Grammar TOEFL

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Grammar TOEFL

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<ul><li><p> - </p><p>143.21-9 30 .. </p><p> TOEFL GRAMMAR REVIEW </p><p>2001 </p></li><li><p> 2</p><p> 143.21-923 </p><p>TOEFL GRAMMAR REVIEW/ .. . : - , 2001. 203 . </p><p> , </p><p> , TOEFL ( ), . </p><p> 5 , 250 , . , , . </p><p> . 13 . </p><p> - . : .. , .. . ISBN 5-696-02111-5 , 2001 </p></li><li><p> 3</p><p>C O N T E N T S Preface 5 PART I: British and American English 1. Differences Between British English and American English 6 PART II: Grammar Review 2. Sentence Pattern 11 3. Nouns 12 4. Count and Non-Count Nouns 13 5. Articles 16 6. Distinction Between OTHER / ANOTHER 22 7. Tenses 23 8. Subject Verb Agreement 31 9. Pronouns 35 10. Verbs as Compliments 40 11.Pronouns as Compliments 42 12.The Verb NEED 42 13. Questions: Information Questions 43 Embedded Questions 45 Tag Questions 47 14. Negation 50 15. Affirmative and Negative Agreement 51 16. Conditional Sentences 52 17. USED TO / USED TO + Ving 60 18. Would Rather 63 19. Modals 64 20. Adjectives and Adverbs 66 21. Linking Verbs 69 22. Comparisons 70 23. Nouns Functioning as Adverbs 74 24. Hyphenated Adjectives 75 25. ENOUGH with Adjectives, Adverbs and Nouns 77 26. Cause Connectors: BECAUSE / BECAUSE OF; SO / SUCH 78 27. Passive Voice 82 28. Causative Verbs 84 29. Relative Clauses 87 30. Subjunctive 90 31. Inclusives: NOT ONLY...BUT ALSO, BOTH...AND, AS WELL AS 92 32. KNOW/KNOW HOW 93 33. Clauses of Concession: DESPITE / IN SPITE OF / ALTHOUGH 94 34. Problem Verbs 96 </p></li><li><p> 4</p><p> PART III: Style in Written English 35. Sequence of Tenses 97 36. SAY/TELL 100 37. Antecedents of Pronouns 101 38.The Pronouns ONE and YOU 103 39.Illogical Participial Modifiers (Dangling Participles) 104 40.Participles as Adjectives 106 41. Redundancy 107 42.Wordiness 108 43.Parallel Structure 109 44. Transformation of Direct and Indirect Objects 112 45. Inversion 112 PART IV: Prepositions, Conjunctions and Problem Vocabulary 46.Prepositions 114 47. Conjunctions 118 48.Vocabulary 121 49. Structure and Written Expression Test 1 134 Test 2 136 PART V: Idioms 139 Answer Keys 162 </p></li><li><p> 5</p><p>Preface </p><p>At present many people want to study or to work abroad, or to work for a foreign company in Russia. The first step to achieve this goal is to pass the test which certifies your knowledge of English. For example, if your plans are connected with working or studying in the USA, you have to pass the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language). </p><p>The TOEFL is a timed test that consists of four sections: 1. Listening Comprehension (50 questions 40 minutes); </p><p>2. Structure and Written Expression (40 questions 25 minutes); 3. Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension (50 questions 55 minutes). 4. Writing (30 minutes). The maximum total score is 300 points. </p><p> In preparing for the TOEFL, or any other language examinations, it is very </p><p>important to review the language skills for each section of the examination and to have an opportunity to make model tests that are similar to the actual examination. Reviewing will help students recall some of the language skills that they have studied in previous classes and other books. </p><p>It is assumed that students have studied grammar prior to reviewing for the TOEFL, and that they are relatively fluent. The purpose of this workbook then, is to provide students with a detailed review of the language skills for the Structure and Written Expression section of the TOEFL, to sharpen these skills and to improve accuracy. </p><p>TOEFL Grammar Review is divided into five parts covering the most frequently tested problems necessary to pass Section 2 of the TOEFL. Part I shows differences between American and British English. Parts II-IV include practice exercises designed to improve the ability to recognize grammar and correct style in Written English. Two TOEFL Structure and Written Expression Practice Tests included in Part IV will allow to measure their ability to answer grammar questions in the TOEFL format. Part V contains exercises testing American idioms. </p><p>The TOEFL Grammar Review includes answer keys which enable to use this workbook as a self-study guide for independent out-of class work. </p></li><li><p> 6</p><p>PART I: BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH </p><p>1. