effect of sulfur on yeast metabolism

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: 11/06/2015 :

1. 1.1

, . SO2 , 5% .

:

SO2 + H2O H2SO3 H+ + HSO3-HSO3- H+ + SO32- , pH .

. . pH , pKa1 pKa2, 1,8 6,9 . pH 0 2 2 7 pH 7 9. HSO3-. 1.1 SO2 pH. pH.

.

pH SO2 (mg/L)% SO2

2.84.649.28

3.03.036.06

3.21.963.91

3.41.252.51

3.60.801.60

3.80.511.01

4.00,320,64

4.20,200,41

1.1 pH SO2, 50 mg/L .

, , , , . , , - (Rankine and Pocock 1969), . , 50-200 mg/L .

, , .

. , ( 1974). , SO2 . , SO2 SO2 Lineweaver-Burk. , SO2 ( 50C ) pH ( pH SO2. SO2 , ( Stratford & Rose 1986). SO2 . . , . , pH . . -. pH . pH . , pH 5.5-6.5, ( Imai and Ohno 1995), HSO3- SO32-. SO2, SO2 . , , SO2 , (Stratford & Rose 1986) ( 1974; Pilkington and Rose 1986). , , , HSO3- - , , , HSO3- (Park and Bakalinsky 2004). , Sul1p Sul2p . , ATP, pH. SO2, SO2 0.003. , :

.

.

.

.

, pH, .

1.2 . , , pH HSO3- . , . , S. cerevisiae. , , , , . ( Baldwin 1951).

, , . , , , . (Ventre 1934). , , . (Schimz 1980). , . , , . SO2, (Anacleto and van Uden 1982):

a) , SO2, .b)

c) ATP , ATP. ( Freese et al. 1973; Schimz and Holzer 1979; Schimz 1980; Prakash et al. 1986). , , . , . - , . .

1.1.1 , (CSH) (CSSC) ( ). .

, , .

, , (EC 1), , . , NAD + / NADP+ ( EC 1.1.1), (EC 1.1.2), (EC 1.1.3), (EC 1.1.5) (EC 1.1.99). , Zn, , , NAD+ . To , NADH2. , NADH2 NAD+. , . , . NAD(P)+. SO2 3- 2 ATP , ATP. Maier (1986), , , ATP 70%. , , ATP NAD+ , . (Stratford and Rose, 1986, Divol et al., 2012). , , (, -), , , .

, :

CH3CHO + SO2 + H2O CH3CHO-HSO3- + + , NADH2 , 3P- . , NADH2, , 3P- (DHAP) . . , . 7-10% . , NAD ,FAD, FMN, (Carnack et al. 1950).

ATP . ATP. (12) . , , ALD6, . , MET16, PAPS, ( Aranda et al. 2006). , , / C/G ( Mukai et al. 1970; Pagano and Zeiger 1987; Pagano et al. 1990; Meng and Zhang 1992).

. . , . . pH.

1.3 . , (Richmond, 1973). , , . -2 +6. , , +6. ( Huxtable, 1986; Kelly, 1988). , , S2- , .

. S. cerevisiae, 0,2-0,9% (Maw, 1963,1965). , 0,14% (Phaff, 1971). , (Hartnell and Spedding, 1979). H , - (Karlson, 1988). S. cerevisiae, : 0,13-0,27 % , 0,15-0,28% 0,05-0,10% (Maw, 1965). , 20% , 40% 90% . , , -CoA, , . Saccharomyces spp., 29-90 g/g . S. cerevisiae 16,9 g/g . S. cerevisiae Candida utilis, S-, 0,5 2,5 moles/g . Saccharomyces spp., 0,5-4,5 g/g . (Maw, 1965)

, , . S35 , 1,3% 3.0% . Maw (1965), , , 60% , 5% . , , , , . 1.4 , . . , , , . (Maw, 1960; Hysert and Morisson, 1976; Breton and Surdin-Kerjan, 1977). , ( Cartwright et al., 1989). O McCready Din (1974), S. cerevisiae SulP . Kotyk (1959), Maw(1963) Roomans (1979), , Michaellis-Menden. m Vmax, pH, . , Breton Surdin-Kerjan (1977), , S. cerevisiae, , Lineweaver-Burk, . , 5- (APS), . , . Maw (1963), , , , , . , , . H . , L- , L-, L- DL-, . , , . , , . . , 2,4- , . ( , 1963; McCready & Din, 1974; Cooper,1982).

