Giao an Mon Hoc Thiet Bi Thuc Pham

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    I HC NNG

    TRNG I HC BCH KHOA

    KHOA HA- B MN CNG NGH THC PHM

    GIO N MN HC

    THIT B THC PHM

    ( 4 N V HC TRNH)

    BIN SON: TS. TRNG TH MINH HNH

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    TI LIU THAM KHO

    1. Lm Ch, Nguyn Nh Thung, on D, H L Vin (dch), Nhng qutrnh v thit b sn xut thc phm, Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, HNi, 1989.

    2. on D (ch bin), Bi c Hi, Mai vn L, Nguyn Nh Thung, Cngngh v cc my ch bin lng thc, Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, H

    Ni, 1983.

    3. GS Trn Thanh K, My lnh, Trng i hc Bch khoa Thnh ph HCh Minh, 1992.

    4. Bi Hi, Dng Quc Hng, H Mnh Th, Cc thit b trao i nhit,Trng i hc Bch khoa H N, 1996.

    5. PGS.TS L vn Hong, Cc qu trnh v thit b cng ngh sinh hc trongcng nghip, Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, H Ni, 2004.

    6. V B Minh, Hong Minh Nam, C hc vt liu ri, Nh xut bn khoahc v k thut ,1998.

    7. Nguyn Nh Nam, Trn Th Thanh,My gia cng c hc nng sn - thcphm, Nh xut bn gio dc, 2000.

    8. Nguyn Trng Th ( dch), C s thit k my thc phm, A.I.A- Xokolov,Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut, H Ni, 1976.

    9. Cc qu trnh c bn trong sn xut thc phm , Nh xut bn gio dc,2000.

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    NI DUNG CHNG TRNH

    M U

    PHN 1: Cc my vn chuyn

    Chng 1: Cc my v thit b vn chuynPHN 2: Cc my c hc

    Chng 2: Cc my phn loi v lm sch

    Chng 3: Cc my lm nh

    Chng 4: Cc my p

    Chng 5: Cc my nh lng

    Chng 6: Cc my ra chai

    PHN 3: Cc thit b nhitChng 7: Cc thit b nhit

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    1

    M U

    1. Cu to v phn loi my sn xut thc phm

    1.1. Cu to my

    My hin i ch yu gm:

    -Thit b np liu

    -Cc c cu tha hnh c b phn lm vic

    -Cc c cu truyn dn (ng c) [ngun ng lc]

    -Cc my hin i thng c thm hng lot cc b phn ph :

    + iu chnh v hiu chnh s lm vic ca my

    + iu chnh my, khi ng, dng my, kim tra

    + Bo v v chuyn i

    1.2. Phn loi my sn xut thc phm

    1.2.1. Theo tnh cht tc dng ln sn phm gia cng:

    - My: l trang b trong sn phm chu tc ng c hc, khi gia cng trn my y, sn

    phm khng thay i tnh cht ca n, m ch thay i hnh dng, kch thc hoc cc

    thng s tng t khc chu tc ng c hc

    - Thit b: l trang b nh my cng tc c bit, trong sn phm b thay i tnh cht

    vt l hay ha hc hoc trng thi t hp di cc tc dng nh: c l, sinh ha, nhit in

    c im: + My: c cc b phn lm vic chuyn ng trc tip tc dng c hc ln sn

    phm gia cng

    + Thit b: C mt khong khng gian nht nh (bung lm vic) trong

    tin hnh tc dng ln sn phm vi mc ch thay i tnh cht ca n

    1.2.2. Theo cu to ca qu trnh

    - My lm vic gin on: Sn phm gia cng chu tc dng trong sut thi gian ca mt

    chu k nht nh. Sau qu trnh li tip din lp li c tnh cht chu k. Thnh phmc ly ra cui chu k

    - My lm vic lin tc: Thi gian ca qu trnh lm vic n nh, np sn phm ban u

    v ly sn phm c tin hnh ng thi. Cc b phn lm vic trong nhng iu kin

    n nh

    1.2.3. Theo mc c kh ha v t ng ha

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    2

    - My khng t ng

    - My bn t ng

    - My t ng

    1.2.4. Theo nguyn tc phi hp trong dy chuyn sn xut

    - My ring l- Nhng my t hp hoc b my

    - Nhng my lin hp

    - H thng my t ng

    1.2.5. Theo c im chc nng

    - Cc my v thit b vn chuyn: Bng ti, gu ti, vt ti

    - Cc thit b c hc: My phn loi, my nghin, my xay xt, my ct thi, my ch,

    my p,...- Cc thit b ln men

    - Cc thit b ha l: Chng ct, tinh luyn, trch li,...

