Giao an Mon Hoc Thiet Bi Thuc Pham

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    I HC NNG

    TRNG I HC BCH KHOA

    KHOA HA- B MN CNG NGH THC PHM

    GIO N MN HC

    THIT B THC PHM

    ( 4 N V HC TRNH)

    BIN SON: TS. TRNG TH MINH HNH

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    TI LIU THAM KHO

    1. Lm Ch, Nguyn Nh Thung, on D, H L Vin (dch), Nhng qutrnh v thit b sn xut thc phm, Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, HNi, 1989.

    2. on D (ch bin), Bi c Hi, Mai vn L, Nguyn Nh Thung, Cngngh v cc my ch bin lng thc, Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, H

    Ni, 1983.

    3. GS Trn Thanh K, My lnh, Trng i hc Bch khoa Thnh ph HCh Minh, 1992.

    4. Bi Hi, Dng Quc Hng, H Mnh Th, Cc thit b trao i nhit,Trng i hc Bch khoa H N, 1996.

    5. PGS.TS L vn Hong, Cc qu trnh v thit b cng ngh sinh hc trongcng nghip, Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, H Ni, 2004.

    6. V B Minh, Hong Minh Nam, C hc vt liu ri, Nh xut bn khoahc v k thut ,1998.

    7. Nguyn Nh Nam, Trn Th Thanh,My gia cng c hc nng sn - thcphm, Nh xut bn gio dc, 2000.

    8. Nguyn Trng Th ( dch), C s thit k my thc phm, A.I.A- Xokolov,Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, H Ni, 1976.

    9. Cc qu trnh c bn trong sn xut thc phm , Nh xut bn gio dc,2000.

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    NI DUNG CHNG TRNH

    M U

    PHN 1: Cc my vn chuyn

    Chng 1: Cc my v thit b vn chuynPHN 2: Cc my c hc

    Chng 2: Cc my phn loi v lm sch

    Chng 3: Cc my lm nh

    Chng 4: Cc my p

    Chng 5: Cc my nh lng

    Chng 6: Cc my ra chai

    PHN 3: Cc thit b nhitChng 7: Cc thit b nhit

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    1

    M U

    1. Cu to v phn loi my sn xut thc phm

    1.1. Cu to my

    My hin i ch yu gm:

    -Thit b np liu

    -Cc c cu tha hnh c b phn lm vic

    -Cc c cu truyn dn (ng c) [ngun ng lc]

    -Cc my hin i thng c thm hng lot cc b phn ph :

    + iu chnh v hiu chnh s lm vic ca my

    + iu chnh my, khi ng, dng my, kim tra

    + Bo v v chuyn i

    1.2. Phn loi my sn xut thc phm

    1.2.1. Theo tnh cht tc dng ln sn phm gia cng:

    - My: l trang b trong sn phm chu tc ng c hc, khi gia cng trn my y, sn

    phm khng thay i tnh cht ca n, m ch thay i hnh dng, kch thc hoc cc

    thng s tng t khc chu tc ng c hc

    - Thit b: l trang b nh my cng tc c bit, trong sn phm b thay i tnh cht

    vt l hay ha hc hoc trng thi t hp di cc tc dng nh: c l, sinh ha, nhit in

    c im: + My: c cc b phn lm vic chuyn ng trc tip tc dng c hc ln sn

    phm gia cng

    + Thit b: C mt khong khng gian nht nh (bung lm vic) trong

    tin hnh tc dng ln sn phm vi mc ch thay i tnh cht ca n

    1.2.2. Theo cu to ca qu trnh

    - My lm vic gin on: Sn phm gia cng chu tc dng trong sut thi gian ca mt

    chu k nht nh. Sau qu trnh li tip din lp li c tnh cht chu k. Thnh phmc ly ra cui chu k

    - My lm vic lin tc: Thi gian ca qu trnh lm vic n nh, np sn phm ban u

    v ly sn phm c tin hnh ng thi. Cc b phn lm vic trong nhng iu kin

    n nh

    1.2.3. Theo mc c kh ha v t ng ha

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    2

    - My khng t ng

    - My bn t ng

    - My t ng

    1.2.4. Theo nguyn tc phi hp trong dy chuyn sn xut

    - My ring l- Nhng my t hp hoc b my

    - Nhng my lin hp

    - H thng my t ng

    1.2.5. Theo c im chc nng

    - Cc my v thit b vn chuyn: Bng ti, gu ti, vt ti

    - Cc thit b c hc: My phn loi, my nghin, my xay xt, my ct thi, my ch,

    my p,...- Cc thit b ln men

    - Cc thit b ha l: Chng ct, tinh luyn, trch li,...