Saccharomyces spp., . , . . S. cerevisiae (Catwright et al., 1989). , . Saccharomyces, , Candida utilis, S. cerevisiae ( Suomalainen and Oura, 1971). , Saccharomyces. , , , . , 2-, , DL- . , . , S--L-, , (Maw, 1965). 1.5

, . , , ( aw, 1965). 10 mg/L , S. cerevisiae. , . Candida utilis, . Saccharomyces, , . , . , 100g/L , 1 g/L. , 50-500 g/L (Maw 1965). C18 , DNA-RNA, . . , . 1.6 .

, , . .

, . . S. Cerevisiae .1.7 , S2- (De Robichon-Szulmajster and Surdin-Kerjan, 1971, Jones and Fink, 1982). 1.7.1. Gibbs, S2- 800 kJ/mol (Huxtable, 1986), .

[1], APS. , Sul1p/Sul2p, . o 5- (ATP) 5- (APS) [2]. ATP. , P. , Km , , PS. (Slaughter, 1989). APS 3- 5- (PAPS) [3] APS (Robbins and Lipmann, 1958). H PAPS , (Baumgarten, 1981. Bidan and Collon 1988). PAPS 3,5- (PAP), PAPS NADPH + H+ [4] (Peck and Lissolo, 1988). , (Asahi et al., 1961; Wilson et al., 1961; Wilson and Bierer, 1976). in vitro , , PAPS, . , , . C, , . ( Wilson et al, 1961; Maw 1965; Lawrence and Cole, 1968). , (SO32-), (Hilz et al., 1959; Hilz and Kittler, 1960), C. , C, NADPH. , , , C NADPH ( 1.7.2). , PAPS, . (Lawrence and Cole, 1968; Baumgarten, 1981; Bidan and Collon, 1988). C, , +6 +4. +6 +5 , , +4 . PAPS, - PAPS. ( Baumgarten, 1981; Peck and Lissolo, 1988).

1.7.1 [ 1. ( ); 2. ATP ( EC* 2.7.7.4); 3. APS (EC 2.7.1.25); 4. PAPS 5. ;

6. (E.C. 1.8.1.2); 7. (E.C. 2.3.1.30); 8. (E.C. 4.2.99.8); 8b. - (E.C. 4.2.99.10); 9. - (E.C. 4.2.1.22); 10. (E.C. 4.4.1.1); 11. (E.C. 2.3.1.31); 12. (E.C. 4.2.99.10); 13. - (E.C. 4.2.99.9); 14. EC (4.4.1.8); 15. EC (2.1.2.1); 16. 5,10--(EC1.1.99.15);

17. ( EC 2.1.1.14); 18. SAM ( ) ( EC 2.5.1.6); 19. SAM; 20. ( EC 3.3.1.1)].

1.7.2 3- 5- (PAPS). fraction C, .

PAPS in vitro, C, - PAPS ( Wilson et al., 1961; De Robichon-Szulmajster and Surdin-Kerjan, 1982; Bidan and Collon, 1988). [5] ( Dott and Truper, 1978 c; Stratoford and Rose, 1986). , PAPS, , , -, . (Tori and Bandurski, 1967).

S2- [6]. Yoshimoto Sato, (1968 1970), , , , NADPH . , , FMN, FAD, 587 nm, , . Prabhakararao Nicholas (1969, 1970), , . , , , sirohaem. -, , . To NADPH sirohaem (Lehninger, 1977; Karison, 1988). sirohaem [4Fe-4S].(Peck and Lissolo, 1988). Cooper (1983) Slaughter (1989), , , NADPH, , . . S. cerevisiae, . - (Umbarger, 1978).

1.7.4 PAPS, . 1. - ; 2. ; 3. (E.C. 1.6.4.5); 4. ( EC 1.8.1.2) , ( 1.7.4), PAPS, - PAPS ( S-SO3-), , NADPH (-S-S-). , , - - (Jones and Fink 1982; 1.7.1). , , . ADP-, , APS , ADP . . 3- , PAPS APS in vitro .( Bidan and Collon, 2009). 1.8 ( 1.7.1).

(Jones and Fink, 1982; Ono et al., 1988). , [7] -. ( 8a + b), , (Tsang and Schiff, 1976). -. , (Jones and Fink, 1982), , . [12] (Yamagata and Takeshima, 1976; Yamagata, 1989). , - [9]. , - [10]. Schlossmann Lynen (1975), , . Dott Truper (1978), , . , S. cerevisiae (Yamagata 1989). , - [11] (Nalki and Yamagata, 1973). - .