    2. Yu cu c bn i vi my sn xut thc phm

    i vi my sn xut thc phm, khi thit k, ch to v s dng chng, ngoi nhng

    yu cu chung ( cng, sc bn, bn rung ng) cn phi p ng nhng yu cu sau:

    - Kh nng thc hin qu trnh cng ngh tin tin

    - Hiu qu kinh t k thut cao

    - Tnh chng mn cao

    - Gi thnh h: My c kt cu n gin, vt liu ch to ra n r tin, d kim, chi

    tit tiu chun ha. Sa cha, bo dng d dng, thun li

    - Lm vic n nh, tin cy, m bo mi trng lm vic t bi, ting n,...

    - Tui th 10 12 nm

    3. Nhng vt liu chnh ch to thit b sn xut thc phm

    3.1. Kim loi v hp kim

    a. Gang: Ph bin nht, chim 50% kim loi trong my ch bin thc phm. L hp kim

    ca Fe-C: 2-4%

    u im: C tnh c cao, dng c cc chi tit phc tp nh thn my, b my, sng

    trt,...Kh nng chu nn gp 4 ln kh nng chu un.

    Phn loi:

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    3

    - Gang xm C: 2,8-3,7%. K hiu C4

    - Gang trung tnh: Cng l gang xm nhng cho thm ph gia silicocanxi,

    silicoalumin, felosilu. K hiu CM4

    - Gang cu: Cng l gang trung tnh nhng cho thm hp kim Mg, bn rt cao, c

    th c cc trc khuu ca my nn. K hiu B4- Gang r: %C thp, d gia cng

    - Gang hp kim: Thm vo cc loi gang trn cc kim loi Cr, Mn, Ni, Si. Dng ch

    to gung bm, v bm chu axit, ng dn chu cc mi trng khc nhau

    b. Thp: C c tnh, kh nng gia cng c cao. Ty theo phng php nhit luyn cho

    nhng thp c c tnh khc nhau, rt cao. C 3 nhm:

    - Thp cacbon : CT3, CT5.

    Thp 45, thp 50Thp dng c

    - Thp hp kim: Cao, Thp

    c. ng: Khng bn trong mi trng c Cl, Br, I, NH3, H2S. Dn in, dn nhit tt, d

    dt mng, ko si. Dng nhiu trong cng nghip ru bia, cc loi thp,...

    ng : - Thau

    - Thanh. Hp kim Al, Si, Sn

    d. Nhm: Chu cc mi trng HNO3 m c,CH3COOH3.2. Phi kim loi

    a. Ngun gc v c:

    - granit: granit + andezit + thy tinh lng gi l matit: chu axit

    - Amian: Dng lm m chu nhit, lm b chng chy, bo n

    - Thy tinh

    - Gm

    b. Ngun gc hu c:- Cao su: 2-4%S: Cao su mm, dng lm m, cc khc ni trc

    20-40%S: Cao su ebonit

    - Faolit: L hn hp ca phenol formuldehyt + amian. bn cao, lm cc ng ng

    dn, thng cha, my bm

    - Ngoi ra cn c nha PVC, PP,...

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    4

    CHNG 1. CC MY V THIT B VN CHUYN

    1. Khi nim

    My v cc thit b vn chuyn ng vai tr quan trng trong dy chuyn sn xut

    cc sn phm thc phm, lin kt cc h thng cng ngh trong dy chuyn sn xut, vnchuyn nguyn liu t kho cha n dy chuyn sn xut v vn chuyn sn phm v kho

    cha ...

    Phn loi: Theo phng thc lm vic c hai loi:

    - Loi vn chuyn lin tc: Bng ti, vt ti, gu ti, cc thit b vn chuyn vt liu bng

    khng kh, bng thy lc,...

    - Loi vn chuyn gin on: Cu, palng, cu trc, thang my,...

