Diplom Bachelor

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-1000. : - - - - ...............................................................................................5 ..7 1. .7 2. ..19 .20 3. : 20 4. : .29 5. : ...32 ..38 6. ..................................................................................38 7. ........................................................................38 8. t-Q .......................................................................40 9. ...............................................................42 10. .......................................................................................44 11. ........................................................................49 12. ............................................................................63 13. ...........................................................................67 14. ........................................................69 15. ...71 .76 77 : ...............................................................78 ( -440, -1000) ,(). , ., ? ,, . , -1000 , (), . ,, . ., -1000, , . . .. . - (),. ,,.,-,, ., . , , . . . 11.5[1] 35/. . 1. . . .1,.2,.3 -, ,1- . . 1 : -1000 ( 1) . 2 : , ( 2) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 . 3 : , ( 3) . , 13 2 . , , . . 3 , 2 , , 1.C 1-1000 -1000, (. 1). , :01D =408/;0h =2781.18 / (0 =6.3 ; t0 = ts); ..h =944.758/(t..=220); 1G 4322 = /; 11h =1452.5/; 12h =1278.83/(1p =15,7; 11t =320, 12t= 289 ). 1 2 3 4 , p= Dnp1/D01, .1 01D D e= Q1. :- ( ) ..1 01 .1 .1 01D D D D (1 p ) D = + + = + +e (1) - 1 1 11 12 ..1 0 .. 01Q G (h h ) D (h h ) D r = q = + (2) -

..1 .. 01 p . .1 D S D ( k ) S D S = e+ + (3) ..1D ; 0h =1230.34/-0;r=1550.84 /; ..S ,.S ,S (- ),( ),/; pk 0 ( ). , .S =S , (3)

.. pS S (1 )( k ) = +e+ e+ + (4) ..S S 84.3 p0.002, k 0 e= = = 0.01 . , (.1) (1)(3),4, , 1. (4) . C 2 1 2 , , . , , 2 1 , ..p = Dnp. /D0 = 0.01 =const ( p0.002, k 0 e= = ). 2: ( , p0.002, k 0 e= = ; = 0.01) .. 0..1D (1 ) DD3 3+ + e = = = 550.53 /. I I 1 ..1 0 ..D [Q D (h h )] r = = 382.65 /, ..25.35/ 1 - . I .I ..I ID D (1 ) D = +e = 167.1 /., 1, 4.08 /. ..II ..I p .IDS S 3.28D ( k ) D= e+ +, 84.3. 2: ,, , II 1D Q r == 484.05 /, ... , (1632 /). : .II .I IID 3 D D (1 ) = +e= 16.32 /. II ..IIII III p .IIDS S 29D ( k ) D= e+ + .. ..II II I IS S (S S ) (S S ) 95 = 21 , : 26. II, . C 3 II ( . 3 , - ). I II . 3: IIo , II II ..II ..D D o= IIo =0,0...0,25. IIo = 0 3 2, . IIo =0,25 3 , 1. IIo > 0,25 4 13, ..II .,, . I 3 IIo [ , (1)(3)]: - III 1 .. 0 ..1D [Q D (h h )] r3 o= (6) -

II.I .. I1D D (1 ) D3o= +e (7) - I cy ..IpIII ..1S S3 (1 k )D11 D= o(8) II : - II 1 II .. 0 ..D [Q D (h h )] r = o (9) - .II .D D = (10) - I cy I.. p I..II ..p II .IISD 3 (k ) DSS S(k ) D D + e =+ e + (11) I , (6)(8), . 4. . 4: IIo - , :) ;) ;e- . II(9) II IID ( ) o , IIo = 0,0...0,25IID 484 408 /.0 e= (11) IIo ,. ...IIS S =101.0.002 e= IIo ..IIS S IIo = 0,0...0,25..IIS S 95 84.3 /. ,3, IIo . , I p I .. II p II ..K 3 D (k ) S S D (k ) S S min = +e + +e =(12) IIo pk( ) e ( ) ..S ., 0 (12) IIo=0,125. . : I .. II ..K 3 S S S S min = + =(13) , IIK ( ) o I IIS ( ) o IIo= 0. ,.. . . , . ,, III. IIo , , . IIo ,- . IIo=0,2, 110 /., I II . , ,(12)(13). -1000, II IID . . .[11] () co , : 22 c c c cc c c cp (1 k ) (k k ) p (1 k )2 p 0p (1 k ) (1 p) k (k k ) p (1 k ) (1 p) k (k k ) + o + o = + + + +

