Filosofia Social E Politicas Públicas

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Filosofia Social E Politicas Pblicas

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  • Filosofia social & polticas pblicas

  • Comit Cientfico da Srie Filosofia e Interdisciplinaridade:

    1. Agnaldo Cuoco Portugal, UNB, Brasil

    2. Alexandre Franco S, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal

    3. Christian Iber, Alemanha

    4. Claudio Goncalves de Almeida, PUCRS, Brasil

    5. Danilo Marcondes Souza Filho, PUCRJ, Brasil

    6. Danilo Vaz C. R. M. Costa (UNICAP)

    7. Delamar Jos Volpato Dutra, UFSC, Brasil

    8. Draiton Gonzaga de Souza, PUCRS, Brasil

    9. Eduardo Luft, PUCRS, Brasil

    10. Ernildo Jacob Stein, PUCRS, Brasil

    11. Felipe de Matos Muller, PUCRS, Brasil

    12. Jean-Fraois Kervgan, Universit Paris I, Frana

    13. Joo F. Hobuss, UFPEL, Brasil

    14. Jos Pinheiro Pertille, UFRGS, Brasil

    15. Karl Heinz Efken, UNICAP/PE, Brasil

    16. Konrad Utz, UFC, Brasil

    17. Lauro Valentim Stoll Nardi, UFRGS, Brasil

    18. Michael Quante, Westflische Wilhelms-Universitt, Alemanha

    19. Migule Giusti, PUC Lima, Peru

    20. Norman Roland Madarasz, PUCRS, Brasil

    21. Nythamar H. F. de Oliveira Jr., PUCRS, Brasil

    22. Reynner Franco, Universidade de Salamanca, Espanha

    23. Ricardo Timm De Souza, PUCRS, Brasil

    24. Robert Brandom, University of Pittsburgh, EUA

    25. Roberto Hofmeister Pich, PUCRS, Brasil

    26. Tarclio Ciotta, UNIOESTE, Brasil

    27. Thadeu Weber, PUCRS, Brasil

  • Agemir Bavaresco Andr Salata

    Leno Francisco Danner (Organizadores)

    Filosofia social & polticas pblicas

    Porto Alegre

    2014

    Srie Filosofia &

    Interdisciplinaridade

    15

  • Direo editorial: Agemir Bavaresco

    Diagramao e capa: Lucas Fontella Margoni

    Fotografia de capa:

    Todos os livros publicados pela

    Editora Fi esto sob os diretos da

    Creative Commons 3.0

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/br/

    Srie Filosofia e Interdisciplinaridade - 15

    Dados Internacionais de Catalogao na Publicao (CIP)

    BAVARESCO, Agemir; SALATA, Andr; DANNER, Leno

    Francisco (Orgs.)

    Filosofia social e polticas pblicas [recurso eletrnico] / Agemir

    Bavaresco; Andr Salata; Leno Francisco Danner (Orgs.) -- Porto

    Alegre, RS: Editora Fi, 2014.

    365 p.

    ISBN - 978-85-66923-39-1

    Disponvel em: http://www.editorafi.org

    1. Filosofia. 2. Cincias Sociais. 3. Sociologia.

    4. Polticas pblicas. 5. tica. I. Ttulo. II. Srie.

    CDD-301

    ndices para catlogo sistemtico:

    1. Filosofia e Sociologia 301

  • Apresentao obra Filosofia social & polticas pblicas uma coletnea

    organizada com o objetivo de refletir-se sobre a relao entre teoria e prtica poltica no horizonte da dinmica terico-poltica contempornea. Ela mantm uma ntima imbricao, portanto, entre teoria e prtica, na medida em que percebe a inevitvel vinculao com a Realpolitik como a riqueza e o desafio das prprias teorias filosfico-sociolgicas. Filosofia social & polticas pblicas foi guiada no apenas com a convico dessa relao fecunda, mas tentando o movimento recproco de teorizao da prtica poltica cotidiana e de politizao das prprias abordagens ao nvel das teorias. O resultado disso so reflexes muito instigantes sobre diferentes campos de abordagem da Realpolitik, marcadas pela tentativa de se compreender filosfico-sociologicamente a dinmica do presente de nossas sociedades democrticas atuais.

    Ora, mas qual o ponto nodal ou pelo menos um ou outro aspecto dele que poderia ser pensado nesta relao entre filosofia social e polticas pblicas? Certamente este ponto nodal da referida relao diz respeito ao fato de que os autores que contribuem com este volume percebem, em primeiro lugar, a centralidade da poltica e das lutas polticas no que tange definio dos processos de socializao e de subjetivao, organizao das instituies pblicas e hegemonia de foras polticas e de projetos que se vinculam mais ou menos ao tipo de sociedade democrtica, inclusiva e igualitria que

  • efetivamente se almeja no dia-a-dia da vida cotidiana. Ou seja, por meio da poltica e da afirmao de lutas polticas emancipatria e somente desse modo que se pode enfrentar os desafios socioculturais e o conservadorismo ainda reinantes em nossas sociedades democrticas, mormente nas sociedades latino-americanas atuais, oferecendo-lhes respectivamente solues democrticas e foras terico-polticas alternativas. Isso j nos d uma primeira ideia de porque a poltica e as lutas polticas so absolutamente centrais para a efetivao da democracia em todos os mbitos da sociedade.

