FINN - Bus Based Transit - Session A - 14th November : Toni Lindau BRT Station - Istanbul Source: EMBARQ BRT Station - Pereira Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank BRT Station – Rio de Janeiro BRT Station – Rio de Janeiro BRT Station – Rio de Janeiro BRT Station

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<ul><li><p>BUSBASED TRANSIT</p><p>INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH BRT AND BHLS</p><p>B FBRENDAN FINN</p><p>ETTS LTD.</p><p>All unattributed images are by the Author</p></li><li><p>Mass Transit based on Buses</p></li><li><p>Scope of this Presentation</p><p> Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)</p><p> Bus with High Level of Service (BHLS)</p><p>M i f BRT d BHLSMetrics for BRT and BHLS</p><p> International findings</p></li><li><p>Spectrum of Bus-Based Transit</p><p> High performance, high capacity BRTg p , g p y Major infastructure, rapid service, intensive services</p><p> Up to 1 million passengers/day</p><p>Bogota Guangzhou Istanbul Bogota, Guangzhou, Istanbul, </p><p> High-performance, moderate capacity BRT Major infastructure, rapid service, strong service</p><p> Range 100-250,000 passengers/day</p><p> Brisbane, Ottowa, Beijing, Mexico City, </p><p> Bus with High Level of Service (BHLS) Bus with High Level of Service (BHLS) Moderate/little infrastructure, focus on reliability and quality</p><p> Range 25,000-65,000 passengers/day</p><p> Amsterdam, Gothenburg, Stockholm, Paris, Madrid, Hamburg, </p></li><li><p>BRT Bus Rapid Transit</p><p>FEATURES</p><p>EXAMPLES AND PRACTICE</p></li><li><p>Features of BRT</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p><p>VehiclesVehicles</p><p>Running WaysRunning Ways</p><p>Stations &amp; TerminalsStations &amp; Terminals</p><p>SystemsSystems</p><p>Service PlanService Plan</p></li><li><p>Features of BRT Running Ways</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p><p>VehiclesVehicles</p><p>Running WaysRunning Ways</p><p>Stations &amp; TerminalsStations &amp; Terminals</p><p>SystemsSystems</p><p>Service PlanService Plan</p></li><li><p>Running Way options</p><p> Dedicated bus road Exclusive road for use of buses</p><p> Operate at up to 100 kph (Adelaide, Brisbane)</p><p> Median dedicated lanes centre of the road Usually have physical segregation</p><p> Passing lane required for high efficiency Passing lane required for high efficiency</p><p> If stations in the centre, probably need dedicated fleet</p><p> If lateral stations, can offset to reduce road-take requirements</p><p> Lateral dedicated lanes located at edge of the road May have problem to gain sufficient pavement width</p><p> More difficult if many existing roadside uses</p></li><li><p>Running way - Istanbul</p><p>Source: EMBARQ</p></li><li><p>Running Way Beijing, China</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>Running Way Guanghzhou, China</p><p>Source : Paul Barter</p></li><li><p>Running way Seoul, Korea</p></li><li><p>BRT Running way Rio de Janeiro</p></li><li><p>BRT Running Way Lagos</p><p>Source : Dayo Mobereola, LAMATA</p><p>MSOffice3</p></li><li><p>Slide 14</p><p>MSOffice3 Future tense , 21/09/2010</p></li><li><p>BRT Running Way - Jakarta</p><p>Source : Transjakarta</p><p>MSOffice2</p></li><li><p>Slide 15</p><p>MSOffice2 Future tense , 21/09/2010</p></li><li><p>BRT Running way - Pereira</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>BRT running way - Pereira</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>BRT Running Way - Nantes</p></li><li><p>BRT running way - Paris</p></li><li><p>Essen : Busway track</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>BRT running way - Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Pittsburgh East Busway constructionb g y o o</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : Busway</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>BRT Tunnel