Giao Trinh May Tinh Mang PDF 9229

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<p>Gio trnh Mng My Tnh</p> <p>Trang 1</p> <p>TrangGII THIU.................................................................................................................................3 CHNG 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNH..............................................................4 1.1 Lch s mng my tnh.......................................................................................................4 1.2 Mt s khi nim c bn...............................................................................................5 1.3 Mng ngang hng (Peer to Peer) v mng c my ch (Server based)...........................8 1.4 Cc h iu hnh mng.....................................................................................................9 1.5 Cc dch v mng............................................................................................................10 1.6 Lm th no tr thnh mt chuyn nghip vin v mng my tnh?........................12 CHNG 2 - M HNH OSI..................................................................................................14 2.1 Kin trc phn tng v m hnh OSI (Open System Interconnect).................................14 2.2 ngha v chc nng ca cc tng trong m hnh OSI..................................................16 2.3 p dng m hnh OSI......................................................................................................20 2.4 M t cc thnh phn ca khun d liu (Frame)........................................................22</p> <p>CHNG 3 - NG TRUYN VT L............................................................................27 3.1 Truyn d liu: tn hiu tng t (analogue) v tn hiu s ho (digital)...................27 3.2 Cc c tnh ca ng truyn mng............................................................................28 3.3 Cc mng LAN: Baseband v Broadband.......................................................................30 3.4 Cc loi cp mng...........................................................................................................30 CHNG 4 - CC GIAO THC MNG (PROTOCOLS)..................................................38 4.1 Giao thc (protocol) mng l g?....................................................................................38 4.2 B giao thc TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) ..................39 4.3 B giao thc IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange / Sequenced Packet Exchange ) ..................................................................................................................................................42 4.4 B giao thc Microsoft Network ( NETBIOS, NETBEUI, SMB).....................................43 4.5 Mt s Protocols khc.....................................................................................................46 CHNG 5 - CC HNH TRNG (TOPOLOGIES) CA MNG CC B (LAN)......48 5.1 Cc c trng c bn ca mng cc b (LAN).............................................................48 5.2 Cc hnh trng LAN n gin........................................................................................50 5.3 Cc hnh trng LAN hn hp..........................................................................................53 5.4 Cc h thng giao vn mng..........................................................................................55 5.5 5.6 Kin trc Ethernet...........................................................................................................58 Mng Token Ring............................................................................................................63</p> <p>T B mn HTMT Khoa CNTT - Trng Cao ng Cng Nghip 4</p> <p>Gio trnh Mng My Tnh Trang 2 CHNG 6 GII THIU WINDOWS 