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<p>Ex. no: 1 Date:</p>
<p>VERIFICATION OF KVL</p>
<p>AND KCL</p>
<p>AIMTo Verify Kirchhoffs voltage and current laws for a given circuit.</p>
<p>APPARATUS REQUIRED</p>
<p>S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6</p>
<p>Description Regulated Power Supply Resistor Ammeter Voltmeter Bread Board Connecting wires</p>
<p>Type Variable Carbon Moving Coil Moving Coil</p>
<p>Range (0-30)V 560 (0-30)mA (0-10)mV</p>
<p>Quantity 1 3 3 3 1</p>
<p>THEORY: OHMS LawIn electrical circuits, Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them The mathematical equation that describes this relationship</p>
<p>Where V is the potential difference measured across the resistance in units of volts; I is the current through the resistance in units of amperes and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.</p>
<p>Kirchhoffs Current lawAt any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node.</p>
<p>The current entering any junction is equal to the current leaving that junction. i1 + i4 = i2 + i3</p>
<p>Kirchhoffs Voltage LawThe directed sum of the electrical potential differences a round any closed circuit must be zero The sum of all the voltages around the loop is equal to zero. v1 + v2 + v3 + v4 = 0</p>
<p>PROCEDURE Ohms Law1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram 2. Using the RPS, Source voltage is set 3. Connect the ammeter in series with the resistors and measure the deflection of current. Measure the value of I1,I2,I3</p>
<p>4. Compare the measured value of current to the theoretical value. The Ohms law is verified by v = IR. The combined resistance measured from terminals A and B is given by Rab =r1+r2. Resistors in parallel is measured across terminals A and B is given by I/Rab = I/R1+I/R2. Equivalently Rab = R1.R2/(R1+R2) 5. The above procedure is repeated by varying source voltage in steps at 5V to 30V</p>
<p>KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram 2. Using the regulated power Supply, Source voltage is set to 5V 3. Deflections are shown in all the three ammeters 4. Observe the readings of ammeter in each branch 5. The kirchoffs current law is verified by I total = I1+I2 6. The above procedure is repeated by varying source voltage in steps at 5v to 30V</p>
<p>Kirchoffs Voltage Law1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram 2. Using the regulated power Supply, Source voltage is set to 5V 3. Readings shown in all the three voltmeters are tabulated 4. Kirchhoffs Voltage law is verified by V= V1+v2 5. Measure the voltage across the each branch and tabulate the reading 6. The above procedure is repeated by varying source voltage in steps at 5V to 30V</p>
<p>RESULT:Thus KVL and KCL are verified theoretically and practically</p>
<p>CIRCUIT DIAGRAM KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW(0-1 0)mA (0-1 0)mA</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>560 ohm R 1 s</p>
<p>+ 5 60 o hms R 3</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>560 ohm R 2 s</p>
<p>(0-30)V 1 +</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>I2</p>
<p>KIRCHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>V</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>V</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>5 0o m R1 6 hs</p>
<p>5 0o m R2 6 hs</p>
<p>(0 0 1 -3 )V</p>
<p>TABULATION KCL</p>
<p>S.No</p>
<p>Input Itotal voltage V mA</p>
<p>I1 mA</p>
<p>I2 mA</p>
<p>I1+I2 mA</p>
<p>Theoretical I1 value mA mA</p>
<p>(0-10 0V</p>
<p>(0-10 )V</p>
<p>(0-10 )V</p>
<p>V</p>
<p>5 0o m R3 6 hs</p>
<p>I2 mA</p>
<p>I1+I2 mA</p>
<p>KVL</p>
<p>S.No</p>
<p>Input V1 voltage V V</p>
<p>V2 V</p>
<p>V3 V</p>
<p>V1+V2+V3 Theoretical V1 value V V V</p>
<p>V2 V</p>
<p>V3 V</p>
<p>V V</p>
<p>Ex.no:2 VERIFICATION OF THEVENIN AND NORTON THEOREMSDATE:</p>
<p>AIM</p>
<p>To Verify Thevenin theorem and Norton theorem practically for given circuit</p>
<p>APPARATUS REQUIRED</p>
<p>S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8</p>
<p>Description Regulated Power Supply Resistor Ammeter Voltmeter Decade resistance box Bread Board Connecting wires Multimeter</p>
<p>Type Variable Carbon Moving Coil Moving Coil</p>