section - Brisbane</p></li><li><p>Features of BRT Stations and Terminals</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p><p>VehiclesVehicles</p><p>Running WaysRunning Ways</p><p>Stations &amp; TerminalsStations &amp; Terminals</p><p>SystemsSystems</p><p>Service PlanService Plan</p></li><li><p>BRT Bus Station - Bogota</p><p>Source : Peter Danielsson, Volvo Bus Corporation</p></li><li><p>BRT Station - Johannesburg</p></li><li><p>BRT Station, Sao Paulo</p><p>Source : Toni Lindau</p></li><li><p>BRT Station - Istanbul</p><p>Source: EMBARQ</p></li><li><p>BRT Station - Pereira</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>BRT Station Rio de Janeiro</p></li><li><p>BRT Station Rio de Janeiro</p></li><li><p>BRT Station Rio de Janeiro</p></li><li><p>BRT Station Rio de Janeiro</p></li><li><p>Busway Station - Pittsburgh</p></li><li><p>BRT Station - Brisbane</p></li><li><p>Passenger lift at BRT station - Brisbane</p></li><li><p>Precision docking Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Precision docking - Nantes</p></li><li><p>Wheelchair ramp - Nantes</p></li><li><p>Wheelchair ramp - Cleveland</p></li><li><p>Rouen, France optical guidance system</p></li><li><p>Castellon, Spain Optical Guidance system</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : ParknRide</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Features of BRT Service Plan</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p><p>VehiclesVehicles</p><p>Running WaysRunning Ways</p><p>Stations &amp; TerminalsStations &amp; Terminals</p><p>SystemsSystems</p><p>Service PlanService Plan</p></li><li><p>Service Plan Mixed service type</p><p> Base: AllBase: All--day, allday, all--stops trunk line stops trunk line l kl k l lll ll d id i</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p><p> Overlay: PeakOverlay: Peak--only or allonly or all--day express servicesday express services</p><p>onononononononfer</p><p> na</p><p>l</p><p>on</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Tran</p><p>sTe</p><p>rmi</p><p>Stat</p><p>io</p><p>Local</p><p>Express CBD</p><p>Express</p><p>D</p><p>University,University,</p><p>46</p><p>University,University,HospitalHospitalDistrictDistrict</p></li><li><p>BRT and land-use in Curitiba</p><p>Source : URBS, Curitiba</p></li><li><p>BRT Network - Curitiba</p><p>Source : URBS Curitiba</p></li><li><p>Service differentiation - Curitiba</p><p>Source : URBS Curitiba</p></li><li><p>Ahmedabad 85 km of BRT network</p></li><li><p>115 CORRIDORS OF BUSWAY 5 CORRIDORS OF BUSWAY -- JAKARTA 201JAKARTA 20155</p><p>95 10</p><p>3 15</p><p>41</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>16</p><p>1 Blok M - KotaGajah Mada/Hayam Wuruk Majapahit M. Merdeka Barat Mh. Thamrin Jend. Sudirman - Sisingamangaraja</p><p>2 P.Gadung HarmoniPahlawan Kemerdekaan Suprapto Senen Juanda -Harmini CB Merdeka Barat Kwitang </p><p>3 Kalideres - HarmoniDaan Mogot Kyai Tapa Hasyim Asyhari Harmoni CB Juanda Pasar Baru</p><p>4 P.Gadung Dukuh AtasPemuda Pramuka - Tambak Sultan Agung Setia Budi</p><p>12</p><p>14</p><p>AB</p><p>11</p><p>g g</p><p>5 Kp.Melayu - AncolJatinegara Matraman Raya Kramat Raya Senen Gunung Sahari </p><p>6 Ragunan KuninganWarung Jati Mampang Prapatan Rasuna Said Latuharhari Sultan Agung Rasuna Said</p><p>7 Kp.Melayu Kp.RambutanOtista Cawang Sutoyo Raya Bogor</p><p>8 Lebak Bulus HarmoniPondok Indah S. Iskandar Muda T.Nyak Arief Jalan Panjang Daan Mogot S.Parman Tomang Harmoni CB</p><p>Pi ti Pl it</p><p>7</p><p>8</p><p>13</p><p>6</p><p>9 Pinangranti - PluitSutoyo Haryono Gatot Subroto S.Parman Jembatan 2 Latumenten</p><p>10 Cililitan - Tanjung PriokSutoyo DI. Panjaitan A. Yani</p><p>11 Ciledug - Blok MHos Cokroaminoto Cileduk Raya Kya Maja</p><p>12 Kalimalang - Blok MKalimalang Let Haryono Kapten Tendean W. Minginsidi</p><p>13 Depok - ManggaraiDepok ManggaraiMargonda Lenteng Agung PS. Minggu