2000.......................................................................70 6.1 Cc phin bn ca Windows 2000....................................................................................70 6.2 Mt s c im mi ca Windows 2000.......................................................................71 6.3 M hnh workgroup v m hnh domain trong Windows 2000.........................................76 CHNG 7 CI T WINDOWS 2000 SEVER...............................................................80 7.1 Ci t Windows 2000 Server..........................................................................................80 7.2 ng nhp ti mt Domain ............................................................................................88 7.3 Cc cng c qun tr.........................................................................................................90 7.4 Hp thoi bo mt Windows 2000 .................................................................................90 CHNG 8 - QUN TR TI KHON NGI DNG.....................................................93 8.1 Cc loi ti khon ngi dng (user)..............................................................................93 8.2 Lp k hoch ti khon ngi dng................................................................................94 8.3 To ti khon ngi dng cc b v ti khon ngi dng min................................97 8.4 Thit lp h s ngi dng (User Profile)...................................................................108 CHNG 9 - QUN TR TI KHON NHM................................................................116 9.1.Cc loi nhm trong Windows 2000................................................................................116 9.2.Lp k hoch nhm Local Domain v nhm Global.......................................................117 9.3.To v xo cc nhm........................................................................................................117 9.4.Thm cc thnh vin vo nhm........................................................................................119 TI LIU THAM KHO........................................................................................................125</p> <p>T B mn HTMT Khoa CNTT - Trng Cao ng Cng Nghip 4</p> <p>Gio trnh Mng My Tnh</p> <p>Trang 3</p> <p>GII THIUYu cu c cc ti liu tham kho cho sinh vin ca khoa Cng ngh Thng tin - Trng Cao ng Cng nghip 4 ngy cng tr nn cp thit. Vic bin son ti liu ny nm trong k hoch xy dng h thng gio trnh cc mn hc ca Khoa. cng ca gio trnh c thng qua Hi ng Khoa hc ca Khoa v Trng. Mc tiu ca gio trnh nhm cung cp cho sinh vin mt ti liu tham kho chnh v mn hc Mng my tnh, trong gii thiu nhng khi nim cn bn nht v h thng mng my tnh, ng thi trang b nhng kin thc v mt s k nng ch yu cho vic bo tr v qun tr mt h thng mng. y c th coi l nhng kin thc ban u v nn tng cho cc k thut vin, qun tr vin v h thng mng. Ti liu ny c th tm chia lm 2 phn: Phn 1: t chng 1 n chng 5 Phn 2: t chng 6 n chng 9</p> <p>Phn 1, bao gm nhng khi nim c bn v h thng mng (chng 1), ni dung chnh ca m hnh tham chiu cc h thng m - OSI (chng 2), nhng kin thc v ng truyn vt l (chng 3), khi nim v ni dung c bn ca mt s giao thc mng thng dng (chng 4) v cui cng l gii thiu v cc hnh trng mng cc b (chng 5) Phn 2, trnh by mt trong nhng h iu hnh mng thng thng nht hin ang dng trong thc t: h iu hnh mng Windows 2000 Server. Ngoi phn gii thiu chung, ti liu cn hng dn cch thc ci t v mt s kin thc lin quan n vic qun tr ti qun ngi dng. Tham gia bin son gio trnh c: Ging vin Nguyn Vn Bnh bin son chnh cc chng 1, 2, 5 Ging vin T Duy Cng Chin bin son chnh cc chng 3, 4, 9 Ging vin Nguyn Ch Hiu bin son cc chng 6, 7, 8.</p> <p>Mc d c nhng c gng hon thnh gio trnh theo k hoch, nhng do hn ch v thi gian v kinh nghim son tho gio trnh, nn ti liu chc chn cn nhng khim khuyt. Rt mong nhn c s ng gp kin ca cc thy c trong Khoa cng nh cc bn sinh vin v nhng ai s dng ti liu ny. Cc gp xin gi v T H thng my tnh Khoa Cng ngh thng tin - Trng Cao ng Cng nghip 4. Xin chn thnh cm n trc.