    Em segundo lugar, o ponto nodal da relao entre filosofia social e polticas pblicas, em tendo-se afirmado a centralidade da poltica e das lutas polticas para a definio da prpria constituio democrtica da sociedade, poderia ser situado no fato de que as instituies pblicas e as polticas de incluso social tm um papel basilar em termos de integrao social, de incluso cultural e de efetivao da participao poltica de todos, mormente dos menos favorecidos. Com efeito, acreditamos que so as instituies pblicas e as polticas sociais que frenam um processo de marginalizao e de pauperizao social cada vez mais acentuado no apenas em uma situao de crise socioeconmica como a que vivemos hoje, com decrscimo da economia produtivo-industrial e desemprego estrutural, mas tambm de endeusamento neoliberal do livre-mercado como a alternativa por excelncia e, por outro lado, da falncia desse mesmo livre-mercado calcado na meritocracia em garantir incluso e justia social. Contra a retrica neoliberal hoje rediviva sob a forma de polticas de austeridade como forma de resolver-se a crise socioeconmica corrente, insistimos na centralidade das instituies pblicas e das polticas de incluso social enquanto base de qualquer projeto democrtico emancipatrio, integrador e justo.

  • Assim, e esse poderia ser o terceiro ponto desse aspecto nodal da relao entre filosofia social e polticas pblicas, acima comentado, salientaramos a importncia de se conjugar fundamentaes normativas com anlises sociolgicas do presente, enquanto dando o tom das anlises em filosofia social. Na Teoria Crtica da Escola de Frankfurt, em que esse ramo da filosofia social desenvolvido, era exatamente o trabalho correlato de fundamentao normativa das prxis social e a realizao de anlises empricas da Realpolitik que permitia uma dupla consequncia, a saber, evitar-se um puro empirismo e garantir-se a crtica social por meio da formulao de uma concepo objetiva de normatividade social. Ou seja, por um lado, sem a fundamentao normativa fornecida pela filosofia (ou, no caso, pela teoria crtica da sociedade), as investigaes empricas reduzir-se-iam a puro positivismo destitudo de crtica; por outro lado, sem as contribuies empricas, sociolgicas, a filosofia manteria um negativo vis idealista, no sentido de estar alijada da Realpolitik de que ela emerge, sendo incapaz, aqui, de compreend-la e de transform-la. No primeiro caso, a sociologia perderia a capacidade de identificar problemas e sujeitos sociais portadores de interesses emancipatrios, transformando-se em tcnica (tecnocracia); no segundo caso, a filosofia perderia seu objeto de anlise, sendo incapaz de um juzo crtico sobre ele. Ora, ao relacionar polticas pblicas e filosofia social, o presente trabalho tenta fazer jus a essa relao interdisciplinar entre filosofia e sociologia, possibilitadora da crtica social e afirmadora do horizonte poltico-cultural como o cerne de qualquer projeto emancipatrio de justia social.

    Agemir Bavaresco Andr Salata

    Leno Francisco Danner

    Porto Alegre, 28/10/2014

  • Sumrio

    Parte I Questes normativas sobre justia social

    Basic income and social justice: why philosophers disagree

    Philippe Van Parijs 15

    Justicia distributiva y reconocimiento: una expansin de la propuesta de Honneth

    Gustavo Pereira 51

    Entre limitation de capacit et dfaut dindpendance. Ecueils de la notion dautonomie pour la thorie de la justice

    Emmanuel Picavet 89

    Situando el reconocimiento recproco: bases para una idea de autonoma de reconocimiento recproco espacio-temporal capaz de orientar las tareas de la Filosofa social, y el diseo de polticas pblicas

    Martn Fleitas Gonzlez 111

    Como medir o desenvolvimento humano, a pobreza e a desigualdade?

    Lincoln Frias e Thiago Gambi 139

  • Parte II

    Filosofia social & polticas pblicas: questes a partir do Brasil e do Uruguai

    Polticas de quase-mercado e o Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida: mecanismos de reproduo das desigualdades

    Thmis Amorim Arago Msc. 155

    A retomada da remoo como forma de interveno estatal sobre as favelas no Rio de Janeiro

    Alexandre Magalhes 192

    Autorreflexin y educacin emocional para el desarrollo humano. Una intervencin en dos polticas pblicas en Uruguay focalizadas en la familia.

    Helena Modzelewski, Deborah Techera, Jacqueline Fernndez 218

    Representao poltica moderna e brasileira

    Agemir Bavaresco, Tiago Porto, Giovane M. Vaz dos Santos 235

    A nova cultura democrtica brasileira: ou para alm da modernizao conservadora um ensaio

    Leno Francisco Danner 266

    Renda Bsica de Cidadania no Brasil: uma poltica de reconhecimento?