:co - ( ), c II D / D o = DII - ,/; D- , /. , . p D / D = .D - , /. k - , k k = e +

e -;k - .

ck - , c c ck k = e +

ce - ;

ck - . k k = , co :2c c2 p p 0 o + o =. =0.01 co= 0.0905. :0.002 e= ( e- ) pk 0 = (k - ) : D 1632 = : .. D D (1 ) 1632(1 0.01 0.002) 1651.6 = + + e = + + :....ID 1651.6D 550.53 3 3= = : c I(1 ) D (1 0.0905) 1632D 494.8 3 3o = = : .I ..I ID D (1 ) D 550.53 (1 0.002) 494.8 54.74 = +e = + :

..II .ID 3 D 3 54.74 164.22 = = = : II c D D 0.0905 1632 147.6 = o = : . D p D 0.01 1632 16.32 = = = : v1 ..I.. I p .IS D 550.5310S D ( k ) D 494.8 (0.002 0) 54.74= = e+ + + + :v2 v2 v1 ..II v1.. v1 .. II p .II ..S S S D S 164.2210 98S S S D ( k ) D S 147.6 (0.002 0) 16.32= = = e+ + + + (1) : II , , I . ( 1) 3 II . , ,-I. , II,I. ()- . , ., - . : 1. -1000 ( )-I II .2. II . 2. . 1. III. , II, . 2.I II . , ., I II . 3. ,, , 2- . 4. ,,, , .3. . 1-2-. 1-2- . :1) .2) 1-2-.3) . 3. :

. 5 : . 1 2 3 4 . : 1. , ,.. . , 1.5/; 2. , , . 0.5/ . , , w= 1.0 / . (). : R 2 d = : R - , ;d - , . : d0.051 0.19R = + . ~ 90 . R 2 d = , : 10.051 0.19 0.1462 = + = . . 1 = . 0.5 = . 1- [7] 0.5 = : 2d1.74 2 log2| || | = + | | | o\ .\ .

: o - . o 0.1, . . o =0.0001. : 2 L wp ( )d 2A = + : -,3 ; L- ,;=6.3,t 278.5 C = 3752.4 = 1 : .11DD2= =27.37 / : 114 Dd 0.215 w=t Dy250 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 1d = 241. 11214 D w 0.797d= t 10.5 = (); 21.5 = ( ); 1 1r 2 d 0.482 = = : 1 11 1 2r rL 3.514 2 2t t= + + + = : 211d1.74 2 log 0.0162| || | = + | | o\ .\ . 1 : 21 11 1 1L wp ( ) 449.65 d 2A = + + + 2 : 2 .1D D 54.74 = = : 224 Dd 0.304 w=t Dy300 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 2d = 287. 22224 D w 1.125d= = t 2 2r 2 d 0.574 = = . 14 1dr 0.603 2= + = . 3r 12 =. :3 22 3 4 3r rL 20.354 2 2t t= + + + = + : 222d1.74 2 log 0.0152| || | = + | | o\ .\ . . : 213d0.051 0.19 0.056r = + 2 : 22 22 2 1 23L wp ( )d 225.56 1329.82 A = + + + + + 3 : 3 .1D 2 D 109.48 = = : 334 Dd 0.43 w=t Dy500 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 3d = 474 . 33234 D w 0.825d= t : 33 4rL 19.452 2t= + = : 233d1.74 2 log 0.0142| || | = + | | o\ .\ . :323d0.051 0.19 0.059r = + 3 : 23 33 3 2 3L wp ( ) 416.417 d 2A = + + 4 : 4 .1D 3 D 164.22 = = : 444 Dd 0.527 w=t Dy600 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[2] 4d = 580 . 44244 D w 0.826d= t 4 4r 2 d 1.16 = = : 3 44r rL 20.672 2 2t t= + = : 244d1.74 2 log 0.0132| || | = + | | o\ .\ . :433d0.051 0.19 0.06r = + 4 : 24 44 4 3 4L wp ( ) 174.808 d 2A = + + . , . - ., , . [2] : 1 =1.4- ; 2 =0.5- ; 3 =1.0- . ..w 7.5 = : ( )24.. ..II 1 2 3w 6.13710 2 A = + + : 1 2 3 4 II 3p p p p p p 25.56 63738.32 A = A + A + A + A + A = + H A :I 1 1 1 3 2 3H h r r r 5.038 , A = + + + + + = +g H p A = A : . 3=3.6 , ,H A = 8.6. : 21, , . - , ,,, . 4. : 1- 2-