</p> <p>Nhm bin sonThng 08/2004</p> <p>T B mn HTMT Khoa CNTT - Trng Cao ng Cng Nghip 4</p> <p>Gio trnh Mng My Tnh</p> <p>Trang 4</p> <p>CHNG 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNHMC TIU CA CHNG Kt thc chng ny, sinh vin s c th: Nm s lc v lch s pht trin ca mng my tnh Hiu c khi nim mng my tnh cng nh hai yu t c bn ca n l kin trc v mi trng truyn. Nm c ba tiu ch c bn phn loi mng my tnh v hnh trng tng quan ca mng LAN. Nm c hai m hnh mng: ngang hng (peer-to-peer) v client/server. Bit c mt s h iu hnh mng thng dng. Nm c mt s dch v c bn c trn mng. Nhng yu cu cn c tr thnh mt chuyn nghip vin v mng my tnh.</p> <p>1.1 Lch s mng my tnhT u nhng nm 60 xut hin cc mng x l trong cc trm cui (terminal) th ng c ni vo mt my x l trung tm. V my x l trung tm lm tt c mi vic: qun l cc th tc truyn d liu, qun l s ng b ca cc trm cui v.v, trong khi cc trm cui ch thc hin chc nng nhp xut d liu m khng thc hin bt k chc nng x l no nn h thng ny vn cha c coi l mng my tnh. Gia nm 1968, Cc cc d n nghin cu tin tin (ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency) ca B Quc phng M xy dng d n ni kt cc my tnh ca cc trung tm nghin cu ln trong ton lin bang, m u l Vin nghin cu Standford v 3 trng i hc (i hc California Los Angeless, i hc California Santa Barbara v i hc Utah). Ma thu nm 1969, 4 trm u tin c kt ni thnh cng, nh du s ra i ca ARPANET. Giao thc truyn thng dng trong ARPANET lc t tn l NCP (Network Control Protocol). Gia nhng nm 1970, h giao thc TCP/IP c Vint Cerf v Robert Kahn pht trin cng tn ti vi NCP, n nm 1983 th hon ton thay th NCP trong ARPANET. Trong nhng nm 70, s lng cc mng my tnh thuc cc quc gia khc nhau tng ln, vi cc kin trc mng khc nhau (bao gm c phn cng ln giao thc truyn thng), t dn n tnh trng khng tng thch gia cc mng, gy kh khn cho ngi s dng. Trc tnh hnh , vo nm 1984 T chc tiu chun ho quc t ISO cho ra i M hnh tham chiu cho vic kt ni cc h thng m (Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection - gi tt l m hnh OSI). Vi s ra i ca OSI v s xut hin ca my tnh c nhn, s lng mng my tnh tnh trn ton th gii tng ln nhanh chng. xut hin nhng khi nim v cc loi mng LAN, MAN.</p> <p>T B mn HTMT Khoa CNTT - Trng Cao ng Cng Nghip 4</p> <p>Gio trnh Mng My Tnh</p> <p>Trang 5</p> <p>Ti thng 11/1986 c ti 5089 my tnh c ni vo ARPANET, v xut hin thut ng Internet. Nm 1987, mng xng sng (backborne) NSFnet (National Science Foundation network) ra i vi tc ng truyn nhanh hn (1,5 Mb/s thay v 56Kb/s trong ARPANET) thc y s tng trng ca Internet. Mng Internet da trn NSFnet vt qua bin gii ca M. n nm 1990, qu trnh chuyn i sang Internet - da trn NSFnet kt thc. NSFnet gi y cng ch cn l mt mng xng sng thnh vin ca mng Internet ton cu. Nh vy c th ni lch s pht trin ca Internet cng chnh l lch s pht trin ca mng my tnh.</p> <p>1.2 Mt s khi nim c bn1.2.1. Mng my tnh l g?Ta c th nh ngha: mng my tnh l mt tp hp cc my tnh c ni kt vi nhau bi cc ng truyn vt l theo mt kin trc no . Mt cch c th hn ta c th hiu mng my tnh bao gm s kt ni t hai my tnh tr nn. Cc my tnh ny c th giao tip vi nhau, chia x ti nguyn (cc a cng, cc my in v cc a CD-ROM v.v), mi my c th truy xut cc my xa hoc cc mng khc trao i cc file, d liu v thng tin hoc cho php cc giao tip in t.</p> <p>1.2.2. Cc yu t ca mng my tnh.Nh nh ngha trn, hai yu t cn bn ca mng my tnh l: ng truyn vt l v kin trc mng. Kin trc mng bao gm: hnh trng (topology) ca mng v giao thc (protocol) truyn thng. ng truyn mng (medium) bao gm: loi c dy (wire): cc loi cp kim loi, cp si quang, v loi khng dy (wireless): tia hng ngoi, sng in t tn s radio v.v. Chi tit v cc ni dung ny s c trnh by cc chng sau.