Prof. DR Supomo Minangkabau</p><p>14 Pulo Gebang Kp.MelayuSentra Prima Soekanto Soegiono Basuki Rachmat Pedati </p><p>15Tanjung Priok - PluitTg. Priok - Kemayoran - Pluit</p></li><li><p>Nantes Busway and Chronobus network</p></li><li><p>Features of BRT</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p><p>VehiclesVehicles</p><p>Running WaysRunning Ways</p><p>Stations &amp; TerminalsStations &amp; Terminals</p><p>SystemsSystems</p><p>Service PlanService Plan</p></li><li><p>Articulated buses Bogota and Curitiba</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>Hamburg: XXL bus</p><p>Source : Hamburger Hochbahn AG</p></li><li><p>BRT vehicle - Pereira</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>BRT Vehicle - Nantes</p></li><li><p>BRT Vehicle Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Standard Bus Brisbane</p></li><li><p>Features of BRT</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p><p>VehiclesVehicles</p><p>Running WaysRunning Ways</p><p>Stations &amp; TerminalsStations &amp; Terminals</p><p>SystemsSystems</p><p>Service PlanService Plan</p></li><li><p>ITS systems for BRT</p><p> Operations Managementp g Automatic Vehicle Location and Management</p><p> Traffic Signal Priority</p><p>S i d S l i d Service and System planning and support</p><p> Collision avoidance/warning</p><p> Precision docking Precision docking</p><p> Customer-facing and support services Automatic fare collection</p><p> Real-time passenger information</p><p> Journey planning</p><p>S it d t t Security and passenger management systems</p></li><li><p>Control Centre Bogota, Columbia</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>Control Centre Rio de Janeiro</p></li><li><p>Zurich AVM Control Centre </p></li><li><p>Control Centre - Johannesburg</p></li><li><p>In-vehicle headway management - Seoul</p></li><li><p>Real-time passenger information - Brisbane</p></li><li><p>Fare collection at BRT Stations</p><p>Smart Card Fare GatesSmart Card Fare GatesTransMillenio, Bogota</p><p>Mag TicketMag. TicketQuito: TroleBus</p><p>Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>Image and Marketing - Brisbane</p><p>Brisbane: S.E. BuswayBrisbane: S.E. Busway</p><p>69 Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank</p></li><li><p>BRT Branding Rio de Janeiro</p></li><li><p>BRT Branding Johannesburg</p></li><li><p>BHLS Bus with High Level of BHLS Bus with High Level of Service</p><p>C A P A C I T Y A N D C O S TC A P A C I T Y A N D C O S T</p><p>F E A T U R E S</p><p>E X A M P L E S</p></li><li><p>What is BHLS?</p><p> BHLS? Derives from French term BHNS, maybe later another name</p><p> Generic term for a wide range of quality bus systems</p><p> Is it BRT? Not exactly, a different product in the spectrum of bus priority</p><p> Focus more on reliability/quality than on speed/capacity Focus more on reliability/quality than on speed/capacity</p><p> Holistic approach Improved operating environment reliability, better speed Improved operating environment reliability, better speed</p><p> Higher quality vehicles with better comfort and image</p><p> Improved passenger facilities stops, terminals, ...</p><p> Branding, marketing, repositioning the product</p></li><li><p>Case Study 1 : Nantes, France</p><p> Opted for Busway rather than additional LRT Started 2006, 7km, 15 stations</p><p> Designed to tram-style specification Designed to tram style specification</p><p> 4 min frequency, 20 km/hr</p><p> 25,000 px.day</p><p>Key design features: Key design features: 4 parknride facilities</p><p> Articulated buses, CNG</p><p> Priority at traffic signals</p><p> High quality design in city centre</p><p> High-specification vehicle High specification vehicle</p><p> Like BRT in style, not in volume</p></li><li><p>Case Study 2 : Zuidtangent, Netherlands</p><p> Priority channel for busesy Dedicated lanes between Haarlem </p><p>and