<p>Range (0-30)V 560,680,1k (0-10)mA (0-30)mV</p>
<p>Quantity 1 1,2,1 1 1 1 1</p>
<p>THEORY THEVENIN'S THEOREMAny combination of batteries and resistances with two terminals can be replaced by a single voltage source e and a single series resistor r. The value of e is the open circuit voltage at the terminals, and the value of r is e divided by the current with the terminals short circuited.</p>
<p>Thvenin's theorem states that at a pair of terminals a network composed of lumped, linear circuit elements may, for purposes of analysis of external circuit or terminal behavior, be replaced by a voltage source V(s) in series with a single impedance Z(s).</p>
<p>Norton's TheoremAny collection of batteries and resistances with two terminals is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source i in parallel with a single resistor r. The value of r is the same as that in the Thevenin equivalent and the current i can be found by dividing the open circuit voltage by r.</p>
<p>Norton's theorem for linear electrical networks, states that any collection of voltage sources, current sources, and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source, I, in parallel with a single resistor, R.</p>
<p>PROCEDURE</p>
<p>1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram 2. Vary RPS and set input voltage of 1V 3. Note down voltmeter and ammeter reading 4. Switch off supply and make the connection 5. Measure Rth. Rth= Thevenin and Norton resistance 6. Set an input voltage 10V in RPS and note down voltmeter reading</p>
<p>7. Switch off supply and make connection 4 8. Set an input voltage 10V in RPS and note down voltmeter reading 9. Draw the Thevenin equivalent circuit and Norton equivalent circuit 10. Calculate the IL value using the formula 11. IL = Vth/(Rth+Rl) 12. Il = In*Rn/(Rn+Rl)</p>
<p>RESULTThus Thevenin and Nortons theorem are verified practically and theoretically Theoretical Value = -----------Practical Value =_______</p>
<p>TO MEASURE IL</p>
<p>680 ohms R 1 560 ohms R 2</p>
<p>(0-30)V 1</p>
<p>V</p>
<p>(0-30)V</p>
<p>680 ohms R 3</p>
<p>+ (0-10)mA</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>TO MEASURE VTH680 ohms R 1 560 ohms R 2</p>
<p>(0-30)V 1</p>
<p>V</p>
<p>680 ohms R 3</p>
<p>+ (0-30)V</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>V</p>
<p>(0-30)V</p>
<p>TO MEASURE RTH</p>
<p>R4 1k</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>680 ohms R 1</p>
<p>560 ohms R 2</p>
<p>680 ohms R 3</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>Multimeter 1</p>
<p>680 ohms R 1</p>
<p>560 ohms R 2</p>
<p>680 ohms R 3</p>
<p>(0-30)V 1</p>
<p>(0-10)mA +</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>THEVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT</p>
<p>900 ohm R 1 s th</p>
<p>5V 1</p>
<p>NORTON EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>TABULAR COLUMN TO MEASURE IL</p>
<p>V1(V) IL(Ma)</p>
<p>900 ohms R 1</p>
<p>1K RL 1</p>
<p>2.5mA +</p>
<p>1K RL 1</p>
<p>TO MEASURE Rth TO MEASURE Vth or Voc TO MEASURE IN or Isc</p>
<p>V1(V) IL(Ma)</p>
<p>V1(V) IL(Ma)</p>
<p>Ex.no:3DATE:</p>
<p>VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM</p>
<p>AIM:To Verify Superposition theorem for a given circuit</p>
<p>APPARATUS REQUIRED:</p>
<p>S.No. 1 2 3 4 5</p>
<p>Description Regulated Power Supply Resistor Ammeter Bread Board Multimeter</p>
<p>Type Variable Carbon Moving Coil</p>
<p>Range (0-30)V 1k,2.2k (0-50)mA</p>
<p>Quantity 2 2,2 1 1</p>
<p>THEORY:Theorem is designed to simplify networks containing two or more sources. It states that in a network containing more than one source, the current at any one point is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents produced by each source acting separately. The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that the response (Voltage or Current) in any branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone, while all other independent sources are replaced by their internal impedances.</p>