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH ENGLISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH </p><p> 1. PRONUNCIATION Letter BE AE Examples </p><p>a [a:] [e] [] [ei] </p><p>ask, dance, half, grass, example, can't ate </p><p>o [ o ] [a] hot, not, top, stop, problem i [ai] [i] privacy, either, neither, vitamin u [ju:] [u:] due, news, knew, tune r [r] reader, figure </p><p>t [t] </p><p>[d] NOTE: Before n [t] </p><p>little, city, cottage, auto, pretty, utter, critic, party, water, forget it button, mountain, written </p><p>t [t] [t] situation s [s] [] issue s [z] [ ] as you know, because sch [sk] [] schedule d [d] [d] education, would you, could you e [] [i:] leisure - ure [ ] [ ] figure 2. SPELLING BE AE - our colour - or color </p><p> favour favor humour humor vapour vapor </p><p> - re centre - re center </p><p> theatre theater metre meter </p><p> - ll traveller - l traveler </p><p>jewellery jewelry </p></li><li><p> 7</p><p>marvellous marvelous cancelled canceled </p><p> - ence defence - ense defense </p><p>offence offense licence license </p><p> - ogue catalogue - og catalog </p><p>dialogue dialog monologue monolog </p><p> - pp worshipped - p worshiped </p><p>kidnapper kidnaper - mme programme - m program </p><p>telegramme telegram engramme engram </p><p> - ise recognise - ize recognize NOTE: BE AE </p><p>aluminium aluminum axe ax cheque check gaol Jail goodbye goodby grey gray judgement judgment kerb cerb plough plow pyjamas pajamas through thru tyre tire copies copys leaves leafs </p></li><li><p> 8</p><p>3. STRESS BE AE BE AE ad'vertisement advertisement 'necessary 'nece,ssary ex'cess 'excess re'search 're,search in'quiry 'inquiry 'secretary 'secretary la'boratory 'labora'tory tele'vision 'tele`vision 4. VOCABULARY BE AE BE AE accumulator battery pavement sidewalk autumn fall petrol gas, gasoline barrister attorney pictures movie biscuit cake, cookie post mail block of flats apartment house puncture blow- out chemist's drugstore queue line chips French fries return round trip cinema movie theater ring up call up cooker oven rubber eraser curtains drapes rubbish garbage flat apartment shop store garden yard spirits liquor grain corn (cereals) surname last name handbag purse sweets candy holiday vacation tap faucet hostel dormitory telegramme wire ill sick timetable schedule label tag toilet bathroom, </p><p>restroom letterbox mailbox torch flashlight lift elevator trousers pants, slacks lorry track underground subway luggage baggage undershirt vest mark grade wardrobe closet million billion 5. GRAMMAR </p><p>BE AE 1. Present Perfect Past Simple I have just had lunch. I just had lunch. </p></li><li><p> 9</p><p> I have already posted the letter. I already mailed the letter. I haven't told them. I didn't tell them about it yet. 2. Future Perfect (Progressive) Future Simple What will you have done by the What will you do by the time time you go to bed tonight? you go to bed tonight? How long will you have been How long will you do that? doing that? 3. I've got I have I haven't got I don't have Have you got? Do you have? 4. Questions Do you know anything? You know something? Have you ever been to London? Ever been in London? Do you need a j ob? Need a j ob? 5. hospital the hospital in a team on a team at the week-end/at week-ends on the week-end/on week-ends different to different than write to someone write someone 6. Irregular Verbs burn-burn-burnt burn- burned-burned learn-learnt-learnt learn-learned-learned get-got-got get-got-gotten prove-proved-proved prove-proved-proven 7. Should Subjunctive I demand that I should be I demand that I be released. released. 