Giao Trinh TOEFL

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Giao trinh Toefl

Text of Giao Trinh TOEFL

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1.

Ch ng (subject). 7

1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.

1.2 Qun t a (an) v the1.3 Cch s dng Other v another. 1.4 Cch s dng litter/ a litter, few/ a few 1.5 S hu cch

1.6 Some, any2. ng t ( verb)

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2.1 Hin ti (present) 2.1.1 Hinti n gin (simple present) 2.1.2 Hin ti tip din (present progressive) 2.1.3 Present perfect ( hin ti hon thnh) 2.1.4 Hin ti hon thnh tip din ( preset perfect progressive) 2.2 Qu kh ( Past) 2.2.1 Qu kh n gin (simple past) 2.2.2 Qu kh tip din (Past progresive). 2.2.3 Qu kh hon thnh (past perfect). 2.2.4 Qu kh hon thnh tip din (past perfect progressive). 2.3 Tng lai 2.3.1 Tng lai n gin (simple future) 2.3.2 Tng lai tip din ( future progressive) 2.3.3 Tng lai hon thnh (future perfect)

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3. S ho hp gia ch ng v ng t. 3.1 Ch ng ng tch khi ng t. 3.2 Cc danh t lun i hi ng t v i t s it. 3.3 Cch s dng none, no 3.4 Cch s dng cu trc either ... or v neither ... nor. 3.5 Cc danh t tp th 3.6 Cch s dng A number of/ the number of 3.7 Cc danh t lun dng s nhiu. 3.8 Cch dng cc thnh ng There is, there are 4. i t 4.1 i t nhn xng ch ng (Subject pronoun) 4.2 i t nhn xng tn ng 4.3 Tnh t s hu 4.4 i t s hu 4.5 i t phn thn (reflexive pronoun) 5. ng t dng lm tn ng 5.1 ng t nguyn th lm tn ng 5.2 Ving dng lm tn ng 5.3 3 ng t c bit 5.4 Cc ng t ng ng sau gii t 5.5 Vn i t i trc ng t nguyn th hoc Ving lm tn ng. 6. Cch s dng ng t bn khim khuyt need v dare

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6.1 need 6.2 Dare7. Cch dng ng t to be + infinitive 8. Cu hi

8.1 Cu hi yes v no 8.2 Cu hi thng boTrang 2

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8.2.1 who v what lm ch ng. 8.2.2 Whom v what l tn ng ca cu hi 8.2.3 Cu hi dnh cho cc b ng (when, where, why, how) 8.3 Cu hi gin tip (embedded questions) 8.4 Cu hi c ui

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9. Li ni ph ho khng nh v ph nh.

9.1 Li ni ph ho khng nh. 9.2 Li ni ph ho ph nh10. 11. Cu ph nh Mnh lnh thc Mnh lnh thc trc tip. Mnh lnh thc gin tip. ng t khim khuyt. Din t thi tng lai. Din t cu iu kin. iu kin c th thc hin c thi hin ti. iu kin khng th thc hin c thi hin ti. iu kin khng th thc hin c thi qu kh. Cc cch dng c bit ca Will, would v sould trong cc Cch s dng thnh ng as if, as though. Thi hin ti. Thi qu kh. Cch s dng ng t To hope v to wish. Thi tng lai. Thi hin ti Thi qu kh.

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11.1 11.212.

12.1 12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4

mnh if

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13.

13.1 13.214.

14.1 14.2 14.3

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15. Cch s dng thnh ng used to v get/be used to

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15.1 15.2

used to. get / be used to. Loi cu c mt ch ng. Loi cu c 2 ch ng

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16. Cch s dng thnh ng Would rather

16.1 16.2

17. Cch s dng Would Like

18. Cch s dng cc ng t khim khuyt din t cc trng thi hin ti.

18.1 18.2 18.3

Could/may/might. Should Must

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19. Cch s dng cc ng t khim khuyt din t cc trng thi thi qu kh. 20. tnh t v ph t (adjective and adverb). 21. ng t ni. 22. So snh ca tnh t v danh t 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 So snh bng. So snh hn, km So snh hp l Cc dng so snh c bit So snh a b So snh kp (cng ....th cng) No sooner ... than (va mi ... th; chng bao lu ... th)

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23. Dng nguyn, so snh hn v so snh hn nht. 24. Cc danh t lm chc nng tnh t 25. Enough vi tnh t, ph t v danh t 26. Cc t ni ch nguyn nhn Because/ because of

26.1

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26.2 26.3

Mc ch v kt qu (so that- ) Cause and effect

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27. Mt s t ni mang tnh iu kin 28. Cu b ng 29. ng t gy nguyn nhn Have/ get / make Let Help

29.1 29.2 29.3

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30. Ba ng t c bit 31. Cu trc phc hp v i t quan h thay th 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.7 31.8 That v Which lm ch ng ca cu ph That v wich lm tn ng ca cu ph Who lm ch ng ca cu ph Whom lm tn ng ca cu ph Mnh ph bt buc v mnh ph khng bt buc Tm quan trng ca du phy trong mnh ph Cch s dng All / both/ several / most ... + of + whom / which What v whose

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32. Cch loi b cc mnh ph 33. Cch s dng phn t 1 trong mt s trng hp c bit 34. Cch s dng nguyn mu hon thnh 35. Nhng cch s dng khc ca that That vi t cch ca mt lin t (rng) Mnh c that Cu gi nh dng would rather that Cu gi nh dng vi ng t trong bng. Cu gi nh dng vi tnh tTrang 5

35.1 35.2 36.1 36.2 36.3

36. Cu gi nh

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36.4 36.5

Dng vi mt s trng hp khc Cu gi nh dng vi it is time Not only ... but also (khng nhng ... m cn) As well as (cng nh, cng nh l) Both ... and ( c ... ln )