<p>To ascertain the contribution of each individual source, all of the other sources first must be "turned off" (set to zero) by: 1. Replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short circuit (thereby eliminating difference of potential. i.e. V=0, internal impedance of ideal voltage source is ZERO (short circuit)). 2. Replacing all other independent current sources with an open circuit (thereby eliminating current. i.e. I=0, internal impedance of ideal current source is infinite (open circuit). This procedure is followed for each source in turn, then the resultant responses are added to determine the true operation of the circuit. The resultant circuit operation is the superposition of the various voltage and current sources.</p>
<p>PROCEDURE:1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram 2. The ammeter readings are noted down which are I1 &I2 3. Figure 1 shows a circuit with two sources V1 and V2 4. Take the reading current I through load R 5. Now switch off V2 and Short circuit the 2 Terminals 6. Measure the current I, through the load R. 7. Insert V2 and switch off V1, by short circuit the 2 terminals and again measure the current and verify I=I+I</p>
<p>RESULT:</p>
<p>Thus the superposition theorem is verified practically and theoretically.</p>
<p>CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Step 1</p>
<p>R1 1k</p>
<p>R2 1k</p>
<p>(0-30)V 1 AM 1 +</p>
<p>R3 2.2k</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>Step II</p>
<p>R1 1 k R3 2.2k</p>
<p>R1 2 k R4 2.2k</p>
<p>(0 0 1 -3 )V A 1 M +</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>Step IIIR1 1k R2 1k</p>
<p>R4 2.2k (0-30)V 2</p>
<p>+ (0-30)mA</p>
<p>R3 2.2k</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>R4 2.2k (0-30)V 2</p>
<p>TABULAR COLUMN</p>
<p>Vs1(V) Vs2(V) IL(mA)</p>
<p>Vs1 active and Vs2 short circuit (II) Vs1(V) IL(mA)</p>
<p>Vs2 active and Vs1 short circuit (III) Vs1(V) IL(mA)</p>
<p>Total current(mA)</p>
<p>IL from TAB(mA)</p>
<p>Values Theoretical</p>
<p>I1(mA )</p>
<p>I2(mA )</p>
<p>I(mA)</p>
<p>Practical</p>
<p>Ex. no: 4 DATE:</p>
<p>VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM</p>
<p>AIM:To Verify Maximum power transfer theorem for a given circuit</p>
<p>APPARATUS REQUIRED:</p>
<p>S.No. 1 2 3 4</p>
<p>Description Type Regulated Power Variable Supply Resistor Ammeter Bread Board Carbon Moving Coil</p>
<p>Range (0-30)V 1k,2.2k (0-50)mA</p>
<p>Quantity 2 2,2 1 1</p>
<p>THEORY:Maximum power transfer states, the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load resistance when that load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network supplying the power. If the load resistance is lower or higher than the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the source network, its dissipated power will be less than maximum. The theorem was originally misunderstood (notably by Joule) to imply that a system consisting of an electric motor driven by a battery could not be more than 50% efficient since, when the impedances were matched, the power lost as heat in the battery would always be equal to the power delivered to the motor. In 1880 this assumption was shown to be false by either Edison or his colleague Francis Robbins Upton, who realized that maximum efficiency was not the same as maximum</p>
<p>power transfer. To achieve maximum efficiency, the resistance of the source (whether a battery or a dynamo) could be made close to zero. Using this new understanding, they obtained an efficiency of about 90%, and proved that the electric motor was a practical alternative to the heat engine.</p>
<p>PROCEDURE:1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram 2. Switch on the power supply RPS 1 and set voltage v 3. By increasing the load resistance RL corresponding load current value is noted 4. Note the power values from the noted load current 5. Plot RL Versus Power 6. From the graph RL, corresponding to maximum power transmitted is noted 7. Maximum power transmitted is calculated 8. Thevenin equivalent resistance is calculated using circuit 9. This value Rth is compared with RL observed from the graph 10. The graph is shown drawn between RL in X-axis and power transmitted in y axis</p>
<p>RESULT:Thus the maximum power transfer theorem is verified theoretically and practically</p>
<p>CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM(0-100)mA +</p>
<p>330 ohms R 1</p>
<p>560 ohms R 2</p>
<p>ARL/DRB</p>