6. COLLOQUALISMS BE AE BE AE Yes Yep, Yup, Yeah want to wanna No Nope, Naw, Hah have got (have) gotta You Ya let me lemme have to hafta out of outta don't you don'tcha give me gimmie going to gonna I don't know I dunno </p></li><li><p> 10</p><p>Exercise 1. Match the words in American English on the left with their British equivalents on the right. </p><p> AE BE 1. apartment 1. lift 2. candy 2. chips 3. cookies 3. handbag 4. drapes 4. undershirt 5. elevator 5. rubber 6. eraser 6. rubbish 7. faucet 7. sweets 8. flashlight 8. biscuits 9. French fries 9. tap 10. garbage 10. flat 11. purse 11. torch 12. vest 12. curtaines </p><p> Exercise 2. Match the words in American English on the left with their British </p><p>equivalents on the right. AE BE 1. baggage 1. holiday 2. blow-out 2. telegramme 3. gasoline 3. garden 4. round trip 4. pavement 5. line 5. luggage 6. sidewalk 6. label 7. subway 7. petrol 8. tag 8. underground 9. truck 9. queue 10. vacation 10. puncture 11. wire 11. lorry 12. yard 12. return </p></li><li><p> 11</p><p>PART II: GRAMMAR REVIEW 2. SENTENCE PATTERN Exercise 3. Identify the subject, verb, compliment, and modifier in each of the </p><p>following sentences. 1. Our neighbor's dog barked all afternoon. 2. Our walking group meets at seven o'clock in the morning. 3. The band played all evening. 4. June speaks at almost every staff meeting. 5. Mrs. Perez bought a new rug for her dining room. 6. Some cough medicines contain alcohol. 7. Bill carried his tools in a five- gallon plastic bucket. 8. Linda often buys snacks at the university store. 9. All of the buses are equipped with safety belts. 10.Paulette wore the same brand of blue jeans for twenty years. 11. Several inches of water flooded the basement of the library during the night. 12.Martin orders all his clothes from catalogues. 13.A typical supermarket sells more than 18,000 products. 14. One flea can lay 500 eggs. 15.A dangerous situation exists in the Near East. 16.Elliot first met Olivia in the snack section of a supermarket. 17.Mr. Pandolfo wrote his own will. 18.My new English class meets three times a week. 19.Ellain wanted to get a new hat at the store. Exercise 4. Identify the part of speech of each word in the following sentences: </p><p>noun, verb, adjective, adverb, article, conjunction, preposition, pronoun </p><p> 1. The tiny island is surrounded by a spectacular body of water. 2. My pen is running out of ink. 3. I always wanted to go to that show. 4. Did you enjoy the party the other night? 5. My computer program is faulty. 6. The costumes in the pageant are almost as beautiful as the contestants. 7. The Paseo Del Rio runs along the San Antonio River in the heart of the city. 8. A beautiful photograph is a wonderful souvenir of an event. 9. You don't need to read all the information to get the question right. 10. My sister was thrilled to be invited. 11 .In addition to being weatherproof, the new camera features a remote control. </p></li><li><p> 12</p><p>12. The largest film festival in the world, the Houston International Film Festival, boasts 3,500 entries. 13. The main attraction of the new restaurant is the salad bar. 14. After deciding to go out and play, Gwen located her jacket. 15.The arboretum in our town has some beautiful pine trees. 16. Unlike those in the neighboring school, our teachers are quite flexible. 17. The bus was so late that we missed school. 18. The county fair is a lot of fun. 19. Leslie hid the dirty dishes in a cabinet before her mother came into the kitchen. 20. Pay's recipe for baked beans is famous in our neighborhood. 3. NOUNS Irregular Plurals 1) Words with Two Acceptable Plural Forms Singular Plurals antenna antennae antennas apparatus apparatus apparatuses appendix appendices appendixes beau beaux beaus cactus cacti cactuses cargo cargoes cargos criterion criteria criterions curriculum curricula curriculumus formula formulae formulas fungus fungi funguses index indices indexes medium media mediums memorandum memoranda memorandums radius radii radiuses sanatorium sanatoriums sanatoria scarf scarfs scarves tornado tornadoes tornados vertebra vertebrae vertebras volcano volcanoes volcanos wharf wharfs wharves zero zeroes zeros </p></li><li><p> 13</p><p> 2) Common Irregular Plurals Singular Plural Singular Plural addendum addenda mosquito mosquitoes alga algae nucleus nuclei alumna alumnae oasis oases alumnus alumni ox oxen analysis analyses parenthesis parentheses axis axes...</p></li></ul>