    Trong cc nh my sn xut v ch bin lng thc thc phm, vn chuynnhng vt liu ri, vt liu ng ti, nhng kin hng hoc nhng vt liu n chic theo

    phng nm ngang, thng ng hoc nghing, ch yu dng my v thit b vn chuyn

    lin tc. Khc vi loi lm vic gin on, nhng my v thit b vn chuyn lin tc c

    th lm vic trong mt thi gian khng gii hn, chuyn ch vt liu theo mt hng

    nh khng dng li khi np liu v tho liu. Nh vy nng sut ca chng tng i ln

    hn so vi cc my v thit bi vn chuyn gin on

    Cc my v thit b vn chuyn lin tc hin nay c th chia ra hai nhm chnh:

    - My c b phn ko: Bng ti, xch ti, co ti, gu ti,ni ti, gi ti- My khng c b phn ko: Cc loi vt ti, cc my vn chuyn qun tnh, cc h

    thng vn chuyn bng khng kh v thy lc

    chng ny chng ta s kho st mt s my v thit b vn chuyn lin tc c

    dng ph bin trong cc nh my sn xut v ch bin lng thc thc phm trong v

    ngoi nc

    2. Cc thit b vn chuyn c hc

    2.1. Bng ti2.1.1. Cng dng

    Trong cc my vn chuyn lin tc th bng ti l loi c dng nhiu nht

    u im: An ton cao, cu to n gin, bn

    C kh nng vn chuyn vt liu ri v n chic theo cc hng nm ngang,

    nm ngang v kt hp c hai

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    Vn u t v ch to khng ln

    C th t ng ha

    Vn hnh n gin, bo dng d dng

    Lm vic khng n

    Nng sut cao, tiu hao nng lng tNhc im: Phm vi s dng ca bng ti b hn ch v:

    - Chng c dc cho php khng cao, thng t 16-240 ty theo vt liu

    - Khng th vn chuyn theo ng cong

    - Khng vn chuyn c vt liu do, dnh kt

    2.1.2. Cu to v phn loi bng ti:

    Hnh 1.1. Bng ti c nh

    Bng ti gm c tm bng (3) kn un cong trn tang dn (5) v tang cng (1). Tm

    bng va l b phn ko, va l b phn ti liu. Chuyn ng c nh lc ma st xut

    hin khi tang dn quay. ng c (9) cng vi hp gim tc (8) v cc ni trc l cc c

    cu truyn ng ca my. Phu (2) np vt liu, phu (6) tho vt liu. B phn co

    (7) lm sch tm bng.Tm bng c cng s b nh b phn cng (10) lp tang cui my hoc lp

    nhnh khng ti. Tt c cc cm my nu trn u c lp trn mt khung .

    Khi my lm vic, tm bng dch chuyn trn cc gi trc ln (4), (11) mang theo vt

    liu t phu np liu n phu tho. Qu trnh tho liu tin hnh tang u my

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    Sau y l s phn loi cc bng ti dng trong cc nh my lng thc thc

    phm.

    Hnh 1.2.S cc bng ti c nh

    a) nm ngang; b,c, d) c ng vn chuyn phi hp; ) c xe tho liu; c) lu ngVn tc chuyn ng ca bng ti khi vn chuyn cc ht c cho bng 1.1 v

    bng 1.2

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    Bng 1: Vn tc chuyn ng ca tm bng i vi bng ti nm ngang

    Vt liu vn chuyn Vn tc chuyn ng ca tm bng m/s

    Thc, go, u, la m

    Ng, i mch, kiu mch

    Ht hng dng

    Ht bng

    ht u nnh

    Ng bp

    Ht gy

    Tru v ph liu ca ht

    Bao bt, hng ng kin

    2,5 4,5

    2,0 2,5

    1,5 2,0

    2,5 3,5

    1,5 2,0

    0,8 1,2

    1,5 2,0

    0,8 1,2

    0,6 1,2

    Bng 2: Vn tc v nng sut ca cc bng ti c nh khi vn chuyn cc loi ht c

    khi lng th tch 0,75l/m3

    400 500 600-650 759-800 900-1000 1100- 1200

    Vn tc tm bng m/sNng sut, T/h

    2,550

    3,5100

    3,5175

    4,5350

    4,5500

    4,8800

    2.2 Gu ti

    2.2.1. Khi nim: vn chuyn nhng vt liu ri ( dng bt, ht, cc nh) i theo

    phng thng ng hoc nghing trn 500 ngi ta dng gu ti

    2.2.2. Cu to v nguyn tc lm vic

    a. Cu to: Gu ti gm nhng b phn sau:

    - B phn ko di v tn mang nhiu gu v un vng qua tang (hoc a xch) trn vdi ca my

    - Chn my gm c tang (hoc a xch), trc lp tang, v v hp np liu

    - u my gm c trc dn ng, tang (hoc a xch), b phn truyn ng v b phn

    tho liu

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    - Thn my gm nhiu on ng c tit din trn hoc ch nht ni vi nhau bng bch,

    nm vo khong gia u v chn gu ti, bao kn b phn ko

    Hnh 1.3. Hnh dng chung ca gu ti

    1) Bng; 2) gu; 3) tang u my; 4) tang chn my; 5) b gu ti 6) phu np liu

    7) b phn cng 8) ca quan st 9) trc u my 10) u gu ti 11) ca tho liu

    b. Nguyn tc lm vic: Khi my lm vic th gu xc vt liu khu vc chn my v

    vn chuyn ln pha u my. y, di tc dng ca trng lc v lc qun tnh, vt

    liu c t gu vo b phn tho liu ri t chuyn ti ni s dng

    Vt liu ri c vn chuyn bng gu ti gm nhiu dng: dng bt (hoc bi), dng ht,

    dng cc

    u im: - Cu to n gin, kch thc chim ch nh

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    - C kh nng vn chuyn vt liu ln mt cao kh ln (50-70m),

    - Nng sut cao (700m3/h)

    Nhc im: - Nu vt liu vn chuyn ln gy va p, d sinh ting n

    - D b qu ti nu tip liu khng u, nn cn np liu mt cch u n

    - Khng tho liu c gia chng, np liu v tr ty thch.2.2.3. Phn loi:

    - Theo cu to ca b phn ko: c 2 loi:

    Gu ti dng bng: c dng ph bin vn chuyn nhng vt liu ri trong cc kho

    lng thc, cc nh my xay bt, nh my xt go, nh my ch bin thc n gia sc, nh

    my bnh m, nh my p du, nh my sn xut tinh bt, nh my bnh ko, nh my sn

    xut m si v cc nh my thc phm khc.

    Gu ti dng xch: (mt hoc 2 dy xch): ch yu dng vn chuyn nhng vt liudng cc v nhng vt liu gy tc hi cho tm bng ( nh vt liu nng)

    - Theo phng php tho liu: c 3 loi gu ti:

    Gu ti tho liu di tc dng ca trng lc

    Gu ti tho liu di tc dng ca lc li tm

    Gu ti tho liu di tc dng ca lc kt hp ( lc li tm v trng lc).

    2.3. Vt ti:

    2.3.1. Khi nim: vn chuyn nhng vt liu ri theo hng nm ngang, nghing hoc thng ng,

    trong cc nh my thc phm, ngi ta dng vt ti.

    Trong cc vt ti, vt liu c vn chuyn tng t nh mt ai c chuyn ng

    dc theo inh c quay. Vt ti gm c mt mng c nh v mt trc vt. Khi trc vt quay

    lm cho vt liu chuyn ng tnh tin theo mng.

    u im :

    - Chim ch t: Vi cng nng sut th din tch tit din ngang ca vt ti nh hn nhiu

    so vi cc my vn chuyn khc.

    - S lng bi v cc chi tit chu mi mn khng nhiu nn d vn hnh thao tc.

    - B phn cng tc nm trong mng kn nn c th ni mng vo v tr no ca h

    thng thng gi.

    - Tc quay ca trc vt tng i ln.

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    - Gi thnh thp.

    Nhc im :

    - Chiu di vn chuyn v nng sut b gii hn. Chiu di ln nht ca vt ti thng

    khng qu 30m vi nng sut ti a l 100T/h.

    - Ch vn chuyn c nhng vt liu tng i ng nht.- Vt liu b o trn mnh, mt phn b nghin nt hoc b phn loi theo khi lng

    ring. V vy ngi ta khng th dng vn chuyn thc n gia sc ch bin.

    - Tiu tn nhiu nng lng hn bng ti.

    2.3.2. Cc loi vt ti

    2.3.2.1. Vt ti nm ngang

    Hnh 1.4. Cc vt ti

    a) s vt ti nm ngang:

    1. mng; 2. gi trc treo; 3. trc; 4. cnh vt; 5. thnh mt u; 6.ng np liu;

    7,8. ng tho liu; 9. Van an ton; 10. C cu truyn ng

    b) hnh dng trc vt

    c) cc loi cnh vt khc nhau v chiu quay ca chng

    a. Cu to v nguyn tc lm vic:

    Trong mng c nh 1 ti phn trn c lp nhng gi trc treo 2 lm ch cho trc 3.

    Trc c hoc rng v trn sut chiu di ca n c gn cnh vt 4. v tr gi trc treo,

    cnh vt b gin on 1 khong bng chiu di gi trc. Mt u 5 ca mng c bt kn.

    Vt liu vo phu np liu 6, i ra ng tho liu 7 v 8 dc theo vt ti. y (6,7 v

    8) c cc van chn c th thay i kch thc ca np v tho. Cui vt ti c van an

    ton 9 tho vt liu khi qu y. C th thay bng ng chy trn lp gn ca tho liu.

    a

    b

    c

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    Ty theo cch b tr cnh vt trn trc m vt ti c th l phi hoc tri ( hnh 1.4.c).