</p> <p>1.2.3. Cc tiu ch phn loi mng my tnh.Da vo cc tiu ch khc nhau, ngi ta phn chia mng my tnh thnh cc loi khc nhau. Sau y l ba tiu ch c bn. a) Phn loi mng da trn khong cch a l, c ba loi mng:</p> <p>Mng cc b (Local Area Network LAN): l mng c ci t trong mt phm vi tng i nh (trong mt phng, mt to nh, hoc phm vi ca mt trng hc v.v) vi khong cch ln nht gia hai my tnh nt mng ch trong khong vi chc km tr li. Tng qut c hai loi mng LAN: mng ngang hng (peer to peer) v mng c my ch (server based). Mng server based cn c gi l mng Client / Server (Khch / Ch). Mng th (Metropolitan Area Network MAN): l mng c ci t trong phm vi mt th hoc mt trung tm kinh t - x hi c bn knh khong 100 km tr li.</p> <p>T B mn HTMT Khoa CNTT - Trng Cao ng Cng Nghip 4</p> <p>Gio trnh Mng My Tnh</p> <p>Trang 6</p> <p>Mng din rng (Wide Area network WAN): phm vi ca mng c th vt qua bin gii quc gia v thm ch c lc a. Cp truyn qua i dng v v tinh c dng cho vic truyn d liu trong mng WAN. Mng ton cu (Global Area Network GAN): phm vi ca mng tri rng ton Tri t. Mng chuyn mch knh (circuit switched networks): khi c hai thc th cn trao i thng tin vi nhau th gia chng s c thit lp mt knh c nh v c duy tr cho n khi mt trong hai bn ngt kt ni. Cc d liu ch c truyn theo con ng c nh ny. K thut chuyn mch knh c s dng trong cc kt ni ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) v dial-up ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Networks). V d v mng chuyn mch knh l mng in thoi. Phng php chuyn mch knh c hai nhc im chnh: Phi tn thi gian thit lp ng truyn c nh gia hai thc th. Hiu sut s dng ng truyn khng cao, v c lc trn knh khng c d liu truyn ca hai thc th kt ni, nhng cc thc th khc khng c s dng knh truyn ny. Mng chuyn mch thng bo (message switched networks): Thng bo (message) l mt n v thng tin ca ngi s dng c khun dng c qui nh trc. Mi thng bo c cha vng thng tin iu khin trong c phn a ch ch ca thng bo. Trong mng chuyn mch thng bo, gia hai thc th truyn thng tn ti nhiu ng truyn khc nhau. Cn c vo a ch ch, cc thng bo khc nhau c th n ch theo nhng con ng khc nhau. Phng php chuyn mch thng bo c mt s u im: Hiu sut s dng ng truyn cao, v c th phn chia gia nhiu thc th. Mi nt mng c th lu tr thng bo cho n khi knh truyn rnh mi gi thng bo i, do gim c trnh trng tc nghn mng. v.v</p> <p>b) Phn loi mng da trn k thut chuyn mch, cng c ba loi mng:</p> <p>-</p> <p>Nhc im chnh ca phng php chuyn mch thng bo l khng hn ch kch thc ca cc thng bo, do c th dn n ph tn lu tr tm thi cao. K thut chuyn mch thng bo thch hp vi cc dch v thng tin kiu th in t (Electronic Mail)</p> <p>Mng chuyn mch gi (packet - switched networks): mi thng bo c chia thnh nhiu phn nh hn gi l cc gi tin (packet) c khun dng qui nh trc. Mi gi tin cng c phn thng tin iu khin cha a ch ngun (sender) v a ch ch (receiver) ca gi tin. Cc gi tin thuc v mt thng bo c th truyn ti ch theo nhng con ng khc nhau.</p> <p>T B mn HTMT Khoa CNTT - Trng Cao ng Cng Nghip 4</p> <p>Gio trnh Mng My Tnh</p> <p>Trang 7</p> <p>K thut chuyn mch gi v c bn ging k thut chuyn mch thng bo, nhng c hiu qu hn l ph tn lu tr tm thi ti mi nt gim i v kch thc ti a ca cc gi tin c gii hn. Nhng kh khn ca k thut chuyn mch gi cn gii quyt l: tp hp cc gi tin ti ni nhn to li thng bo ban u cng nh x l vic mt gi. Do c nhiu u im nn hin nay mng chuyn mch gi c dng ph bin hn cc mng chuyn mch thng bo. Vic tch hp c hai k thut chuyn mch knh v thng bo trong mt mng thng nht gi l mng dch v tch hp s ho (Integrated Services Digital Networks ISDN) ang l mt trong nhng xu hng pht trin ca mng ngy nay. c) Phn loi mng da trn kin trc mng (topology v protocol). V d nh mng System Network Architecture (SNA) ca IBM, mng ISO (theo kin trc chun quc t), mng TCP/IP v.v.</p> <p>1.2.4. Tng quan v hnh trng mng (topology) LANHnh trng mng ch yu th hin trong cc mng LAN. Mi chun v LAN c cc quy tc ring cho vic ni dy. Cc quy tc ny nh ngha vic kt ni ng truyn, nhng yu cu v phn cng v cch thc sp xp cc thnh phn khc nhau. C ba yu t xc nh bn cht ca mt mng LAN: Hnh trng mng. ng truyn. K thut truy xut ng truyn.</p> <p>a) Hnh trng mng (Topology)Cch sp t hnh hc (hoc vt l) s ni dy mng my tnh...</p>