    Gustavo Cunha 309

    The Universal Basic Income: Why Utopian Thinking Matters, and How Sociologists Can Contribute to It

    Philippe Van Parijs 347

  • Filosofia social & polticas pblicas

  • Parte I

    Questes normativas sobre justia social

  • 15

    Basic income and social justice: why philosophers disagree

    Basic income and social justice:

    why philosophers disagree1

    Philippe Van Parijs

    From Milner to Barry The basic income movement has long had, in this country, a special relationship with the Quaker movement, and thereby with the Rowntree Foundation. It is therefore a special pleasure and privilege to be given this opportunity to talk about basic income in the context of a Rowntree lecture.

    The very first public debate about the idea of a universal basic income, or at least the very first to be documented and remembered, took place in England shortly after the end of the first world war. What was then

    1 Earlier versions parts of this lecture were presented at the seminar Ethics, Economics and the Market (Michael Sandel, Amartya Sen & Philippe Van Parijs, Harvard University, Department of Philosophy, Spring 2008), at the Annual congress of the US Basic Income Guarantee Network (Boston, March 9, 2008), at the conference New approaches to distributive justice (Washington University in St Louis, May 13, 2008), at Yale Law Schools Legal Theory Workshop (September 18, 2008) and at the 25th annual meeting of the September Group (New York, September 19, 2008). Special thanks to Frank Lovett, John Roemer, Michael Sandel, Tim Scanlon and Amartya Sen for useful feedback. The final sections also appear as part of my contribution to The Anatomy of Justice. Themes from the Political Philosophy of Hillel Steiner (I. Carter, S. de Wijze & M. Kramer eds., London: Routledge, 2009).

  • 16

    Philippe Van Parijs

    called state bonus corresponds precisely to what is now called basic income, i.e. an income unconditionally paid

    to every member of society, without means test or work requirement. Its main protagonists were two Quakers called Dennis Milner and Bertram Pickard, who founded a state bonus league in 1919. Milner published several pamphlets

    and a book entitled Higher Production by a Bonus on National Output (Allen & Unwin, 1920), which offers a large set of arguments many of which sound strikingly relevant today. The state bonus proposal was debated and rejected at the 1920 Labour conference. In 1923, Milner left for the USA, where he seems to have vanished from recorded memory. As to Bertram Pickard, he left for Geneva, where he became the neighbour and friend of the future Nobel laureate James Meade, himself a fervent advocate of basic income for several decades and one of the mentors of Tony Atkinson, whose work has greatly contributed to the rigour of contemporary thinking about basic income and whom I have the honour of having as my discussant today.

    However, I would like to dedicate todays lecture to another major British contributor to the basic income discussion, one of my own mentors, who died in London two days ago. When I first arrived in Oxford in October 1974, I was assigned to a youngish lecturer and fellow of Nuffield College called Brian Barry. He supervised me for only one term, as he then left for North America first the University of British Columbia first, the University of Chicago , but I saw him later on many occasions, including several that had a direct connection to basic income. Thus, in 1989, Brian Barry came to Louvain-la-Neuve for a conference on the ethical foundations of basic income. His assignment was to comment on John Bakers egalitarian case for basic income and his conclusion at the time was unequivocally expressed in the title of his chapter in the collective volume that came out of the conference: Equality yes, basic income no (Barry 1992).

  • 17

    Basic income and social justice: why philosophers disagree

    A couple of years later, however, someone forwarded to me the text of a fiery plea for basic income which he delivered to a largely neo-liberal audience at the University of Kiel, in Germany (Barry 1994). From then on, he proved to have become a very consistent, articulate and exceptionally vigorous advocate of basic income (1996a, 1996b, 1997, 2000). In 2006, in his characteristically despondent style, he even concluded his last seminar at Columbia University by stating that only two important things happened in political philosophy in the course of his career: the publication of Rawlss Theory of Justice and the debate on basic income.2

    Brian Barry was not exactly an easy person nor a charitable critic. Some of his book reviews will be remembered as among the least forgiving in the history of political philosophy. But he was also an incredibly sharp thinker who alerted the philosophical profession to many emerging big and difficult issues, such as intergenerational justice or global justice, long before they became commonplace. Moreover, as forcefully expressed in his last book (Barry 2005), he was one of those philosophers who believe that their job does not reduce to exegetical quibbles and analytical hair splitting, but that they have a role to play in making our world more just. Brian was a great political philosopher, an invaluable allied on several fronts, someone for whom I have had, ever since I first met him as a shy student freshly arrived from the continent, great admiration and great affection. I want to dedicate this lecture to his memory.

    Disappointment in a Paris taxi

    What I have to tell you today, after this twofold preamble, is the continuation of a conversation I had in

    2 So I am told by my colleague Dan Wikler, who happened to attend it.

  • 18

    Philippe Van Parijs

    Paris in November 1987 with two other giants of contemporary political philosophy. In addition to the driver and me, there were three people stuck in a taxi that was taking us through a cold and rainy evening to the closing party of a conference we had been attending: two American gentlemen and our French host. With the...