<p>(0-30)V 1</p>
<p>470 ohms R 3</p>
<p>753 ohms R 4</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:</p>
<p>330 ohms R 1</p>
<p>560 ohms R 2</p>
<p>TABULATION</p>
<p>47 0 o hms R 3</p>
<p>V=</p>
<p>S.No.</p>
<p>RL ()</p>
<p>IL(mA)</p>
<p>I^2*RL(w)</p>
<p>RL/DRB</p>
<p>(0-30)V 1</p>
<p>(0-1 00 )mA</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>Rth()</p>
<p>Pmax (theoretical) (mW)</p>
<p>RL()</p>
<p>PmaX(prac)=I^2*RL(w)</p>
<p>Ex. no: 5 DATE:AIM</p>
<p>VERIFICATION OF RECIPROCITY THEOREM</p>
<p>To Verify Reciprocity theorem for a given circuit APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No. 1 2 3 4 Description Regulated Power Supply Resistor Ammeter Bread Board Type Variable Carbon Moving Coil Range (0-30)V 1k,2.2k (0-100)mA Quantity 1 3,3 1 1</p>
<p>THEORY The reciprocity theorem states that if an voltage in one branch of a reciprocal network produces a current I in another, then if the voltage is moved from the first to the second branch, it</p>
<p>will cause the same current in the first branch, where the emf has been replaced by a short circuit. It is sometimes phrased as the statement that voltages and currents at different points in the network can be interchanged. More technically, it follows that the mutual impedance of a first circuit due to a second is the same as the mutual impedance of the second circuit due to the first. PROCEDURE 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram 2. Switch on the power supply RPS 1 and set voltage v, and measure the current which is connected with 2.2k 3. The ammeter & RPS position is interchanged 4. Then the voltage sis changed using RPS and ammeter reading is noted 5. It is found that the current through the branch is same as the previous value 6. Thus the theorem is proved</p>
<p>RESULT:</p>
<p>Thus the Reciprocity theorem is verified theoretically and practically CIRCUIT DIAGRAM</p>
<p>Circuit I</p>
<p>1K R 1</p>
<p>1K R 3</p>
<p>1K R 5</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>0-30mA 0-30 V 1 2.2K R 2 2.2K R 4 2.2K R 61K R 5 0-30 V 1 2.2K R 4 2.2K R 2 0-30mA 2.2K R 6</p>
<p>Circuit II</p>
<p>1K R 1</p>
<p>1K R 3</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>TABULATION</p>
<p>S.No. Voltage(V )</p>
<p>Iout(mA) R= V/Iout(k)</p>
<p>S.No. Voltage(V )</p>
<p>Iout(mA) R= V/Iout(k)</p>
<p>Ex. no: 6 PARALLEL DATE:</p>
<p>FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF SERIES ANDRESONANCE CIRCUITS</p>
<p>AIM To study the frequency response of a series and parallel RLC circuit</p>
<p>APPARATUS REQUIRED Values S.No. 1 2 3 4 Description Type Function Theoretical Generator Decade Practical resistance Box Decade inductance Box Decade I1(mA ) I2(mA) Range (0-100k) (0-100)H (0-1000)F Quantity 1 1 1 1</p>
<p>5 6 7</p>
<p>Capacitor Box Ammeter Bread Board Connecting wires</p>
<p>Moving Coil</p>
<p>(0-50)mA</p>
<p>1 1</p>
<p>THEORY: A circuit is said to be resonance when the applied voltage and source current are in phase. Thus at resonance the power factor of the circuit is unity and the circuit acts as a purely resistive. SERIES RESONANCE: At resonance the power factor is being unity Z= R.The reactive part of the complex impedance must be zero. (i.e. XL- XC =0). XL= XC L = 1/ c , = 1/(LC) 1/2 PARALLEL RESONANCE: At resonance the reactive part is zero, 1/ XC -1/XL= 0. 0C-1/ 0L =0. 2f0 =1/ (LC) f0=1/2 (LC) </p>
<p>PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. The required values of resistance, inductance and capacitance are set in DRB,DIB ,DCB. Vary the frequency in the function generator in regular interval. As frequency is increased, the current is noted in mA. The graph shown between frequency and current is drawn. Resonance frequency is noted from the graph.</p>
<p>RESULT Frequency response of series and parallel resonance circuit is studied and the value of Fo is found to be --------Hz</p>
<p>CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:</p>
<p>R1 1kOhm</p>
<p>L1 1mH</p>
<p>C1 1uF</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>10v</p>
<p>+</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>0-25mA</p>
<p>MODEL GRAPH:</p>
<p>T 1</p>
<p>load cur...</p>

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