1 2 3 4 . 11 : . 13 . 22 30 = . : 1p 449.65 A = 2p 1329.82 A =

3p 416.417 A = 4 : : 4D 164.22 = 4d = 580 . 4w 0.826= 53 = . 4r 1.16 = :3 4 44 5r r rL 25.494 2 2 2t t t= + + + = : 40.013 = :30.06 = 4 : 24 44 4 3 4L wp ( ) 240.721d 2A = + + + : 41 2 3 4 IIp p p p p p 6.38 10 A = A + A + A + A + A = I IIP P 63.8 . II 1( r 1557);D Q r 146; = = = , - r . : . . 5. : .

. 14 : . 1 2 3 4 . ,. , ,. , , ( ,). ,. , . . , ps : s gH = , . .. : 4.13V10 (n )C= H : n , /; V , 3/; , ; = 800-1000; , ( ) , = 1500-1700; ; (, ) . - : .1 = H H , ; A = 1,11,3. , : .I3..II3 DDV 0.218 = = = 800, n = 1000 /, =1.2 : .1. g A = H

g =9,81/2 - .4. 4.31910 A =

1-4 : 1p 449.65 A = 2 3p 25.56 1329.82 A = + 3p 416.417 A = 4p 174.808 A = ( ) 1 2 3 4 3 25.56 2370.694 A = A + A + A + A = + , 3 : .g H p p A> A +A 3 3g (5.038 ) 25.56 2370.694 + > + 3 , 3> 1.15. 3 = 1.2 . , H A= 6.2 5 :

() . w 2 = . : 5 ..IID D 164.22 = =, : 554 Dd 0.373w=t Dy400 12 29020(-14-3-460-75)[3] 5d =378. , /: 55254 Dw 1.945 d= t 5 5 6 5r 2 d 0.756 r 5.444 = = = AH = : 55 6rL 6.67 2t= + = : 255d1.74 2 log 0.0152| || | = + | | o\ .\ . 5 : 25 55 5 5L wp ( ) 1284.405 d 2A = + + 5 II g H 108.6 = A + A + A , (0,85 q= ): VN 28 =q , , 5-29,5 . : . ..3, ,, 1- . () .

. 6. . 1- "", . ,1- (), ,"", . , "" , . -., , , . 7. . -1000 : - ; - ; - ; - (); - (); - ; - ; - . , .. - . 1- ."" 1- , . "" ,. . 1-, . , (). , 14x1.2081810.U-, . . . , , . - . , . , . , . , . , . , . - . , 0.8 . 8. . t-Q . :

:D=494.8 ; : ..D 550.53 = : 2 2 sp 6.3 ; t t 278.5 C''= = = : 2t 220 C' = : 1 1 1p 15.7 ; t 320 C; t 289 C' ''= = = : 1 1 1 Q G (h h ) Q Q = q = +(2.1) : Q - , ;

1G - , /;

1h- , ;

1h - , ; q - ; Q -, , ; Q - , , ; : .. 2 2Q D (h h ) = :..D - , /; 2h - , /; 2h - ( ), /. Q D r = : D- , /; r - , /. [12] :r(p = 6.3) =1550.84 / ; 2h (t = 278.5, p =6.3) = 1230.34 / ;h2BX(t = 220, = 6.3) = 944.758 /.