    2. Yu cu c bn i vi my sn xut thc phm

    i vi my sn xut thc phm, khi thit k, ch to v s dng chng, ngoi nhng

    yu cu chung ( cng, sc bn, bn rung ng) cn phi p ng nhng yu cu sau:

    - Kh nng thc hin qu trnh cng ngh tin tin

    - Hiu qu kinh t k thut cao

    - Tnh chng mn cao

    - Gi thnh h: My c kt cu n gin, vt liu ch to ra n r tin, d kim, chi

    tit tiu chun ha. Sa cha, bo dng d dng, thun li

    - Lm vic n nh, tin cy, m bo mi trng lm vic t bi, ting n,...

    - Tui th 10 12 nm

    3. Nhng vt liu chnh ch to thit b sn xut thc phm

    3.1. Kim loi v hp kim

    a. Gang: Ph bin nht, chim 50% kim loi trong my ch bin thc phm. L hp kim

    ca Fe-C: 2-4%

    u im: C tnh c cao, dng c cc chi tit phc tp nh thn my, b my, sng

    trt,...Kh nng chu nn gp 4 ln kh nng chu un.

    Phn loi:

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    3

    - Gang xm C: 2,8-3,7%. K hiu C4

    - Gang trung tnh: Cng l gang xm nhng cho thm ph gia silicocanxi,

    silicoalumin, felosilu. K hiu CM4

    - Gang cu: Cng l gang trung tnh nhng cho thm hp kim Mg, bn rt cao, c

    th c cc trc khuu ca my nn. K hiu B4- Gang r: %C thp, d gia cng

    - Gang hp kim: Thm vo cc loi gang trn cc kim loi Cr, Mn, Ni, Si. Dng ch

    to gung bm, v bm chu axit, ng dn chu cc mi trng khc nhau

    b. Thp: C c tnh, kh nng gia cng c cao. Ty theo phng php nhit luyn cho

    nhng thp c c tnh khc nhau, rt cao. C 3 nhm:

    - Thp cacbon : CT3, CT5.

    Thp 45, thp 50Thp dng c

    - Thp hp kim: Cao, Thp

    c. ng: Khng bn trong mi trng c Cl, Br, I, NH3, H2S. Dn in, dn nhit tt, d

    dt mng, ko si. Dng nhiu trong cng nghip ru bia, cc loi thp,...

    ng : - Thau

    - Thanh. Hp kim Al, Si, Sn

    d. Nhm: Chu cc mi trng HNO3 m c,CH3COOH3.2. Phi kim loi

    a. Ngun gc v c:

    - granit: granit + andezit + thy tinh lng gi l matit: chu axit

    - Amian: Dng lm m chu nhit, lm b chng chy, bo n

    - Thy tinh

    - Gm

    b. Ngun gc hu c:- Cao su: 2-4%S: Cao su mm, dng lm m, cc khc ni trc

    20-40%S: Cao su ebonit

    - Faolit: L hn hp ca phenol formuldehyt + amian. bn cao, lm cc ng ng

    dn, thng cha, my bm

    - Ngoi ra cn c nha PVC, PP,...

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    4

    CHNG 1. CC MY V THIT B VN CHUYN

    1. Khi nim

    My v cc thit b vn chuyn ng vai tr quan trng trong dy chuyn sn xut

    cc sn phm thc phm, lin kt cc h thng cng ngh trong dy chuyn sn xut, vnchuyn nguyn liu t kho cha n dy chuyn sn xut v vn chuyn sn phm v kho

    cha ...

    Phn loi: Theo phng thc lm vic c hai loi:

    - Loi vn chuyn lin tc: Bng ti, vt ti, gu ti, cc thit b vn chuyn vt liu bng

    khng kh, bng thy lc,...

    - Loi vn chuyn gin on: Cu, palng, cu trc, thang my,...