Schiphol, then bus priority</p><p> 24 km 1 8 km in tunnel 35 km/hr 24 km, 1.8 km in tunnel, 35 km/hr</p><p> Intervals 6-8 minutes, 24/7</p><p> 40,000 passengers dailyp g y</p><p> Use normal buses, normal contracts</p><p> Additional features: Integration with rail at many places</p><p> Efficient stop dwell times</p><p> Euro 5 emissions standard models Euro 5 emissions, standard models</p><p> Unique design elements, identity</p></li><li><p>Zuidtangent at Schiphol Airport</p><p>Source : Stadsregio Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Running way - Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Running way - Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Running way - Amsterdam</p><p>Source : Stadsregio Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Amsterdam: Hard shoulder reserved for bus</p><p>Source : COST TU0603 action</p></li><li><p>In-street operation Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Station - Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Precision docking Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Cyclist controlled crossing Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Bicycle facilities - Amsterdam</p><p> BikenRide</p><p>i bik ki Extensive bike parking</p><p> Amsterdam, Almere</p><p>Bik b i Bike on bus is rare</p><p>O. HEDDEBAUT</p></li><li><p>Case Study 2 : Cambridge, UK</p><p> Cambridgeshire Guided Busway Operates on dedicated bus road</p><p> Converted disused rail line</p><p> Links developing towns to city Links developing towns to city</p><p> Deregulated environment</p><p> Operators bear revenue risk</p><p>M d t t k h i t f d Modest track charge, maint. fund</p><p> Key features Two track guided buswayg y</p><p> Normal street mode in Cambridge</p><p> 4 routes by 2 operators</p><p> Driving speed 80 kph Driving speed 80 kph</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : Busway</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : Busway</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : Running way</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : ParknRide</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : Vehicle</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : Guide wheel for Busway</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Cambridge : Guide wheel and kerb</p><p>Guide Kerb</p><p>Guide wheel</p><p>Source : Cambridgeshire County Council</p></li><li><p>Customer comfort - Cambridge</p><p> WiFi on bus WiFi on bus</p><p> Socket for PC, phone</p><p> Leather seats Leather seats</p><p> CCTV for securityO. HEDDEBAUT</p><p>O. HEDDEBAUTO. HEDDEBAUT</p></li><li><p>Case Study 3 : Lund, Sweden</p><p> Lundalnken Prioritised bus link from Central Station to </p><p>University, Business Park</p><p> Total 6 km length Total 6 km length</p><p> 600 m new build, some dedicated road</p><p> Priority to normal buses Services of City and Region</p><p> Regular bus routes, regular buses</p><p>i h b i ill f Give the bus space, it will perform</p><p> Provision for the future Lundalnken extended to outer area Lundalnken extended to outer area</p><p> City owns the land, will benefit</p></li><li><p>Lund access to dedicated bus link</p></li><li><p>Lund dedicated bus link</p></li><li><p>Lund key interchange stop</p></li><li><p>Lund - Vehicle</p></li><li><p>Lund train information at bus exit</p></li><li><p>Madrid : Bus/VAO tidal lane</p></li><li><p>Hamburg: Line 5 in reserved lane</p><p>Source : Hamburger Hochbahn AG</p></li><li><p>Lorient running way in city centre</p></li><li><p>Lorient priority lane in central area</p></li><li><p>Almere : Chicane at station approach</p></li><li><p>Oberhausen: Bus and tram on common lane</p></li><li><p>BHLS - Real-time information at stops</p><p>O. HEDDEBAUT</p><p>O. HEDDEBAUT</p></li><li><p>BHLS - Real-time information in-vehicle</p><p> Next stop</p><p>f i Transfer