3 3g (5.038 ) 25.56 2370.694 + &gt; + 3 , 3&gt; 1.15. 3 = 1.2 . , H A= 6.2 5 : </p> <p> () . w 2 = . : 5 ..IID D 164.22 = =, : 554 Dd 0.373w=t Dy400 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[3] 5d =378. , /: 55254 Dw 1.945 d= t 5 5 6 5r 2 d 0.756 r 5.444 = = = AH = : 55 6rL 6.67 2t= + = : 255d1.74 2 log 0.0152| || | = + | | o\ .\ . 5 : 25 55 5 5L wp ( ) 1284.405 d 2A = + + 5 II g H 108.6 = A + A + A , (0,85 q= ): VN 28 =q , , 5-29,5 . : . ..3, ,, 1- . () . </p> <p> . 6. . 1- "", . ,1- (), ,"", . , "" , . -., , , . 7. . -1000 : - ; - ; - ; - (); - (); - ; - ; - . , .. - . 1- ."" 1- , . "" ,. . 1-, . , (). , 14x1.2081810.U-, . . . , , . - . , . , . , . , . , . , . - . , 0.8 . 8. . t-Q . : </p> <p> :D=494.8 ; : ..D 550.53 = : 2 2 sp 6.3 ; t t 278.5 C''= = = : 2t 220 C' = : 1 1 1p 15.7 ; t 320 C; t 289 C' ''= = = : 1 1 1 Q G (h h ) Q Q = q = +(2.1) : Q - , ;</p> <p>1G - , /; </p> <p>1h- , ; </p> <p>1h - , ; q - ; Q -, , ; Q - , , ; : .. 2 2Q D (h h ) = :..D - , /; 2h - , /; 2h - ( ), /. Q D r = : D- , /; r - , /. [12] :r(p = 6.3) =1550.84 / ; 2h (t = 278.5, p =6.3) = 1230.34 / ;h2BX(t = 220, = 6.3) = 944.758 /. , .. 2 2Q D (h h ) 550.53 (1230.34 944.758) 157.2 = = Q D r 494.8 1550.84 767.4 = = </p> <p> Q Q Q 157.2 767.4 924.6 = + = + = 0.999 q = ; [12] : 1h (t320 ,15.7) 1452.5 = = =; 1h (t289 ,15.7) 1278.83 = = = :( )311 1 Q 924.6 10G 5329 / (h h ) 1452.5 1278.83 0.999= = q , , . . . 9. . : 081810. : d 14 = . : 1 2 3 4 d 2 [ ] o = + + + + o +</p> <p>: o - , ; - , /2</p> <p> 2 1 0.91.25 17.7 1.80 = ; d - , . d 14 = ; - , . 1 =;</p> <p>[ ] o - , /2. [ ] o ( ) ..t . .. 1 st 0.5 (t t ) 0.5 (320 278.5) 299.25 C'= + = + = . t=299.25 C 081810 2[ ] 13.6 o = ;</p> <p>1- , . 1 0.11 ( ) 0.096 = o ;</p> <p>2 - , . 2 0 =</p> <p>3- , . 3 0 = 4 - , . 4 (14.6) [1]. 12% [1], o= 1.2( ) . :4 = 0.232. : 1.8 140.096 0 0 0.232 1.198 2 1 13.6 1.8o = + +++ + 0818101.2. o = 1.2. : d d 2 14 2 1.2 11.6 = o = = . : 2 22.d 11.6f 105.64 4t t= = . : C14x1.2. . . 11.5 [1] 35/.3 13.5w 4.55.5| | |= | |\ ., 3 . : 11 1 21164Gn 16461 .w f13468| | |= = | |\ . : 1 - . [12] =15.7 1t 320 C' = 13681.2 = . 10. . : F : cpQFk t= A Q -;k-; cpt A - . . t A t A , ( ): 1 2st t t 320 278.5 41.5 C'A = = = 1 2st t t 289 278.5 10.5 C''A = = = t A / t A = 41.5/10.5= 3.95 t A /t A &gt;1.7, : cpt t 41.5 10.5t 22.58 C41.5t2.3 log2.3 log10.5tA A A = = | | | | A | |\ . A\ .</p> <p> . k : 1 2 1 1 2 2 1kd d d1 d 1lnd 2 d d=| | o o + + + + |o o\ .</p> <p>: 1o -, /(2.);2o - (),/(2.); - (),/(.K); 1o ,2o - , ; 1 ,2 - ,/(.K); d -, , d d = . :1 2 1 1 2 21k1 d d d 1lnd 2 d=| | o o + + + + |o o\ . . ( ) . 0.8 0.4311 t0.021 Re Pr c cdo = : 1 -, / (.); Re- ; Pr - ; tc - , ;c -, . 1 11w dRe = : 1w - ; </p> <p>1- . [12] 180.543 . =; 1 - . [12] 31681.2 = [12] : 1 =0.519 / (.). 1 p1 1Pr c = p1c - . [12] p1c 6.129( ) = 6Pr 80.543 10 6129 0.519 0.951= [1] tc c 1 = = , : 441242.467 103.017 10 3.542 10| | | |o = | | \ . . 1 2 . 1 2d dln2 d| | o o + + | \ . [2], 251 21 2 2 10o o + = 2s 1 2st t 0.3 (t t ) 290.95 C'~ + .18.9K =. 251 2 . 1 2d d ln 8.965 102 d | | o o + + | \ . ( ) . 0.72 2s10.45q3.3 0.0113 (t 100)o = </p> <p>: 2st - , ; q - , /2 ( ) cpq k t = A k - , / (2.). C root Mathcad : 5867k 62436522| | |= | |\ . /( 2.K); 44243.136 103.276 103.378 10| | | |o = | | \ . /( 2.K). . ( ) . 0.8 0.4311 t0.021 Re Pr c cdo = 1 11w dRe = : 1w - 111 3.185G w 4.095n f 5.005| | |= | |\ . [12] 192.951. =; 31748.4 =; 1 =0.579 / (.) ; ( )p1c 5.219 = 1 p1 1Pr c 0.838 = [1] tc c 1 = = , : 441242.323 102.841 10 3.336 10| | | |o = | | \ . . 1 2 . 1 2d dln2 d| | o o + + | \ . 2s 1 2st t 0.3 (t t ) 281.65 C''~ + .18.8K =. 251 2 . 1 2d d ln 9.002 102 d | | o o + + | \ . ( ) . 0.72 2s10.45q3.3 0.0113 (t 100)o = </p> <p> cpq k t = A C root Mathcad : 5749k 61336420| | |= | |\ . /( 2.K); 44243.092 103.235 103.340 10| | | |o = | | \ . /( 2.K). k k 1.25 </p>