    Trong cc nh my sn xut v ch bin lng thc thc phm, vn chuynnhng vt liu ri, vt liu ng ti, nhng kin hng hoc nhng vt liu n chic theo

    phng nm ngang, thng ng hoc nghing, ch yu dng my v thit b vn chuyn

    lin tc. Khc vi loi lm vic gin on, nhng my v thit b vn chuyn lin tc c

    th lm vic trong mt thi gian khng gii hn, chuyn ch vt liu theo mt hng

    nh khng dng li khi np liu v tho liu. Nh vy nng sut ca chng tng i ln

    hn so vi cc my v thit bi vn chuyn gin on

    Cc my v thit b vn chuyn lin tc hin nay c th chia ra hai nhm chnh:

    - My c b phn ko: Bng ti, xch ti, co ti, gu ti,ni ti, gi ti- My khng c b phn ko: Cc loi vt ti, cc my vn chuyn qun tnh, cc h

    thng vn chuyn bng khng kh v thy lc

    chng ny chng ta s kho st mt s my v thit b vn chuyn lin tc c

    dng ph bin trong cc nh my sn xut v ch bin lng thc thc phm trong v

    ngoi nc

    2. Cc thit b vn chuyn c hc

    2.1. Bng ti2.1.1. Cng dng

    Trong cc my vn chuyn lin tc th bng ti l loi c dng nhiu nht

    u im: An ton cao, cu to n gin, bn

    C kh nng vn chuyn vt liu ri v n chic theo cc hng nm ngang,

    nm ngang v kt hp c hai

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    5

    Vn u t v ch to khng ln

    C th t ng ha

    Vn hnh n gin, bo dng d dng

    Lm vic khng n

    Nng sut cao, tiu hao nng lng tNhc im: Phm vi s dng ca bng ti b hn ch v:

    - Chng c dc cho php khng cao, thng t 16-240 ty theo vt liu

    - Khng th vn chuyn theo ng cong

    - Khng vn chuyn c vt liu do, dnh kt

    2.1.2. Cu to v phn loi bng ti:

    Hnh 1.1. Bng ti c nh

    Bng ti gm c tm bng (3) kn un cong trn tang dn (5) v tang cng (1). Tm

    bng va l b phn ko, va l b phn ti liu. Chuyn ng c nh lc ma st xut

    hin khi tang dn quay. ng c (9) cng vi hp gim tc (8) v cc ni trc l cc c

    cu truyn ng ca my. Phu (2) np vt liu, phu (6) tho vt liu. B phn co

    (7) lm sch tm bng.Tm bng c cng s b nh b phn cng (10) lp tang cui my hoc lp

    nhnh khng ti. Tt c cc cm my nu trn u c lp trn mt khung .

    Khi my lm vic, tm bng dch chuyn trn cc gi trc ln (4), (11) mang theo vt

    liu t phu np liu n phu tho. Qu trnh tho liu tin hnh tang u my

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    6

    Sau y l s phn loi cc bng ti dng trong cc nh my lng thc thc

    phm.

    Hnh 1.2.S cc bng ti c nh

    a) nm ngang; b,c, d) c ng vn chuyn phi hp; ) c xe tho liu; c) lu ngVn tc chuyn ng ca bng ti khi vn chuyn cc ht c cho bng 1.1 v

    bng 1.2

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    7

    Bng 1: Vn tc chuyn ng ca tm bng i vi bng ti nm ngang

    Vt liu vn chuyn Vn tc chuyn ng ca tm bng m/s

    Thc, go, u, la m

    Ng, i mch, kiu mch

    Ht hng dng

    Ht bng

    ht u nnh

    Ng bp

    Ht gy

    Tru v ph liu ca ht

    Bao bt, hng ng kin

    2,5 4,5

    2,0 2,5

    1,5 2,0

    2,5 3,5

    1,5 2,0

    0,8 1,2

    1,5 2,0

    0,8 1,2

    0,6 1,2

    Bng 2: Vn tc v nng sut ca cc bng ti c nh khi vn chuyn cc loi ht c

    khi lng th tch 0,75l/m3

    400 500 600-650 759-800 900-1000 1100- 1200

    Vn tc tm bng m/sNng sut, T/h

    2,550

    3,5100

    3,5175

    4,5350

    4,5500

    4,8800

    2.2 Gu ti

    2.2.1. Khi nim: vn chuyn nhng vt liu ri ( dng bt, ht, cc nh) i theo

    phng thng ng hoc nghing trn 500 ngi ta dng gu ti

    2.2.2. Cu to v nguyn tc lm vic

    a. Cu to: Gu ti gm nhng b phn sau:

    - B phn ko di v