routes, times</p><p> Announcements</p><p>O. HEDDEBAUT</p><p>O. HEDDEBAUT</p></li><li><p>Hamburg RTPI at bus stop</p><p>Source : COST TU0603 action</p></li><li><p>Amstelveen, NL RTPI at bus station</p><p>Source : David van der Spek, Stadsregio Amsterdam</p></li><li><p>Paris TVM Ticket Vending Machine</p><p>Ticketing Vending Machine :to buy ticket (magnetic technology)to reload your pass (contactless tecnhology)</p><p>Source : RATP</p></li><li><p>Lisbon traffic signal</p></li><li><p>Paris TVM Traffic Signal Priority</p><p>Priority announcement helping driver to adapt the speed of the bus at cross road</p><p>Effective taking into account when it is flashing </p><p>Priority announcement helping driver to adapt the speed of the bus at cross road</p><p>Announcing a change of phase when it is flashings</p><p>Bus running and carcar stopped</p><p>Source : RATP</p></li><li><p>Key Metrics for BRT and BHLS</p><p>DEPLOYMENT</p><p>CAPACITY AND COSTCAPACITY AND COST</p></li><li><p>Global deployment of Bus-Based Systems</p><p>Region Selected Cities with BRT (* in development)</p><p>Australia Adelaide, Brisbane, Sydney</p><p>North America Cleveland, Guatemala City, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Pitt b h VPittsburgh, Vancouver</p><p>South America Bogota, Cali, Curitiba, Pereira, Porto Alegre, Quito, Recife, Santiago, Sao Paulo</p><p>Europe (BHLS) Amsterdam, Cambridge, Eindhoven, Madrid, Nantes, Paris</p><p>China Beijing, Changzhou, Dalian, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Jinan, Kunming, Xiamen, </p><p>Asia Ahmedabad, Amman, Bangkok, Cebu*, Delhi, Indore, Istanbul, Jakarta, Manila*, Nagoya, Pune, Seoul, Taipei</p><p>Africa Accra*, Cape Town, Dar es Salaam*, Johannesburg, Lagos, Pretoria (Tswane)*</p></li><li><p>Actual throughput on selected BRT systems</p><p>System DAILY Ridership</p><p>Beijing South Line 90,000</p><p>Brisbane SE Busway 150,000</p><p>Lagos, BRT-Lite 200,000</p><p>Ottowa Transitway system 200,000</p><p>M i I tMexico Insurgentes 225,000</p><p>Guangzhou, China 800,000</p><p>Istanbul Metrobus 895 000Istanbul, Metrobus 895,000</p><p>Bogota, Transmillenio &gt; 1 million</p><p>Luas both lines 80 000Luas both lines 80,000</p><p>Dublin Bus total network 450,000</p></li><li><p>Capital costs for on selected BRT systems</p><p>System $ million/km</p><p>Lagos, BRT-Lite 1.7</p><p>Curitiba 2.5</p><p>Bogota, Transmillenio 3-10</p><p>Mexico City Insurgentes 4</p><p>Bangkok 4.7</p><p>Beijing South Line 5</p><p>Cleveland Healthline 10.4</p><p>Dublin Luas both lines c. 35</p><p>bli (f )Dublin Metro West (forecast) c. 50</p><p>Dublin Metro North (forecast) c. 200</p></li><li><p>BHLS in Europe </p><p>Country Cities with BHLS</p><p>England Cambridge, Crawley, Dartford, Leeds</p><p>France Lille, Lorient, Lyon, Nantes, Paris, Rennes, Rouen, Toulouse</p><p>Germany Essen, Hamburg, Oberhausen</p><p>Ireland Dublin </p><p>Italy Brescia*, Pisa, Prato</p><p>Netherlands Alkmaar, Almere, Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Twente, Utrecht</p><p>Spain Barcelona*, Castelln, Madrid</p><p>Sweden Gothenburg, Jnkping, Lund, Stockholm</p></li><li><p>Technical Performance of BHLS</p><p> Peak and daily ridership are comparable to many tram systems, rarely operating at full system capacity 1,000 2,500+ pphpd</p><p> 23,700 65,000 px/day3,7 5, p / y</p><p> Commercial speed and frequency are good 16 35 kph (10-22 mph)</p><p> hi l /h 12-40 vehicles/hour</p><p> equal to or exceed that of European street tramways</p><p> Seating ratio at peak is medium to high g p g 34-84% </p><p> Investment cost of facility is low and quite affordable $ 6 illi /k $3-16.5 million/km</p></li><li><p>Conclusion</p><p>REVISITING SOME ASSUMPTIONSASSUMPTIONS</p><p>USEFUL REFERENCES </p></li><li><p>Buses can deliver needed capacity</p><p> The major BRT systems have very high capacityj y y g p y Bogotas Transmillenio...</p></li></ul>