    C nhng vt ti gm 2 phn trong c 1 phn l phi, 1 phn l tri.

    Cc vt ti ny dng vn chuyn hai dng vt liu theo hng ngc chiu nhau.

    Nhng vt ti c cnh c lm bng thp l ch dng vn chuyn vt liu kh v ti.

    Mun vn chuyn nhng vt liu cc hoc dnh phi dng vt ti dng bng (hinh 1.5). vn chuyn nhng vt liu vn cc (ht m, tinh bt, hp cht thc n gia sc) th dng

    cnh vt dng bi cho ( hnh 1.6)

    Hnh 1.5. Cnh vt dngbng.

    1.6. Vt ti dng bi cho

    Mng ca vt ti gm nhiu on t 2m n 4m, ni ghp vi nhau bng bch v

    bulng. Nu vt ti di qu 3,5 m th phi lp nhng gi trc trung gian (thng l gi trc

    treo) ci ny cch ci kia 3m. Trong cc nh my lng thc thc phm ch nn dng vt

    ti c chiu di khng qu 15m. Nu cn vn chuyn theo di ln (30m) th nn lp

    ng trc hai vt ti c hai b phn truyn ng i u nhau.

    2.3.2.1. Vt ti thng ng

    Khi nim: Vt ti thng ng dng vn chuyn vt liu ri v vt liu dng cc

    nh (ht, bt, thc n gia sc, cc loi c). Cng c th dng loi vt ti ny vn

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    chuyn cc vt liu n chic. Chiu cao khng qu 12-15cm nng sut 80-100 m 3/h (vi

    D cnh vt 300mm)

    u:

    - Tit kim din tch

    - Tho liu theo hng ty , v tr trung giantheo chiu cao thn my.

    Nguyn tc lm vic:

    Vt liu c a vo trc vt thng ng

    trong v tr kn, nh ma st vi cnh vt m thc

    hin chuyn ng quay. Di tc dng ca lc li

    tm vt liu c p st vo b mt trong ca

    mng.

    Ma st gia vt liu vi mng lm cho qu

    trnh quay ca vt liu b hm bt nn tc

    vng ca n gim. Kt qu vt liu trt theo b

    mt xon c v c nng dn ln pha trn.

    3. Vn chuyn vt liu bng khng kh

    3.1. Khi nim:Vn chuyn vt liu bng khng kh da trn nguyn l li dng kh nng chuyn

    ng ca dng kh trong cc ng dn, vi tc nht nh mang vt liu t ch ny ti

    ch khc di trng thi l lng. V l thuyt th c th dng khng kh vn chuyn vt

    liu ri c khi lng v kch thc ht bt k. Nhng nng lng vn chuyn v tiu

    tn tng nhanh rt nhiu ln so vi trng lc ca ht vt liu, nn thc t phm vi ng

    dng ca phng php ny b hn ch.

    Mun lm cho hn hp khng kh v cc ht vt liu chuyn ng c trong cc ng

    dn th cn phi to c chnh lch p sut 2 u ng, ni cch khc l phi to ra p

    lc. p lc c to thnh bng cch gim p sut ca khng kh hoc tng p sut ca

    khng kh.

    3.2. Phn loi:

    Theo tr s p sut to thnh c th chia ra:

    Hnh 1.7. Vt ti thng ng

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    - Cc h thng p sut thp, trong tn tht p sut khng vt qu 5.10 3N/m2.

    - Cc h thng p sut trung bnh, trong tn tht p sut khng vt qu 104N/m2

    - Cc h thng p sut cao trong tn tht p sut ln hn 104N/m2.

    Hnh 1.8. Cc s nguyn l:

    a) ca h thng ht vi p sut trung bnh vn chuyn bt

    b) ca h thng ht vi p sut cao

    c) ca h thng y vi p sut cao

    3.2.1. Cc h thng vn chuyn bng khng kh vi p sut thp v trung bnh:

    Trong cc nh my lng thc thc phm cc nc, h thng p sut thp v trung

    bnh c s dng rng ri c gii ha cc cng on vn chuyn trong phn xng

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    v gia cc phn xng vi nhau, cho php kt hp vi 1 vi qu trnh cng ngh nh

    lm lnh, phn loi, sy..v..v..

    hnh 1.8a l s nguyn l ca mt h thng ht v p sut trung bnh dng vn

    chuyn bt t thng cha ti kho cha. B...