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37. Li ni bao hm

37.1 37.2 37.3

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38. Cch s dng to know v to know how 39. Mnh nhng b Despite / in spite of (mc d) although, even though, though

39.1 39.2

40. Nhng ng t d gy nhm ln 41. Mt s ng t c bit khc. Phn II

Ting Anh vitI. Cc li thng gp trong ting anh vit

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42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 46.1 46.2 46.3

S ho hp ca thi ng t Cch s dng to say, to tell T i trc gii thiu i t nhn xng one v you Cch s dng phn t m u cho mnh ph V+ing m u mnh ph Phn t 2 m u mnh ph ch b ng ng t nguyn th ch mc ch m u cho mnh ph Ng danh t hoc ng gii t m u mnh ph ch s Phn t dng lm tnh t Dng phn t 1 lm tnh t Dng phn t 2 lm tnh tTrang 6

46.4 tng ng

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47.

47.1 47.2

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48. 49. 50.

Tha (redundancy) Cu trc cu song song Thng tin trc tip v thng tin gin tip Cu trc tip v cu gin tip Phng php chuyn i t cu trc tip sang cu gin tip ng t vi tn ng trc tip v tn ng gin tip Ph t o ln u cu Cch chn nhng cu tr li ng Nhng t d gy nhm ln Cch s dng gii t During - trong sut (hnh ng xy ra trong mt qung thi From (t) >< to (n) Out of (ra khi) >< into (di vo) by In ( trong, ti) - ngha xc nh hn at on at - ti (thng l bn ngoi, khng xc nh bng in) Ng ng t S kt hp ca cc danh t, ng t v tnh t vi cc gii t

50.1 50.2 50.3

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51. 52. 53. 54.

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54.1gian) 54.2 54.3 54.4 54.5 54.6 54.7 55. 56.

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GRAMMAR REVIEWCu trc cu ting Anh Subject + Verb as predicate + Complement + Modifier.Ch ng ng t v ng tn ng b ng

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1.Ch ng (subject)ng u cu lm ch ng v quyt nh vic chia ng t. Ch ng c th l 1 cm t, 1 ng t nguyn th (c to), 1 V+ing, song nhiu nht vn l 1 danh t v 1 danh t c lin quan ti nhng vn sau:

1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.- Danh t m c c th c dng vi s m do c hnh thi s t, s nhiu. N c th dng c dng vi a (an) v the. - Danh t khng m c khng dng c vi s m do n khng c hnh thi s nhiu. Do , n khng dng c vi a (an). - Mt s cc danh t m c c hnh thi s nhiu c bit v d: person - people mouse - mice tooth - teeth woman women foot feet man - men.

-Sau y l mt s danh t khng m c m ta cn bit. Sand News measles food soap mumps information economics physics Air Meat advertising* mathematics politics homework money

* Mc d advertising l danh t khng m c, nhng advertisement li l danh t m c. V d: There are too many advertisements during television shows. There is too much advertising during television shows. - Mt s danh t khng m c nh food, meat, money, sand, water, i lc c dng nh cc danh t m c ch cc dng khc nhau ca loi danh t . V d: This is one of the foods that my doctor has forbidden me to eat. (ch ra mt loi thc n c bit no ) He studies meats ( chng hn pork, beef, lamb. vv...) Bng sau l cc nh ng dng c vi danh t m c v khng m c. Danh t m c (with count noun) a (an), the, some, any Danh t khng m c (with non-count noun) the, some, any

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this, that, these, those, none,one,two,three,... many a lot of plenty of a large number of a great number of, a great many of. (a) few few ... than more ... than

this, that non much (thng dng trong cu ph nh hoc cu hi a lot of a large amount of a great deal of (a) little less ... than more ... than

- Danh t time nu dng vi ngha thi gian l khng m c nhng nu dng vi ngha s ln hoc thi i li l danh t m c. V d: We have spent too much time on this homework. She has been late for class six times this semester.

1.2Qun t a (an) v the1- a v an an - c dng: - trc 1 danh t s t m c bt u bng 4 nguyn m (vowel) a, e, i, o - hai bn nguyn m u, y - cc danh t bt u bng h cm. v d: u : an uncle. h : an hour - hoc trc cc danh t vit tt c c nh 1 nguyn m. V d: an L-plate, an SOS, an MP a : c dng: - trc 1 danh t bt u bng ph m (consonant). - dng trc mt danh t bt u bng uni. a university, a uniform, a universal, a union. - trc 1 danh t s t m c, trc 1 danh t khng xc nh c th v mt c im, tnh cht, v tr hoc c nhc n ln u trong cu. - c dng trong cc thnh ng ch s lng nht nh. V d : a lot of, a couple, a dozen, a great many, a great deal of. - dng trc nhng s m nht nh, c bit l ch hng trm, hng ngn. V d: a hundred, a thousand. - trc half khi n theo sau 1 n v nguyn vn. V d: a kilo and a half v cng c th c l one and a half kilos. Ch : 1 /2 kg = half a kilo ( khng c a trc half). - dng trc half khi n i vi 1 danh t khc to thnh t ghp.

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V d : a half-holiday na k ngh, a half-share : na c phn. - dng trc cc t s nh 1/3, 1 /4, 1/5, = a third, a quarter, a fifth hay one third, one fourth, one fifth . - Dng trong cc thnh ng ch gi c, tc , t l. V d: five dolars a kilo; four times a day. - Dng trong cc thnh ng trc cc danh t s t m c, dng trong cu cm thn. V d: Such a long queue! What a pretty girl! N